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Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
27 terms share this root
Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculopathy

A quickly onset "sharp" condition in which "many" Schwann cells, or "marrow" of the nerve cells are "set aflame" or destroyed at the "root" of the brain.

  • De (Latin) - Away, Off, Down
  • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
  • Polloi (Greek) - Many
  • Radicula (Latin) - Pertaining to the ROOTS (Root, Language, Definition_1, status, user_id)
  • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
  • Variant of GuillainBarre
  • Symmetric ascending weakness beginning in legs
  • Increased CSF protein with normal cell count
  • Papilledema
  • Associated with Campylobacter jejuni and CMV
  • Discovered by Georges Guillain and Jean Barre in 1916 in two soldiers with ascending paralysis.
  • Cardiomyopathy

    A "disease" of the "muscles" of the "heart."

    • Kardia (Greek) - Heart
    • Mus (Greek) - Muscle, mouse
    • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
  • A problem with functioning and weakness of the heart, most commonly due to failure of the heart's pumping mechanism
  • Encephalopathy

    "Disease" of the "brain".

    • Enkephalos (Greek) - Brain, WIthin the Head
    • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
  • Characterized by behavior changes
  • Causes Cheyne Stokes respirations
  • Wernicke's encephalopathy in alcoholics
  • Glomerulopathy

    A general term for "diseases" that affect the "balllike" structure of the kidneys.

    • Glomus (Latin) - Ballshaped mass
    • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
  • Refers to glomeruli of the kidneys
  • Hepatic encephalopathy

    A "disease or suffering" of the "brain" caused by toxic build up in the blood secondary to "liver" failure or damage.

    • Hepatikos (Greek) - Pertaining to the liver
    • Enkephalos (Greek) - Brain, WIthin the Head
    • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
  • Seen in cirrhosis leading to increase in blood NH3
  • Manifests initially as disorientation with asterixis that eventually becomes coma
  • Results directly from either an increase in production of NH3 in the body such as a GI bleed or infection
  • Or a decrease in the excretion of NH3
  • Treatment includes lactulose to increase the conversion of NH3 to NH4+, rifaximin to kill the NH3 producing bacteria, and decreasing dietary protein
  • Hyperpathia

    A neurologic condition in which a person experiences "over or beyond" the normal sensation of "pain" than would be expected.

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
  • Associated with loss or disruption of afferent nerve fibers.
  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    "Disease" of "excess heart muscle."

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Trophe (Greek) - Food, Nourishment
    • Kardia (Greek) - Heart
    • My (Greek) - Muscle
    • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
  • Most cases are autosomal dominant
  • Also seen in Friedreich's ataxia, Pompe disease
  • Causes a S4 and systolic murmur on the left sternal border that increases with valsalva and standing
  • Cause of sudden death in young athletes
  • Concentric hypertrophy of left ventricle with myofibrillar disarray and fibrosis
  • Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy

    A "disease" which causes "over" "nourishment" and enlargement of the "joints" and "bones".

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Trophe (Greek) - Food, Nourishment
    • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
    • Arthron (Greek) - Pertaining to the Joint
    • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
  • A syndrome of clubbing of the digits, periostitis of the long (tubular) bones, and arthritis
  • Hippocrates first described digital clubbing 2500 years ago, hence the use of the term Hippocratic fingers
  • Idiopathic

    A "disease" or condition of "it's own" kind due to unknown or uncertain cause or origin

    • Idios (Greek) - One's own
    • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling

    A "disease" of the "white" matter of the "brain."

    • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
    • En (Greek) - Within
    • Kephale (Greek) - Head
    • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
    Macroangiopathic anemia

    To be "without" "blood" due to damaged RBCs in systemic circulation due to "large" amounts of force in small "vessels".

    • Makros (Greek) - Large, large to scale
    • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
    • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
    • An (Greek) - Without, not
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Mechanical heart valves, calcified or stenotic heart valves, schistocyte (helmet cells)
  • Membranous nephropathy

    "Disease" of the basement "membrane" of the "kidney".

  • LM capillary and GBM thickening
  • EM spike and dome with subepithelial deposits
  • IF granular
  • Associated with SLE
  • Monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS)

    "Suffering" caused by expansion of "one" specific "branch" of blood cells leading to an increase in antibodies such as "gamma".

