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Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
94 terms share this root
Acanthosis

A process in which the skin becomes "spine" like and hardened.

  • Acanthus (Greek) - Point, Thorn, Spine
  • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • A type of epidermal hyperplasia, or pathologic thickening of the skin
  • Associated with acanthosis nigricans, seen in obese people
  • Present in Median Rhomboid Glossitis, Candidiasis
  • Acanthosis nigricans

    A process in which the skin becomes "spine" like, hardened, and "black" in color.

  • Associated with diabetes, obesity, and other endocrine problems
  • Possible indicatiion of underlying stomach or liver cancer
  • Actinic keratosis

    A condition by which large amount sun "rays" lead to scaly "horn" like patches of the skin.

    • Aktis (Greek) - Ray
    • Keras (Greek) - Horn
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Usually caused by sun damage
  • Hyperkeratosis
  • Agranulocytosis

    A "condition" in which the body does "not" produce immune "cells" that contain "grain" like inclusions that contain chemicals to fend off invaders.

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Granum (Latin) - Grain, seed
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Very high risk of infection due to immunosuppression
  • Classically associated with drugs such as antithyroid drugs (methimazole, propylthiouracil, etc.), clozapine, carbamazepine, and NSAIDs.
  • Med literally without production of granule containing cells
  • Anisocytosis

    A "condition" or disease in which there is "not" "equal or the same" size amongst a persons red "blood cells".

    • An (Greek) - Without, not
    • Isos (Greek) - Equal, the same
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Normal red cell distribution width is 11.614.6, beyond that implies that there is a pathology leading to abnormal sizes of cells either macro or micro in size.
  • Med literally without equal cells in reference to their size.
  • Anthracosis

    A "condition or disease" in which there is "charcoal" deposition in the lungs from sooty air.

    • Anthrax (Greek) - Charcoal
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Seen in urban dwellers, it is benign and asymptomatic
  • Despite the me, this condition is not associated with the grampositive microbe, bacillus anthracis.
  • Aortic stenosis

    A "condition" in which the valve separating the left ventricle, from the "artery which springs from the heart" (aortic valve) becomes "narrow" and hardened.

    • Aorte (Greek) - The arteries springing from the heart, What is hung up
    • Stenos (Greek) - Narrow
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Causes a visible throbbing in the carotid on physical exam
  • Holosystolic blowing murmur heard at the upper left sternal border
  • Occurs due to congenital bicuspid valve, old age related calcification or after chronic rheumatic heart disease (mitral valve stenosis is most common)

  • Mnemonics
    Aortic Stenosis makes me SAD
    3 Major Symptoms of Aortic Stenosis
    Syncope, Angina, Dyspnea
    Aponeurosis

    A layer of "sinew" that has the "condition" of connecting muscles "from" the parts which they move.

    • Apo (Greek) - From, away from
    • Neuro (Greek) - Nerve, sinew, tendon
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Palmar aponeurosis can be found in the hand. It overlies the soft tissues and the tendons of the flexor muscles. When there is a progressive increase in the fibrous tissue of this structure, a condition called Dupuytren’s contracture, or palmar fibromatosis, occurs. The fibrous bands that connect it to the bases of the fingers become shorter and thicker. This leads to marked flexion or bending of the digits, such that the digits cannot be straightened.
  • Their white color comes from their lack of blood supply, similar to tendons.
  • Aqueductal stenosis

    A "condition" in which there is a "growing" of the cell that "leads or conducts" "water" or cerebrosis fluid from the 3rd to the 4th ventricle of the brain.

    • Aqua (Latin) - Water
    • Ductus (Latin) - A Leading, Conducting, or Aqueduct
    • Stenos (Greek) - Narrow
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Blockage of the aqueduct of Sylvius can lead to hydrocephalus, specifically as a common cause of congenital and/or obstructive hydrocephalus
  • Symptoms include: headache, nausea and vomiting, cognitive difficulty, sleepiness, seizures, balance and gait disturbances, visual abnormalities, and incontinence
  • Asbestosis

    Chronic inflammatory and fibrotic condition affecting the lung tissue caused by the inhalation of asbestos fibers. Med from the stone from which it’s made, that when set on fire could "not be extinguished".

    • Asbestos (Greek) - Inextinguishable, quicktime
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Calcified pleural plaques
  • Affects lower lobes
  • Ferruginous bodies
  • Associated with shipbuilding, roofing and plumbing
  • Ascaris Lumbricoides

    A type of "earth worm" that causes "disease" by inhabiting the "intestinal" tract.

