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Polloi (Greek) - Many
25 terms share this root
Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculopathy

A quickly onset "sharp" condition in which "many" Schwann cells, or "marrow" of the nerve cells are "set aflame" or destroyed at the "root" of the brain.

  • De (Latin) - Away, Off, Down
  • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
  • Polloi (Greek) - Many
  • Radicula (Latin) - Pertaining to the ROOTS (Root, Language, Definition_1, status, user_id)
  • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
  • Variant of GuillainBarre
  • Symmetric ascending weakness beginning in legs
  • Increased CSF protein with normal cell count
  • Papilledema
  • Associated with Campylobacter jejuni and CMV
  • Discovered by Georges Guillain and Jean Barre in 1916 in two soldiers with ascending paralysis.
  • DNA polymerase

    Enzymes that assemble D (creating a "polymer" of D) by adding nucleotides on to a growing strand in the 5` to 3` direction.

  • Enzyme
  • Polymerase
  • D
  • Nucleotide
  • From the Greek "polumeros", having several parts. D polymerase was first discovered in 1956 within E. coli by Arthur Kornberg.
  • Granulomatosis with polyangiitis

    "Seed"like "inflammation" of "multiple" "blood vessels".

    • Granum (Latin) - Grain, seed
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
    • Polloi (Greek) - Many
    • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Affects the nasopharynx, lung, and kidneys
  • May be diagnosed by presence of PR3ANCA/cANCA
  • Triad of necrotizing vasculitis, necrotizing glomerulonephritis, and necrotizing granulomas in the lung
  • May present clinically with hemoptysis, hematuria, and saddlenose deformity
  • Originally known as Wegener's Granulomatosis, the me has been changed to granulomatosis with polyangiitis due to Wegener's Nazi past.
  • Lipopolysaccharide

    Molecules composed of "many" "fats" and "sugars."

  • Endotoxin, septic shock
  • Microscopic polyangiitis

    Necrotizing "inflammation" of "many" "small" blood "vessels" commonly involving lung, kidneys, and skin with pauciimmune glomerulonephritis and palpable purpura.

    • Mikros (Greek) - Small, little, petty, trivial, slight
    • Skopein (Greek) - To look, see
    • Polloi (Greek) - Many
    • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Treat with cyclophosphamide
  • PANCA positive, No granulomas
  • Migratory polyarthritis

    "Moving" "inflammation" of "multiple" "joints".

    • Migrare (Latin) - To move from one place to another
    • Polloi (Greek) - Many
    • Arthron (Greek) - Pertaining to the Joint
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Crohn's disease
  • Mucopolysaccharides

    Long molecule consisting of "many" "sugar" units. Component of "slimy" mucus.

  • Usually an amino sugar with a uronic sugar or galactose
  • GAG or glycosaminoglycan
  • Polyarteritis Nodosa

    An autoimmune "inflammation" of "many" "arteries" leading to micro aneurysms that cause small "knots" along the chest.

    • Polloi (Greek) - Many
    • Arteria (Greek) - Windpipe, artery
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
    • Nodosus (Latin) - Tied into many knots, full of knots
  • Polyarteritis nodosa is a type III hypersensitivity disorder characterized by transmural inflammation, fibrinoid necrosis and aneurysm formation in medium sized vessels
  • Characteristically see "rosary bead" like nodules on the front of the chest
  • PAN is usually seen in young adults and is associated with Hepatitis B and presents with malaise, fever, rash, abdominal pain
  • Corticosteroids are the cornerstones of treatment
  • Known for sparing of pulmonary vasculature
  • Polycystic kidney disease

    A genetic "disease" causing "many" "pouch"like cysts in the "kidneys." The disease can be present in both adult and infantile forms.

    • Polloi (Greek) - Many
    • Kustis (Greek) - Bladder, atomical pouch or sac
    • Kidnere (Middle English) - Kidney
    • Disease (Old French) - Lack, Want, Discomfort, Distress, Trouble, Misfortune, Disease, Sickness
  • The adult form is autosomal dominant
  • The infantile form is autosomal recessive
  • Can lead to renal failure
  • The condition is associated with hypertension
  • Polycystic ovarian syndrome

    A hormonal disorder of the "egg"bearing organ resulting in the formation of "many" "sacs" and other symptoms that "run" "together"

    • Polloi (Greek) - Many
    • Kustis (Greek) - Bladder, atomical pouch or sac
    • Ovum (Latin) - Egg
    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
  • Increased LH:FSH ratio
  • Associated with obesity
  • Hyperandrogenism can be seen in this condition
  • Hirsutism can be seen in this condition
  • Polycythemia

    Increased/"many" red "blood" "cell" mass/hematocrit

  • A cause of polycythemia is the condition polycythemia vera
  • Polycythemia vera

    "True" abnormal rise (too "many") in number of "blood" "cells" (primarily Red Blood Cells) due to bone marrow dysfunction

    • Polloi (Greek) - Many
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
    • Verus (Latin) - True
  • Polycythemia vera is caused by a JAK2 gene mutation that causes elevated hematocrit (>55%) and episodic blood clots in the extremities, leading to severe, burning pain and redbluish discoloration
  • Classically presents as intense itching after a hot shower.
  • Polydipsia

    Abnormally high to extreme levels of "thirst". To drink "many" more times than baseline.

