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Osteon (Greek) - Bone
33 terms share this root
Acute Rarefying Osteomyelitis

A "sharp" or fast occurring "inflammation" of the "bone" or "marrow" with "pus" formation

  • More commonly found in the "mandible" (lower jaw) than the maxilla (upper jaw)
  • Onset may be so fast that bone resorption (loss) does not occur
  • Occurrence lasting longer than one month is chronic
  • Chronic diffuse sclerosing osteomyelitis

    "Inflammation" of "bone" or "marrow" lasting a long "time" resulting in abnormal "hardening" of the bone. Distribution of hardening "pour out" into surrounding bone.

  • "Cotton Wool Appearance" of bone radio graphically
  • Chronic Focal Sclerosing Osetomyelitis

    "Inflammation" of "bone" or "marrow" lasting a long "time" resulting in abnormal localized "focal" "hardening" of the bone.

    • Khronikos (Greek) - Of time, concerning time
    • Focus (Latin) - Hearth, fireplace, center of activity
    • Skleroun (Greek) - To Harden
    • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
    • Muelos (Greek) - Marrow
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Results from a reaction to periodontal infection
  • Most common site is near apex of premolar and molars
  • Usually associated with nonvital tooth
  • Condensing osteitis

    A periapical inflammatory process, where "bone" "thickens" around the tooth root

    • Con (Latin) - With, Together
    • Densus (Latin) - Thick
    • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Condensing osteitis often occurs at the apices of nonvital teeth, and it is the most common radiopacity associated with teeth
  • Craniosynostosis

    A "condition" in which the sutures of the "head" of a baby prematurely close, leading to an early joining "together" of the "bones" of the skull.

    • Kranion (Greek) - Head, Skull
    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • This is a problem observed in neonates and requires urgent surgical evaluation, as suture laxity is required in infancy to accommodate rapidly increasing head circumference.
  • Exostoses

    The formation of new "bone" on the "outside" the normal bone surface

  • Excess calcium formations on the surface of bone
  • Typically benign when occurring in the mouth
  • Examples include Torus mandibularis and Torus palatinus
  • Aka Tori
  • Exostosis

    "Condition" where there is growth "outside" on the surface of the "bone."

    • Exo (Greek) - Outside
    • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Osteochondroma
  • Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy

    A "disease" which causes "over" "nourishment" and enlargement of the "joints" and "bones".

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Trophe (Greek) - Food, Nourishment
    • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
    • Arthron (Greek) - Pertaining to the Joint
    • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
  • A syndrome of clubbing of the digits, periostitis of the long (tubular) bones, and arthritis
  • Hippocrates first described digital clubbing 2500 years ago, hence the use of the term Hippocratic fingers
  • Ideopathic osteosclerosis

    A condition of unknown origins in which there is an increase in the "hardening" of the "bone" density of teeth

  • Usually found on the premolar or molar
  • There is no sign of inflammation on the teeth
  • Osteitis deformans

    Chronic disorder "pertaining to a disease" that results large, "distorted" "bones."

  • Paget disease of the bone
  • Bisphosphonates are used for treatment
  • Osteitis fibrosa cystia

    Skeletal disorder "pertaining to a disease" caused by hyperparathyroidism resulting in "bones" with too much "fiber" and fibrous tissue

    • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
    • Fibra (Latin) - A fiber, filament, entrail
    • Kustis (Greek) - Bladder, atomical pouch or sac
  • Von Recklinghausen disease
  • Neurofibromatosis type 1
  • Osteoarthritis

    Degenerative arthritis of the "bones" and "joints."

  • Worsens with movement and use of joints
  • Joint growing
  • Osteophytes
  • Eburnation

  • Mnemonics
    LOSS
    Osteoarthritis: x-ray signs
    Loss of joint space, Osteopyhtes, Subcondral sclerosis, Subchondral cysts
    LOSS of bone in osteoarthritis
    X-ray findings of osteoarthritis
    Loss of joint space, Osteophyte formation, Subchondral sclerosis, Subchondral cysts
    Osteoblast

    Cells that synthesize "bone" that originally came from mesenchymal "germ" cells.

    • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
    • Blastos (Greek) - Germ, sprout, bud or budding, immature
  • Osteoid (bony matrix) is mineralized by osteoblasts
  • Osteoblastic metastasis

    The spread of cancer to "bone" "beyond" its originally cancerous organ possibly leading to "budding" of new "bone" in "places" causing bone restructuring.

    • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
    • Blastos (Greek) - Germ, sprout, bud or budding, immature
    • Meta (English) - Beyond, in the midst of
    • Histanai (Greek) - To place, cause to stand, to stop
  • Prostate cancer
  • Osteochondroma

    "Cartilage" based "tumor" of the "bone" that usually present as cartilaginous bony projections of the metaphysis.

    • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
    • Chondros (Greek) - Cartilage
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Most common benign tumor of the bones
  • Osteoclast

    Cells that resorb bone and "break" down "bone."

  • Derived from monocytes
  • Osteoclast activating factor

    It is an interleukin responsible for inflammation that is told what "to do" by macrophages and other immune cells. It also is involved in stimulating "break" down of "bone."

  • Also known as IL1a
  • Promotes inflammation, fever, and sepsis
  • Osteodystrophy

    "Abnormal" growth of "bones" usually due to poor "nourishment" to the bones due to renal disease.

    • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
    • Dys (Greek) - Bad, Ill, Abnormal, Evil
    • Trophe (Greek) - Food, Nourishment
  • Usually due to renal diseases or imbalances of calcium or phosphorus
  • Osteogenesis imperfecta

    Congenital disease whose "source" is a genetic mutation of collagen causing malformation of bones, which seem brittle and "unfinished."

  • Brittle bone disease
  • Blue sclera
  • Collagen mutation
  • Osteoma

    Benign "tumor" of the "bone".

    • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Most commonly on the face
  • Part of Gardner's syndrome
  • Osteomalacia

    A "calming" or softening of the "bone" due to defective bone mineralization.

  • Known as rickets in children and is usually due to a lack of sunshine and Vitamin D intake
  • Osteomyelitis

    Infection causing "inflammation" of the "bone" and "bone marrow".

    • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
    • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • S. aureus is most common cause
  • Salmonella most common cause in sickle cell patients
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a common cause in sexually active individuals
  • Osteonecrosis

    A "disease" resulting in the "bone" becoming a "dead body."

    • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
    • Necro (Greek) - Dead Body
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Avascular necrosis, especially of the hip and scaphoid bones, are forms of osteonecrosis
  • Osteopetrosis

    A "disease" in which the "bone" becomes very dense and "stony".

  • Stone bone
  • Visible as dense bone on xray
  • Cause of malfunctioning osteoclasts, which are monocyte derived cells, thus can be treated with a stem cell transplant
  • Osteophytes

    "Bony" projections that form along joint margins like leaves off a "plant."

  • Bone spurs
  • Heberden's and Bouchard's nodes
  • Occurs in osteoarthritis
  • Osteoporosis

    Progressive "bone" "disease" with decreased bone mass and density leading to "pores" in the bone.

    • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
    • Poros (Greek) - Pore, passage
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • White, old, women
  • Decreased estrogen is a risk factor
  • Osteoporosis Bone Marrow Defect

    A "condition" in which the "central part" of the "bone" looks "deserted" and filled with "pores"

    • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
    • Poros (Greek) - Pore, passage
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
    • Ban (Old English) - Bone, tusk
    • Marrow (Old English) - Inmost or central part
    • Deficere (Latin) - To Desert, Revolt, Fail
  • Found in the body of the mandible
  • Due to localized increase of hematopoietic bone marrow that creates a radiolucent radiographic defect
  • Especially common in extraction sites
  • Osteosarcoma

    Malignant "tumor" of the "bone" "flesh."

    • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
    • Sarx (Latin) - Flesh, Meat
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Commonly occurs in the metaphysis region of the bones
  • Osteosclerosis

    A condition in which the "bone" "hardens" abnormally.

  • Diagnosed through Xray
  • Associated with a number of diseases including osteopetrosis, and Paget's Disease of the Bone
  • Osteotome

    An instrument used to "cut" or prepare bone

  • Similar to a chisel except they are bevelled on both side
  • Used for dental implants
  • Periostitis

    "Inflammation" of the layer "around" the "bone".

    • Peri (Greek) - Around, about, beyond
    • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Usually caused by infection, and can cause necrosis.
  • Renal osteodystrophy

    "Bad or abnormal" "nourishment" of the "bones" caused by chronic "kidney" disease

    • Renes (Latin) - Kidneys
    • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
    • Dys (Greek) - Bad, Ill, Abnormal, Evil
    • Trophe (Greek) - Food, Nourishment
  • Chronic kidney disease leads to decreased secretion of phosphate, which activates PTH which leads to bone resorption by osteoclasts
  • Also known as chronic kidney disease mineral and bone disorder
  • Osteopenia

    The condition of having low bone density, but not low enough to be considered osteoporosis.

    • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
    • Penia (Latin) - Deficiency, a lack
  • OsteoPenia = deficiency of bone, versus osteoPorosis = porous bone
  • MEDYMOLOGY