  • Fecal oral
  • In stool detect eggs with rough (bumpy) surface
  • Aspiration of worms can cause Loffler's pneumonia, intestinal obstruction liver abscess
  • More than 2 billion people are affected by this infection
  • Athetosis

    A "condition" in which the fingers, hands, toes and feed, become "without position" leading to writing movements.

    • Athetos (Greek) - Without position
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Athetosis is a symptom primarily caused by degeneration of the basal ganglia and commonly associated with Huntington's Disease.
  • Bacillary Angiomatosis

    A "disease" caused by the "stick"shaped Bartonella, in which blood "vessels" form "tumor"like masses in the skin and other organs.

    • Baculum (Latin) - Stick
    • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Caused by either Bartonella henselae or Bartonella quinti
  • Bowenoid papulosis

    Precancerous cutaneous condition presenting as single or multiple, small, flesh colored flat or warty lesions on the genitalia of men and women

    • Papula (Latin) - Pimple, swelling, pustule
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Transmitted by human papillomavirus, mostly benign but some may transform into cancerous lesions
  • Intraepithelial neoplasia
  • Calcinosis

    A "condition" where "chalk" like material deposits in soft tissue.

    • Calx (Greek) - Chalk, limestone
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Part of CREST syndrome
  • Deposition of calcium in soft tissues
  • Dystrophic calcification occurs after any damage to soft tissue and has normal calcium levels
  • Metastatic calcification occurs when there are increased levels of calcium in the body
  • Candidiasis

    A "white," fungal "condition" that affects the skin, genitals, throat, mouth and heart especially in immunocompromised patients

  • A fungal infection caused by yeasts from the genus Candida
  • Candida albicans is the predominate cause of the disease
  • Often seen in immunocompromised patients
  • Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis due to T cell dysfunction
  • Diffuse erythema and white patches that appear on the surfaces of the buccal mucosa, throat, tongue, and gums.
  • Carcinomatosis

    A "conditiion" in which one develops many "cancerous" "growths" after the primary cancer dessimnates throughout the body.

    • Karkinos (Greek) - Cancer, crab
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • A form of disseminated cancer
  • Often times pertaining only to cancers of epithelial cell origin
  • Cardiac cirrhosis

    "Condition" of right sided "heart" failure that causes back up of blood leading to chronic venous congestion and fibrosis and a "tawny appearance" of the liver

  • Also referred to as nutmeg liver due to uneven, different shaded spots throughout the liver
  • Cervicofacial actinomycosis

    A "disease" of the "neck" and "face" caused by a "fungus."

    • Cervix (Latin) - The Neck, pe of the Neck
    • Facialis (Latin) - Of the face
    • Aktis (Greek) - Ray
    • Mykes (Greek) - Fungus, mushroom, anything shaped like a mushroom
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Actinomyces, abscess, sinus tract, sulfur granules, penicillin G (treatment)
  • Characterized by abscess formation, draining sinus tracts, fistulae, and tissue fibrosis due to a branching grampositive bacteria belonging to Actinomycetales.
  • Actinomyces are normal constituents of oral flora residing within gingival crevices and tonsillar crypts
  • Chronic Hyperplastic candidiasis

    A "condition" that lasts a long "time" due to "white" fungi that causes "excess" "formation" of tissue

    • Khronikos (Greek) - Of time, concerning time
    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Plasis (Greek) - Molding, Formation
    • Candidus (Latin) - White
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • The major etiologic agent of the disease is the oral fungal pathogen Candida
  • Typically presents as a white adherent patch on the commissures of the oral mucosa
  • A minor proportion may demonstrate dysplasia and develop into carcinomas
  • Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis

    A "condition" of the "skin" and "slimy" surfaces caused by "white" fungi lasting a long "time"

    • Khronikos (Greek) - Of time, concerning time
    • Mucus (Latin) - Slime, mold, snot
    • Cutis (Latin) - Skin
    • Candidus (Latin) - White
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Hereditary, immunodeficiency, cellmediated immunity disorder, T cell, Candida
  • Hereditary immunodeficiency characterized by chronic infections with Candida (usually C. albicans) limited to mucosal surfaces, skin, and cells due to impaired cellmediated immunity (T cells)
  • Chronic infections with Candida that are limited to mucosal surfaces, skin, and nails
  • In infants, the first symptoms are thrush and diaper rash that may eventually lead to a thick, oozing disfiguring rash that covers the face and scalp, causing hair to fall out.
  • Coagulative necrosis

    A "condition" in which lack of oxygen causes "death" of cells, resulting in "curdling" of tissue.

