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Syn (Greek) - With, together
35 terms share this root
Acute respiratory distress syndrome

A "sharp" or quickly onset "affliction" of "breathing in and out", usually due to alveolar damage.

  • Acuere (Latin) - To Sharpen, sharply onset
  • Respirare (Latin) - To breath in and out
  • Districtus (Latin) - Restraint, rrowness, Affliction
  • Syn (Greek) - With, together
  • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
  • Damage of alveolarcapillary interface leading to impaired gas exchange, often due to pneumonia, trauma, aspiration, or sepsis
  • Hyaline membranes in alveoli
  • Hypoxemia and cyanosis
  • Whiteout on CXR
  • Treat with PEEP ventilation
  • Alport syndrome

    A condition med for Cecil Alport, characterized by inflammatory kidney.

    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
  • A defect in the protein collagen
  • Characterized by hearing loss due to a problem with the tiny bones of the ear
  • Leads to glomerulonephritis.
  • In 1927, Cecil Alport described 3 generations of a family with combustions of progressive hereditary nephritis and deafness
  • Amniotic band syndrome

    A condition in which parts of the fetus get caught in "strips that tie or constrain" leading to ischemic of those limbs or parts within the "membrane around the fetus".

    • Amnion (Greek) - Membrane around a fetus, bowl in which blood of victims was caught
    • Band (Old Norse) - The strip that ties or constrains
    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
  • Surgery is usually the preferred method of treatment.
  • Affects approximately 1:1200 births
  • Autosomaldominant hyperIgE syndrome (Job syndrome)

    Immune disease due to a mutation in Th17 cell leading to impaired recruitment of neutrophils to sites of infection, allowing for opportunistic infections.

    • Auto (Greek) - Self, one's own
    • Soma (Greek) - Body
    • Domint (Latin) - Ruling
    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Immunis (Latin) - Free, exempt
    • Globus (Latin) - Sphere, globe
    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
  • Presentation: FATED: course Facies, noninflamed staphylococcal Abscess, retained primary Teeth, increased IgE, Dermatologic problems (eczema)
  • The disease is med after the biblical character Job, whose body was covered with boils by Satan
  • BernardSoulier syndrome

    Deficiency or absence of glycoprotein 1b which is a receptor for von Willebrand factor on platelets. This leads to prolonged bleeding time, easy bruising, heavy menstrual periods, bleeding gums, nose bleeding, postoperative and perioperative bleeding

    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
  • Autosomal recessive coagulopathy, prolonged bleeding time, thrombocytopenia, easy bruising, bleeding gums
  • Coronary steal syndrome

    A physiologic state in which one vessel of the heart steals blood flow from other vessels.

    • Corona (Latin) - Crown
    • Stelan (Olde English) - To take and carry off clandestinely and without right or leave
    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
  • Coronary steal syndrome, dipyridamole, nitroprusside
  • Phenomenon when there is growing of the coronary arteries and the use of a coronary vasodilator causes stealing of blood from already low perfused parts of the heart. This happens because the arrowed arteries are already maximally dilated to compensate for the decreased upstream blood supply. Thus, using a vasodilator causes dilation and decreased resistance only in normal coronary vessels, causing blood to be shunted away from the coronary vessels supplying the ischemic zones, creating more ischemia. associated with dipyridamole and nitroprusside.
  • Coronary steal is the mechanism of most drugbased cardiac stress tests.
  • Cowden Syndrome

    Autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple noncancerous, tumorlike growths called hamartomas usually on the skin and mucous membranes.

    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
  • Increased risk of developing cancer
  • Craniosynostosis

    A "condition" in which the sutures of the "head" of a baby prematurely close, leading to an early joining "together" of the "bones" of the skull.

    • Kranion (Greek) - Head, Skull
    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • This is a problem observed in neonates and requires urgent surgical evaluation, as suture laxity is required in infancy to accommodate rapidly increasing head circumference.
  • CREST syndrome

    Is a multisystem connective tissue disorder characterized by several main features. The acronym CREST stands for Calcinosis (thickening of skin with calcific nodules), Rayud's phenomenon (exaggerated vasoconstriction of small arteries in stress or cold), Esophageal dysmotility, Sclerodactyly (thickening of skin of fingers), and Telangiectasia(dilated capillaries).

    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
  • Aka limited scleroderma, connective tissue disorder, Rayud's, sclerodactyly
  • Criduchat syndrome

    A syndrome in which affected patients produce characteristic sounds resembling the "cry of a cat".

    • Criduchat (French) - Cry of the Cat
    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
  • Aka cat's cry syndrome, 5p syndrome, high pitched cat's cry, chromosomal deletion
  • A syndrome caused by the deletion of the end of the p (short) arm of chromosome 5 written as (5p). Features of this syndrome include a high pitched cry that sounds like that of a cat, intellectual disability, developmental delay, microcephaly, low birth weight, hypotonia and distinctive facial features including wide set eyes, lowset ears, a small jaw and a round face.
  • Crouzon's Syndrome

    Genetic disorder characterized by the premature closer of certain skull bones.