  • Seen in diabetes, hypokalemia
  • Is a symptom of anticholinergic poisoning
  • Related to word dipsomaniac, meaning alcoholic
  • Polyhydramnios

    Accumulation of too much "watery" fluid "around a fetus". Can be acute or chronic.

    • Polloi (Greek) - Many
    • Hydro (Greek) - Water
    • Amnion (Greek) - Membrane around a fetus, bowl in which blood of victims was caught
  • Many causes, often idiopathic but think about things that prevent proper swallowing or filtration of amniotic fluid: Anencephaly, Bartter Syndrome, Esophageal Atresia, Chromosome disorders (Down's Syndrome with duodenal atresia etc.)
  • Polymastia

    A condition of having too "many" "breasts"

  • Don't fall into the sensationalist trap that this disease results in women with three apparent breasts. Ectopic breast tissue can occur in either men and women and is not limited to the upper chest nor is it always visually apparent upon inspection
  • More common in males
  • Necessary breasts may or may not contain a nipple or areolae
  • This is not high yield for the boards
  • Polymenorrhea

    "Many" cycles of "monthly" "flow." Menstrual cycles with intervals of 21 days or fewer

  • Can be seen in endometriosis, Perimenopause, Fibroids, STIs, and other conditions
  • Polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (Torsades de pointes)

    A type of ventricular "swift, rapid" "heart" beat distinguished by "many" different "forms/shapes" (morphology) for each heart beat. Of significance, 'torsades de pointes' is a specific type of PVT, unique in its presence of prolonged resting QT intervals.

  • Torsades de Pointes is a type of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, Long QT syndrome predisposes to Torsades de Pointes
  • Can be drug induced (sotalol, amiodarone)
  • Polymyalgia rheumatica

    "To feel pain" in "many" "muscles," caused by inflammation. Many associated symptoms such as fatigue, anemia, feeling of illness and fever. Many causes and poorly understood pathophysiology.

    • Polloi (Greek) - Many
    • My (Greek) - Muscle
    • Algein (Greek) - To feel pain
    • Rheum (Greek) - Discharge from the body, flux; a stream, current, flood, a flowing
  • Associated with temporal arteritis
  • Treat with oral corticosteroid
  • Association with HLA DR4
  • Polymyositis

    Pain and weakness in "many" "muscles" caused by chronic "inflammation" of poorly understood etiology. Thought to be consequence of autoimmune disorder.

    • Polloi (Greek) - Many
    • My (Greek) - Muscle
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Associated with AntiJo1, antiSRP, and AntiMi2 antibodies
  • Increased MHC I expression on muscle cells
  • High CD8+ lymphocyte infiltration
  • Treat with steroids
  • Polyomavirus

    "Poisonous substance" that can cause "many" types of "tumors"

    • Polloi (Greek) - Many
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
    • Virus (Latin) - Poison, poisonous substance
  • Family of potentially oncogenic, double stranded D viruses with a circular genome
  • Several found to infect humans, most notably JC and BK viruses
  • JC Virus PML (progressive multifocal encephalopathy that is an AIDS defining illness)
  • BK Virus Kidney transplant infection (immunosuppressed transplant patients susceptible)
  • Respiratory infections seen in immunocompromised patients, such as HIV
  • Polyphagia

    Abnormally increased appetite or hunger. "To eat" "many" more times than baseline.

  • Can be seen in atypical depression, diabetic ketoacidosis, and PraderWilli Syndrome among other conditions
  • Polyposis

    A "condition" of having "many" "foot" like projections from the walls of mucous membranes including the nose and intestines.

    • Polloi (Greek) - Many
    • Pous (Greek) - Foot
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Familial adenomatous polyposis is most often caused by a mutation in the tumor suppressor gene called FAP
  • Polypus is a me used for hydras and sea anemones in various languages and resemble the "polyps" of the colon.
  • Polyuria

    Abnormally increased urine output. To make "urine" "many" more times than baseline

  • Seen in diabetes mellitus, central diabetes insipidus (lack of VasopressiDH), nephrogenic DI (Improper response to ADH), and patients taking diuretics among other conditions
  • Polythelia

    The presence of "many" "nipples", or more literally, an extra nipple.

  • Polythelia is not to be confused with polymastia, which is the presence of supernumerary mammary gland
  • Polymorphonuclear

    Cell has a segmented nucleus which is appeared as a multiple nuclei. Example: neutrophils.

    • Polloi (Greek) - Many
    • Morphe (Greek) - Form, shape, beauty, outward appearance
    • Nucleus (Latin) - Kernel