    • Coagulare (Latin) - To Cause to Curdle
    • Nekros (Greek) - Dead body, Corpse, Death
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Ischemia results in necrosis, but the architecture of the dead tissue is maintained for a few days due to the denaturation of structural proteins and lysosomal enzymes, which prevents proteolysis from occurring before regeneration begins.
  • While ischemia in most tissues will cause coagulative necrosis, it is important to note that in the central nervous system, ischemia causes liquefactive necrosis because there is very little structural framework in neural tissue.
  • Coccidioidomycosis

    A flulike "condition" or "disease" caused by a type of "fungus" or "mushroom," that resembles small "berries" under a microscope. The bug got its me due to its ability to exist in "two" different "ways", saprophytic (obtaining nutrients) and parasitic.

    • Kokkos (Greek) - Berry
    • Di (Greek) - Two, Double, Twice
    • Hodos (Greek) - Way
    • Mykes (Greek) - Fungus, mushroom, anything shaped like a mushroom
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Aka Valley Fever, aka California Fever, aka desert rheumatism, aka San Joaquin Valley Fever
  • Chronic lung infection
  • Disseminated infection
  • Spores of C. immitis are swept into air by disruption of soil (construction, farming, earthquake) and are inhaled by humans
  • Cause flu like symptoms, rash, muscle/joint pain, rare chronic lung infection and disseminated disease (especially in HIV positive patients)
  • C. immitis is reported as the 10th most commonly acquired infection in the laboratory with two documented deaths, thus laboratory staff require special precautions while handling it. Since this is the most virulent fungal pathogen, it should never be grown in culture except under very controlled conditions.
  • Complex aphthosis

    A "condition" with multiple recurrent "eruptions" of aphthous ulcers

    • Aphtha (Greek) - Eruption
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Diagnosis is given to patients with almost constant >3 oral aphthae or recurrent oral and genital aphthae
  • This condition occurs in the absence of systemic diseases, like Behcet's disease
  • Contraction band necrosis

    A form of tissue "death" in which muscle fibers of the heart "shorten" forming a "strip" .

    • Contrahere (Latin) - To Draw Together
    • Band (Old Norse) - The strip that ties or constrains
    • Nekros (Greek) - Dead body, Corpse, Death
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Heart attack, myocardial infarction, reperfusion, thick eosinophilic band, contraction bands
  • Uncontrolled cell death unique to cardiac muscle cells that is thought to arise due to reperfusion (oxidative damage that occurs when the blood supply returns to a tissue after a period of ischemia) from hyper contraction, resulting in sarcolemmal rupture
  • Histologically, it is a finding of a recent heart attack and shows contraction bands, which are thick and intensely eosinophilic staining bands.
  • The contractile machinery of the heart is activated due to calcium in the setting of ischemia or activated due to low ATP causing hyper contraction that leads to reperfusion and eventual contraction band necrosis.
  • Craniosynostosis

    A "condition" in which the sutures of the "head" of a baby prematurely close, leading to an early joining "together" of the "bones" of the skull.

    • Kranion (Greek) - Head, Skull
    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • This is a problem observed in neonates and requires urgent surgical evaluation, as suture laxity is required in infancy to accommodate rapidly increasing head circumference.
  • Diarthrosis

    A "joint" which fastens "two" bones and allows for free mobility.

    • Di (Greek) - Two, Double, Twice
    • Arthron (Greek) - Pertaining to the Joint
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Freely movable joint (or synovial joint)
  • Examples include the knee and elbow joint.
  • Diverticulosis

    A condition where several diverticula (outpouchings in the wall of the intestine that "turn away" from the main path) are present in the colon, commonly in the sigmoid colon.

    • Devertere (Latin) - Turn down or aside
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Sigmoid colon
  • Colon
  • Diverticula
  • Outpouching
  • Endometriosis

    "Condition" that causes endometrial cells to grow outside the "womb" rather than "inside."

