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Skleroun (Greek) - To Harden
20 terms share this root
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

A condition in which the "muscle" becomes "without" "nourishment" and atrophied leading to stiffening or "hardening" of the body. med for the "sides" because the weakness begins in your limbs before moving more central.

  • A (Greek) - Not, Without
  • Mus (Greek) - Muscle, mouse
  • Trophe (Greek) - Food, Nourishment
  • Latus (Latin) - The side
  • Skleroun (Greek) - To Harden
  • An upper and lower motor neuron disease in which the person ultimately loses the ability to control their muscles leading to atrophy, paralysis, and ultimate death
  • Differentiated from multiple sclerosis by the fact that there is no loss of sensation
  • Characterized by spasticity, muscle weakness, dysphagia and problems breathing
  • Most common cause of death is respiratory failure due to ability to contract the diaphragm or pneumonia.
  • Known more commonly as Lou Gehrig's Disease because of its history of debilitating and ultimately leading to the death of hall of fame baseball player Lou Gehrig.
  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    A neurodegenerative condition infecting neural tracts that run down the "side" of the spinal cord and causing them to "harden"; this leaves the "muscles" that the nerves innervate "without" "nourishment".

  • Also known as Lou Gehrig's disease
  • Usually starts at the limbs
  • Treat with riluzole
  • Arteriolosclerosis

    The "hardening" and growing of the "windpipes or arteries" within the body.

  • Two types: Hyaline arteriolosclerosis: due to long standing benign hypertension or diabetes which causes proteins to leak into vessel wall, seen as pink hyaline
  • Hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis: due to malignant hypertension which causes circular hyperplasia of smooth muscle
  • Described as onion skin appearance.
  • Atherosclerosis

    A "hardening" of the "arteries" that are "on the inside".

    • Athere (Greek) - Groats, referring to what's on the inside
    • Skleroun (Greek) - To Harden
  • Intimal plaques obstruct blood flow
  • Abdominal aorta most commonly affected
  • Rupture of plaques can cause myocardial infarction
  • Chronic diffuse sclerosing osteomyelitis

    "Inflammation" of "bone" or "marrow" lasting a long "time" resulting in abnormal "hardening" of the bone. Distribution of hardening "pour out" into surrounding bone.

  • "Cotton Wool Appearance" of bone radio graphically
  • Chronic Focal Sclerosing Osetomyelitis

    "Inflammation" of "bone" or "marrow" lasting a long "time" resulting in abnormal localized "focal" "hardening" of the bone.

    • Khronikos (Greek) - Of time, concerning time
    • Focus (Latin) - Hearth, fireplace, center of activity
    • Skleroun (Greek) - To Harden
    • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
    • Muelos (Greek) - Marrow
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Results from a reaction to periodontal infection
  • Most common site is near apex of premolar and molars
  • Usually associated with nonvital tooth
  • Episcleritis

    "Inflammation" of the layer of tissue that lies "upon" the "hard" white part of the eyeball.

    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Skleroun (Greek) - To Harden
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Causes redness and irritation of the sclera
  • Generally benign and selflimiting.
  • Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

    A condition in which specific "points" and "pieces" of the "ballshaped mass" of the kidney becomes "hardened".

    • Focus (Latin) - Hearth, fireplace, center of activity
    • Segmentum (Latin) - A piece cut off
    • Glomus (Latin) - Ballshaped mass
    • Skleroun (Greek) - To Harden
  • Nephrotic syndrome involving sclerosis of parts of some glomeruli and effacement of podocytes
  • Associated with HIV, IV drug abuse, and sickle cell disease
  • More common in African Americans and Hispanics
  • Hyaline arteriolosclerosis

  • Associated with essential hypertension and diabetes mellitus
  • Hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis

    A "hardening" of the "arteries" causing them to be thick and "over" "formed".

  • Onion skin appearance on histology
  • Associated with severe chronic hypertension
  • Ideopathic osteosclerosis

    A condition of unknown origins in which there is an increase in the "hardening" of the "bone" density of teeth

  • Usually found on the premolar or molar
  • There is no sign of inflammation on the teeth
  • Lichen sclerosus

    A scaly "hardening" lesion of the skin that resembles lichen, a fungus that "eats around itself" in order to grow, as seen on the bark of trees.

  • Presents as leukoplakia with thin, parchmentlike vulvar skin
  • Slightly increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma
  • Not to be confused with lichen simplex chronicus, which is leukoplakia with thick, leathery vulvar skin due to chronic irritation and scratching
  • No increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma
  • Monckeberg arteriosclerosis

    A "hardening" of the "arteries".

  • Pipestem arteries
  • Calcification in the media of the arteries, especially radial or ulnar
  • Intima not involved so no obstruction to blood flow
  • Multiple sclerosis

    Autoimmune inflammation and demyelination of CNS. A "hardening" of "many" nerves.

  • Classically presenting with scanning speech, intention tremor/incontinence/internuclear ophthalmoplegia, and nystagmus
  • Oligoclonal bands, periventricular plaques, daclizumab (treatment), increased IgG in CSF
  • Nodular sclerosis

    Most common type of Hodgkin's lymphoma with "hardened," "knotlike" tumor nodules.

  • ReedSternberg cells
  • Owl's eyes
  • Osteosclerosis

    A condition in which the "bone" "hardens" abnormally.

  • Diagnosed through Xray
  • Associated with a number of diseases including osteopetrosis, and Paget's Disease of the Bone
  • Scleritis

    "Inflammation" of the "hard" white part of the eyeball.

    • Skleroun (Greek) - To Harden
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Causes redness of the sclera, severe pain, and vision loss.
  • Sclerosing adenosis

    A "hardening" of the lymph "glands" in the breast

  • Benign buildup of tissue that develops within the breast lobules.
  • Cyclic pain linked to menstrual cycle
  • Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    “Inflammation” in “all” areas “within the head” involving an “under sharp,” or somewhere between acute and chronic, that appears as a “hardening” radio graphically

    • Sub (Latin) - Under, below, beneath, at the foot of
    • Acumen (Latin) - Point, Sharpness
    • Skleroun (Greek) - To Harden
    • Pan (Greek) - All, every
    • En (Greek) - Within
    • Kephale (Greek) - Head
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • A rare condition that involves complications with the measles virus
  • Tuberous sclerosis

    Formation of "hardened" "bumps" on multiple organs.

  • An autosomal dominant neurocutaneous condition associated with benign tumor growth in many different organs. Associated with hamartomas, angiomyolipoma, Rhabdomyomas, angiofibromas, astrocytomas
  • Bourneville fully characterized the disease in 1880, which is why Tuberous Sclerosis is also known as Bourneville's disease.