    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
  • Most common craniosynostosis syndrome. Seen in newborns and characterized by wide set, bulging eyes, vision problems, beaked nose and an underdeveloped upper jaw. Few have cleft lip and palate.
  • Dentist can see these patients with narrow palate, posterior bilateral crossbite, hypodontia and crowding.
  • Egosyntonia

    A set of behaviors or values that are "together" with "of" the sense of "I".

    • Ego (Latin) - I
    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Tonikos (Greek) - Of or for stretching
  • This is getting into some heavy Freudian Psych
  • Ego syntonic behaviors are behaviors and thoughts are those that exist in harmony with the ego and are in line with ones self image
  • Patients with personality disorders may display psychopathologic behaviors BUT are nonetheless ego syntonic because they are consistent with the goals of their ego
  • Patients with obsessive compulsive disorder display behaviors and thoughts that are not ego syntonic and in fact are ego dystonic. This is because their behaviors and thoughts are not desirable or acceptable to their ego but are intrusive and disturb their ego
  • Fragile X syndrome

    A condition in which the X chromosome is "fragile" due to trinucleotide repeats. The symptoms found "running" "together" include intellectual disability, macroorchidism, and long facies

    • Fragilis (Latin) - Brittle, easily broken
    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
  • A trinucleotide repeat (CGG) syndrome that is characterized by intellectual disability, macroorchidism, and long facies
  • Defect in the FMR1 gene
  • Demonstrates anticipation
  • First described in 1943 by J. Purdon Martin and Julia Bell .

  • Medytoons

    MedyQuestion
    • A 4 year old boy is brought to his pediatrician by his mother because she believes him to be learning slower than the other children. On physical examination of the child, the boy is found to have a long face and larger than average ears. He speaks in partial sentences, is unable to identify colors or numbers and has little ability to communicate. The patient is also found to have hypergonadism. What is the most likely tri-nucleotide repeat in this individual?

    USMLE Step I

    • A 4 year old boy is brought to his pediatrician by his mother because she believes him to be learning slower than the other children. On physical examination of the child, the boy is found to have a long face and larger than average ears. He is speak in full sentences. The patient is also found to have hypergonadism. What is the most likely tri-nucleotide repeat in this individual?

    USMLE Step 1

    Hemolytic uremic syndrome

    The triadic set of symptoms "running" "together" of anemia due to "loosening" of red "blood" cells, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure (leading to "urine" in the "blood"

    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
    • Lutikos (Greek) - Able to loosen
    • Ouron (Greek) - Urine
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
  • Associated with EHEC serotype O157:H7 and Shigella
  • Argentina has the highest incidence of HUS.
  • HyperIgM syndrome

    A condition in which an "excess" of "spherical" proteins which "exempt" the body from disease (IgM) causes a set of symptoms that 'run" "together".

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Immunis (Latin) - Free, exempt
    • Globus (Latin) - Sphere, globe
    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
  • Xlinked recessive disorder in which a defective CD40 ligand on T helper cells prevents the ability of B cells to undergo antibody class switching to IgG, IgA, and IgE
  • Severe pyogenic infections early in life
  • Infections with opportunistic pathogens, such as Pneumocystis, Cryptosporidium, CMV
  • Literally "excess IgM."
  • Melkerssonrosenthal syndrome

    A rare neurological disorder "with" "a course" of multiple symptoms

    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
  • Characterized by swellings of face, oral mucosa, lips etc., fissured tongue, and unilateral facial nerve paralysis
  • Mikuliez Syndrome

    Chronic syndrome characterized by abnormal enlargement of glands in head and neck, including the parotid, lacrimal and salivary glands.

    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
  • Benign condition but is at increased risk for lymphomas. Patients usually have dry eyes, diminished tear production and inflammation of various parts of the eye. Classic signs: lacrimal gland enlargement, parotid gland enlargement, dry mouth and dry eyes.
  • Myelodysplastic syndrome

    "Improper" "forming" of blood cells associated "with" hypercellular bone "marrow" and pancytopenia.

    • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
    • Dys (Greek) - Bad, Ill, Abnormal, Evil
    • Plasis (Greek) - Molding, Formation
    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
  • Associated with preexisting dysplasia, such as radiation treatment or chemotherapy
  • Can progress to AML
  • Robin Roberts developed myelodysplastic syndrome after her treatment for breast cancer
  • Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

    Atelectasis in a "newly" "born" person "with" a lack of surfactant in the lungs. High surface tension causes alveoli to be "restrained" and makes "breathing" difficult.