    • Endon (Greek) - Within, Inside, Interl
    • Metrium (Latin) - Womb
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Abnormal growth
  • Uterus
  • Endometrium
  • Epithelial hyperkeratosis

    A “condition” in which “excess” material that also makes up animal “horns” in is made in the “above” surface layer of tissue

    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Thele (Greek) - Nipple, teat
    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Keras (Greek) - Horn
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Thickening of the stratum corneum layer with an increased production of keratin that can be benign or due to friction
  • Benign frictional hyperkeratosis
  • Epithelial necrosis

    A “condition” in which there is “death” in the “above” surface layer of tissue

    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Thele (Greek) - Nipple, teat
    • Necro (Greek) - Dead Body
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Death of epithelial cells that may be due to infection of hypoxia
  • Erythrocytosis

    "Condition" of increased "red" blood "cell" mass.

    • Eruthros (Latin) - Red
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Seen in absolute polycythemia and EPO abuse
  • Essential thrombocytosis

    A condition in which there is an excessive production of "clotting" "cells"

    • Essentia (Latin) - Essence
    • Thrombos (Greek) - Clump of blood, clot of blood
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Chronic myeloproliferative disorder with sustained megakaryocyte proliferation, excess platelets, splenomegaly, and thrombotic or hemorrhagic episodes
  • First described in 1934
  • Exostosis

    "Condition" where there is growth "outside" on the surface of the "bone."

    • Exo (Greek) - Outside
    • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Osteochondroma
  • Fibromatosis

    "Condition" of benign "fibrous" soft tissue "tumors" that can be very locally aggressive.

    • Fibra (Latin) - A fiber, filament, entrail
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Can be associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)
  • Fibrosis

    "Condition" of excessive deposition of "fibrous" connective tissue.

    • Fibra (Latin) - A fiber, filament, entrail
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Pulmonary fibrosis
  • Cirrhosis
  • Often a response to injury
  • Hemarthrosis

    "Bleeding" in the "joints".

    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
    • Arthron (Greek) - Pertaining to the Joint
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Associated with hemophilia, scurvy, and CrimeanCongo Fever
  • Hemochromatosis

    "Disease" caused by the accumulation of iron in the body causing skin to become "blood" "colored"

    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
    • Chromo (Greek) - Color
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Clinical triad of cirrhosis, diabetes, and skin pigmentation
  • Bronze diabetic
  • Associated with a HFE gene mutation and HLAA3
  • Treated with deferoxamine
  • Lab values show increased ferritin, increased serum iron, decreased TIBC, and increased transferrin saturation
  • Hemosiderosis

    "Disease" from accumulation of "iron" storage complex commonly found in macrophages that have engulfed red "blood" cells.

  • Associated with hemochromatosis and frequent blood transfusions
  • Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis

    Benign fibrous enlargement of keratinized gingiva

    • Hereditatem (Latin) - Heirship, inheritance, condition of being an heir
    • Gingiva (Latin) - Gums
    • Fibra (Latin) - A fiber, filament, entrail
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Also known as Idiopathic Gingival hyperplasia
  • Hereditary spherocytosis

    "Inherited disease" of "balllike" red blood "cells."

    • Hereditatem (Latin) - Heirship, inheritance, condition of being an heir
    • Sphaira (Greek) - Globe, ball, playing ball, terrestrial globe
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Defect in RBC membrane skeleton proteins spectrin and ankyrin
  • Small round RBCs with no central pallor
  • Positive osmotic fragility test
  • Symptoms include splenomegaly and aplastic crisis
  • Increased MCHC and increased RDW
  • Experimental gene therapy treatment has worked in mice, but not humans.
  • HHV4, Epstine Barr, Infectious Mononucleosis

    A virus of the Herpes family, that is the best known cause of infectious mononucleosis or the "kissing disease".

    • Monos (Greek) - Single, alone
    • Nucleus (Latin) - Kernel
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • EBV linked to infectious mononucleosis, oral hairy leukoplakia, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Burkitt's Lymphoma and Hodgkin Disease. 90% of population harbor EBV and it a transmitted via saliva.
  • No vaccine available
  • Hydronephrosis

    "Pathological" accumulation of "water" in the "kidney."