    • Monos (Greek) - Single, alone
    • Klon (Greek) - A twig, Branch
    • Gamma (Greek) - The me of the third letter of the Greek alphabet; signifies gamma globulin
    • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
    • Un (Old English) - Prefix of negation
  • M spike can be seen, but no other symptoms of multiple myeloma
  • Precursor to multiple myeloma in that patients with MGUS develop MM at a rate of 12% per year
  • Myopathy

    "Abnormal" "muscle" function.

    • Myo (Greek) - Muscle
    • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling

    "Kidney" disease. Diabetic nephropathy is the damage to the kidney that results from nonenzymatic glycosylation of the glomerular basement membrane, leading to loss of protein in the urine.

    • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
    • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling

    "Suffering" caused by "nerves". Multiple causes including diabetes, B12 deficiency, and hereditary diseases.

    • Neuron (Greek) - Nerve, straw, tendon
    • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
  • Tingling
  • Numbness
  • Electric shock pain
  • Pathogenassociated molecular pattern

    Small molecules that are associated with pathogens recognized by our immune system due to their dissimilarity to self

    • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
    • Associare (Latin) - To join
    • Molecula (Latin) - A molecule
    • Patron (Middle English) - Something serving as a model
  • Molecules associated with pathogens that are recognized by the immune system
  • Tolllikereceptor4
  • Pathognomonic

    A sign or symptom that is specifically characteristic and helpful in having to "judge" or determine a particular "suffering" or disease.

    • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
    • Gnomon (Greek) - Judge
  • A pathognomonic sign or symptom has very high specificity but does not necessarily have high sensitivity (i.e. it's presence makes the condition very likely)
  • Examples include the presence of Koplik's spots in measles, auer rods in AML, Murphy's sign of cholecystitis, erythema chronicum migrans in Lyme disease
  • Pathology

    The "study of" "disease"

    • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
    • Logia (Greek) - Study
  • The study of disease
  • Pathoma

    A board examination video series and book written by doctor Hussain Sattar, a pathologist from the University of Chicago Medical School. It is so med a "mass" of "pathology" because it is a gathering of the high yield board tested information involved in the pathology of disease.

    • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Www.pathoma.com
  • Peripheral neuropathy

    Disease of the nerves that run in the "outer" parts of the body outside the central nervous system.

    • Peripheria (Greek) - Circumference, outer surface, line round a circular body
    • Neuron (Greek) - Nerve, straw, tendon
    • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
  • Damage or disease affecting the peripheral nervous system.
  • Peripheral neuropathy is a common finding in diabetes
  • Vitamin B1, B6, 12 or E deficiency can cause peripheral neuropathy
  • Neuropathic pain can be treated with gabapentin
  • Neuropathic pain typically has a burning characteristic.
  • Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy

    A "disease" of the "white" matter of the "brain" that "moves forward" getting worse and leads to "many" "sources" of deficits.

    • Multus (Latin) - Much, many
    • Focus (Latin) - Hearth, fireplace, center of activity
    • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
    • Enkephalos (Greek) - Brain, WIthin the Head
    • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
  • Progressive inflammation and damage of white matter caused by the JC virus. AIDS defining illness and occurs in immunocompromised individuals only.
  • Seen in heavily immunocompromised patients (such as HIV)
  • Certain MS treatments, such as talizumab, can precipitate PML
  • It is a demyelinating disorder
  • The JC virus is a polyomavirus
  • Retinopathy

    "Disease" associated with the "netlike" retina of the eye due to persistent damage

    • Rete (Latin) - Net
    • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
  • May lead to blindness
  • Spongiform encephalopathy

    A "disease or suffering" caused by the content "within the head" taking the "form" of a "sponge" due to holes in it.

  • Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are prion diseases
  • Results in a rapid progressive neuropathology that inevitably results in death
  • Sympathetic

    An arm of the autonomic nervous system that controls the fight or flight response.

    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
  • Fight or flight response
  • Sympathetic trunk

    A "trunk"like chain from which the origins of the sympathetic nervous system fibers in the body arise.

    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
    • Truncus (Latin) - Trunk of a tree, trunk of the body
  • Horner's syndrome
  • Wernicke's Encephalopathy

    A "disease" in the "brain" or "head", med after the Polish neurologist Carl Wernicke

    • Enkephalos (Greek) - Brain, WIthin the Head
    • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
  • Caused by thiamine deficiency, resulting in acute mental confusion, ataxia, and ophthalmoplegia