    • Neos (Greek) - New, young, youthful
    • Natus (Latin) - Born
    • Respirare (Latin) - To breath in and out
    • Districtus (Latin) - Restraint, rrowness, Affliction
    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
  • Seen in premature birth and Csection
  • DDx for breathing problems in a neonate
  • Lecithin to sphingomyelin ratio in the amniotic fluid is used to determine fetal lung maturity and risk for NRDS
  • Nephritic syndrome

    "Kidney" disorder due to inflammation. Characterized by blood and RBC "running" in the urine "with" protein loss.

    • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
  • Red urine possibly following an infection or other illness
  • Edema is due to salt retention
  • Nephrotic syndrome

    "Kidney" "disease" "with" loss of blood proteins "running through" the filtration barrier.

    • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
  • Frothy urine
  • Thromboembolism
  • Infection
  • Edema is due to loss of capillary oncotic pressure
  • Polycystic ovarian syndrome

    A hormonal disorder of the "egg"bearing organ resulting in the formation of "many" "sacs" and other symptoms that "run" "together"

    • Polloi (Greek) - Many
    • Kustis (Greek) - Bladder, atomical pouch or sac
    • Ovum (Latin) - Egg
    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
  • Increased LH:FSH ratio
  • Associated with obesity
  • Hyperandrogenism can be seen in this condition
  • Hirsutism can be seen in this condition
  • Ramsay Hunt Syndrome

    A "course" that presents when shingles infection affects the facial nerve near one of your ears.

    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
  • 3 Syndromes include infection of facial nerves, facial paralysis and hearing loss. Caused by the same virus that causes chicken pox.
  • Symptoms include painful red rash with fluid filled blisters and facial paralysis on same side of affected ear.
  • Sezary Syndrome

    A "number of symptoms coming together" or "running a course", med eponymously; a cutaneous lymphoma

    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
  • A cutaneous lymphoma of Tcells that is considered a late form mycosis fungoides, as the Tcells have invaded beyond the skin and involves lymph nodes
  • Hallmark of Sezary syndrome is atypical Tcells and Sezary cells, found in the peripheral blood
  • Pautrier's microabscesses are the microscopic skin lesions seen in Sezary syndrome and mycosis fungoides
  • Sympathetic

    An arm of the autonomic nervous system that controls the fight or flight response.

    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
  • Fight or flight response
  • Sympathetic trunk

    A "trunk"like chain from which the origins of the sympathetic nervous system fibers in the body arise.

    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
    • Truncus (Latin) - Trunk of a tree, trunk of the body
  • Horner's syndrome
  • Synarthrosis

    A "joint" which is "joined" together and virtually immobile.

    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Arthron (Greek) - Pertaining to the Joint
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Immovably fixed joined between bones by fibrous tissue
  • Synchondrosis

    A nonpathological "condition" in which bones are "joined" to one another by a piece of "cartilage" or ligament.

    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Chondros (Greek) - Cartilage
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Cartilage joint between two bones
  • These are sometimes at growth plates before the cartilaginous material has been ossified
  • The place where the first rib meets the sternum is via a piece of cartilage and thus a synchondrosis
  • Syncope

    A transient loss of consciousness due to blood supply being "cut off" from the brain.

    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Koptein (Greek) - Strike, cut off
  • Vasovagal syncope
  • WolffParkinsonWhite syndrome
  • Syncytiotrophoblast

    A type of "budding" "cell" found within the placenta that is involved in "nourishment" of the developing fetus.

    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Trophe (Greek) - Food, Nourishment
    • Blastos (Greek) - Germ, sprout, bud or budding, immature
  • Syncytial layer prevents maternal immune cells from reaching embryo
  • Syndactyly

    A condition in which the "fingers" and sometimes toes are fused "together".

    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Dactyl (Greek) - A Finger
  • Results from failure of cells to undergo apoptosis during fetal development
  • Syndesmosis

    A "condition or disease" of the slightly moveable joint where the tibia and fibula are connected "with" a "band" of tissue or ligament.

    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Desmos (Greek) - Bond, Chain, Fastening
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Damage to this is called a high ankle sprain
  • Syngeneic graft

    A tissue graft from the "same" "genetic" makeup as the individual that is being grafted, either from the patient themselves or an identical twin.

    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
    • Grapheion (Greek) - Stylus
  • Syngeneic grafts are also known as isografts
  • Syngenic means relative in Greek, which correlates to its meaning as a graft from an identical twin
  • Synostosis

    The "joining together" or fusion of two "bones".

    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
  • Fusion of two bones
  • Velocardiofacial syndrome

    Genetic condition affecting many organs including "heart" and "face."

    • Velum (Latin) - A cloth, covering, curtain, veil
    • Kardia (Greek) - Heart
    • Facialis (Latin) - Of the face
    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
  • More commonly known as DiGeorge's syndrome. Genetic condition where pharyngeal arch development dysfunction causes varying developmental disruptions of the heart, parathyroid, thymus, palate, eyes, and developmental delay
  • First described in 1978. Word comes from the latin words 'velum' (palate), 'cardia' (heart), 'facies' (face)
  • MEDYMOLOGY