    • Hydro (Greek) - Water
    • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Swelling of the kidney with urine due to a blockage to the outflow of urine or as a result of reflux
  • May be caused by a kidney stone, a tumor in or near the ureter, enlarged prostate, or vesicoureteral reflux
  • May lead to UTI
  • Commonly presents as flank pain
  • Diagnosed with ultrasound or CT
  • Hypercementosis

    It is idiopathic, nonneoplastic condition characterized by the "excessive" buildup of normal cementum (calcified tissue) on the roots of one or more teeth

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Caedere (Latin) - To cut
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • A thicker layer of cementum can give the tooth an enlarged appearance, which mainly occurs at the apex or apices of the tooth.
  • Hyperkeratosis

    "Disease" resulting in an "excess horny" layer of the skin.

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Keras (Greek) - Horn
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Thickening of the outermost layer of the epidermis (stratum corneum)
  • Often associated with an abnormal increase in the amount of keratin
  • Associated with psoriasis, calluses, and verrucae
  • Literally "excess horny tissue disease." Horny tissue is keratin, which is found in skin.
  • Hypertrichosis

    A "condition" in which an individual grows an "excess" amount of "hair".

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Tricho (Greek) - Hair
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Do not confuse with Hirsutism, which is a type of hypertrichosis. Hirsutism is abnormal hair growth caused by excess androgens, and is exclusive to women and children. Hypertrichosis is the more general term for abnormal and excessive hair growth over the body. Underlying diseases include malignancy, trauma, or it can be congenital.
  • Hypocementosis

    A "condition" in which there is "less" than normal amount of "rough stone" cementum on the roots of teeth

    • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
    • Caementum (Greek) - Rough stone
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Prevents normal development of the periodontal attachment or even normal dentin formation
  • May be caused by Cleidocranial Dysplasia or Hypophosphatasia
  • Ichthyosis

    A "condition" in which the skin becomes scaly and "fish"like.

    • Ichthy (Greek) - Fish
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • There are a variety of different types of ichthyosis
  • Can be associated with hemostasis, especially in the legs of morbidly obese individuals.
  • Ichthyosis vulgaris

    A "disease" affecting the "common people" resulting in "fish"like scales on the body

  • Autosomal dominant inherited disease
  • Associated with filaggrin protein
  • Mild cases may have "mosaic lines" visible on the calf
  • Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis

    A "formation of excessive connective tissue" within the "lungs" in the "space between the cells" or functional unit. .

    • Interstitium (Latin) - Interval, space between
    • Pulmon (Latin) - Lung
    • Fibra (Latin) - A fiber, filament, entrail
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Chronic inflammation progressive scarring of the pulmonary (lung) walls
  • Keratosis follicularis

    A rare, mainly cutaneous, disease in which desmosometonofilament defects are linked to acantholysis.

    • Keras (Greek) - Horn
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
    • Follis (Latin) - Bellows
  • Inherited as autosomal dominant trait. Mutation of the gene that encodes a CalciumATP pump (SERCA2) leads to defective desmosomes. Microscopically best designated as acantholytic dyskeratosis.
  • Koilocytosis

    The cellular changes in a squamous epithelial cell, which occur as a result of infection of the cell by human papillomavirus.

    • Koilos (Greek) - Hollow
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Changes to the cell include nuclear enlargement, irregularity in the nuclear membrane, and a perinuclear halo.
  • Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    A rare disease involving clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells (histiocyte), abnormal cells deriving from bone marrow and capable of migrating from skin to lymph nodes.

    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Histos (Greek) - Tissue, web, warp
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Symptoms of this disease range from isolated bone lesions to multisystem disease
  • Contains Birbeck granules
  • Langerhans med after German physician and atomist Paul Langerhans
  • Leptospirosis

    A "condition" caused by "thin" "coils" (Leptospira interrogans)

    • Lepto (Greek) - Fine, thin, delicate, rrow
    • Speira (Greek) - Coil
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Transmission via animal urine (beavers) contaminated water
  • Leukocytosis

    A "condition" in which there is a rise in "white" "cells" in the blood.

    • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • More commonly known as a 'white count"
  • Precipitated often times by infection or malignancy
  • Lipoid nephrosis

    A "kidney" "disease" with the "likeness" of "fat."

    • Lipos (Greek) - Fat
    • Eidos (Greek) - Form, Resemblance or Shape, Likeness
    • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Also known as minimal change disease
  • Most common in young children
  • Causes edema in feet and legs and proteinuria
  • May see fats in the blood in order to thicken it due to decreased oncotic pressure with protein loss
  • Treat with corticosteroids
  • This disease is med because of the elevated fat levels in the blood. The liver makes more fat to dump into circulation to increase the oncotic pressure lost via proteinuria.
  • Maduromycosis (Madura Foot)

    A "condition" or disease caused by a "fungus" med for having been discovered in Madurai India.

    • Madura - Referring to Mandurai, India
    • Myces (Greek) - Fungus
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Caused by fungal spores entering a wound or break in the skin. It starts as subcutaneous swelling, and leads to pervasive tissue damage and deformity.
  • Marrow fibrosis

    "Condition" of the "center" of the bone in which bone marrow proliferate and cause replacement of marrow with connective tissue "fibers".

    • Marrow (Old English) - Inmost or central part
    • Fibra (Latin) - A fiber, filament, entrail
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Hairy cell leukemia
  • Metabolic acidosis

    A "condition" in which the pH "changes" to be more "acidic".

  • Blood pH <7.35, pCO2 is low, and HCO3 is low
  • Increased anion gap: MUDPILES methanol, uremia, DKA, propylene glycol, Iron or INH, lactic acid, ethylene glycol, salicylates (late)
  • Normal anion gap: HARDASS Hyperalimentation, Addison's disease, Rel tubular acidosis, Diarrhea, Acetazolamide, Spironolactone, Saline infusion
  • Compensation of metabolic acidosis is respiratory alkalosis
  • Adequacy of compensation can be determined by using Winter's formula pCO2 = 1.5*HCO3 + 8 +/ 2
  • Metabolic alkalosis

    "Condition" of inadequate "changes" in acidity.

  • Blood pH >7.45, pCO2 is low, and HCO3 is high
  • Can give loop diuretics, vomiting, antacid use, hyperaldosteronism
  • Miliary pulmonary tuberculosis

    Widespread "condition" of "tuberculosis" in the "lung" characterized by diffuse granulomas and "millets" sized 15 mm.

    Mycosis fungoides

    "Condition" of nonHodgkin lymphoma of mature CD4 cells, presents with "malformed" "mushroom" "fungi" shaped rashes, patches, and nodules. Called Sezary syndrome after spread to blood.

    • Mykes (Greek) - Fungus, mushroom, anything shaped like a mushroom
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
    • Fungus (Latin) - Mushroom
    • Eidos (Greek) - Form, Resemblance or Shape, Likeness
  • Lymphocytes with cerebriform nuclei
  • Pautrier's microabscess in the epidermis
  • Additional cause of leonine facies
  • Mycotic

    A "condition" that is caused by a "fungus".

    • Mykes (Greek) - Fungus, mushroom, anything shaped like a mushroom
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Generally classified as systemic or cutaneous. Different regions are higher risk for certain fungal pathogens. Generally treat local infections with azoles, and systemic infection with Amphotericin B.
  • Myelofibrosis

    "Condition" of "inflammation" of bone "marrow" causing decreased RBC production.

    • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
    • Fibra (Latin) - A fiber, filament, entrail
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Tear drop shaped RBC
  • Nephrolithiasis

    "Inflammation" caused by "kidney" "stones".

  • Colicky flank pain
  • Hematuria without RBC casts
  • In descending order of frequency, Kidney stones can be composed of Calcium, Ammonium/Magnesium/Phosphate , Uric Acid, or Cystine
  • Commonly caused by dehydration
  • Nephrotic syndrome

    "Kidney" "disease" "with" loss of blood proteins "running through" the filtration barrier.

    • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
  • Frothy urine
  • Thromboembolism
  • Infection
  • Edema is due to loss of capillary oncotic pressure
  • Neurofibromatosis

    "Condition" of "fibrous" tumor "growth" from "nervous" tissue.

    • Neuro (Greek) - Nerve, sinew, tendon
    • Fibra (Latin) - A fiber, filament, entrail
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Autosomal dominant
  • NF1: chromosome 17, cafe au lait spots, Lisch nodules, neural tumors
  • NF2: chromosome 22, bilateral acoustic neuromas, meningioma, cataracts
  • Neurocutaneous disorders include NF2, Tuberous sclerosis, VHL disease, and SturgeWeber
  • Ochronosis

    An inherited "disease" of protein metabolism in which "yellow" urine turns dark upon sun exposure

    • Ochros (Greek) - Yellow
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • An inherited error of protein metabolism characterized by an accumulation of homogentisic acid, resulting in degenerative arthritis and brownblack pigment deposited in connective tissue and cartilage. It is often caused by alkaptonuria or poisoning with phenol. Bluish macules may be noted on the sclera, fingers, ears, nose, genitalia, buccal mucosa, and axillae. Urine color may be dark.
  • Osteonecrosis

    A "disease" resulting in the "bone" becoming a "dead body."

    • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
    • Necro (Greek) - Dead Body
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Avascular necrosis, especially of the hip and scaphoid bones, are forms of osteonecrosis
  • Osteopetrosis

    A "disease" in which the "bone" becomes very dense and "stony".

  • Stone bone
  • Visible as dense bone on xray
  • Cause of malfunctioning osteoclasts, which are monocyte derived cells, thus can be treated with a stem cell transplant
  • Osteoporosis

    Progressive "bone" "disease" with decreased bone mass and density leading to "pores" in the bone.

    • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
    • Poros (Greek) - Pore, passage
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • White, old, women
  • Decreased estrogen is a risk factor
  • Osteoporosis Bone Marrow Defect

    A "condition" in which the "central part" of the "bone" looks "deserted" and filled with "pores"

    • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
    • Poros (Greek) - Pore, passage
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
    • Ban (Old English) - Bone, tusk
    • Marrow (Old English) - Inmost or central part
    • Deficere (Latin) - To Desert, Revolt, Fail
  • Found in the body of the mandible
  • Due to localized increase of hematopoietic bone marrow that creates a radiolucent radiographic defect
  • Especially common in extraction sites
  • Palisading necrosis

    Histological appearance of necrosis surrounding tumor cells.

    • Palus (Latin) - Stake
    • Nekros (Greek) - Dead body, Corpse, Death
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Commonly seen in glioblastoma on histology
  • Parakeratosis

    A "condition" that is "like" "keratosis", except that nuclei are retained in the cells

    • Para (Greek) - Along, side, beside, near, against, contrary to
    • Keras (Greek) - Horn
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Keratinization of the stratum corneum with the retention of nuclei
  • Pneumoconioses

    A restrictive "lung" "disease" caused by inhalation of certain substances (i.e. "dust")

  • Asbestosis, silicosis, coal worker's pneumoconiosis, and berylliosis are all types of restrictive lung diseases
  • These diseases are typically occupational in nature. These diseases have led to various sorts of government action, including the Black Lung Benefits Act of 1973 which pays benefits to workers disabled by coal worker's lung.
  • Poikilocytosis

    A "condition" in which the red blood "cells" of a smear have "varied" shapes.

    • Poikilos (Greek) - Varied
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Can be seen in various conditions, including vitamin deficiencies
  • Polyposis

    A "condition" of having "many" "foot" like projections from the walls of mucous membranes including the nose and intestines.

    • Polloi (Greek) - Many
    • Pous (Greek) - Foot
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Familial adenomatous polyposis is most often caused by a mutation in the tumor suppressor gene called FAP
  • Polypus is a me used for hydras and sea anemones in various languages and resemble the "polyps" of the colon.
  • Pulmonary fibrosis

    A "condition" in which there are "small fibers" invading the normal "lung" tissue.

    • Pulmon (Latin) - Lung
    • Fibra (Latin) - A fiber, filament, entrail
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Sarcoidosis, Smoking, Radiation

  • MedyQuestion
    • A 6 year old boy is brought to the pediatrician because his mother reports that he has been having bouts of blue colored skin and shortness of breath. She says that when he is outside playing, he becomes short of breath much quicker than the other children. The patient was evaluated for asthma last year, but at that time demonstrated normal PFTs. The pediatrician asked the patient if anything made him feel better when he found it hard to breath, at which time, the boy squatted. What 4 characteristics are pathomnemonic for this child’s condition?

    USMLE Step 1

    • A 6 year old boy is brought to the pediatrician because his mother reports that he has been having bouts of blue colored skin and shortness of breath. She says that when he is outside playing, he becomes short of breath much quicker than the other children. The patient was evaluated for asthma last year, but at that time demonstrated normal PFTs. The pediatrician asked the patient if anything made him feel better when he found it hard to breath, at which time, the boy squatted. On cardiac auscultation, what type of murmur is expected to be appreciated and where?

    USMLE Step 1

    Renal tubular acidosis

    "A condition or disease" relating to the "small pipes" or tubules of the "kidneys" being unable to secrete "acid" or reabsorb base (bicarbonate)

    • Renes (Latin) - Kidneys
    • Tubulus (Latin) - A small pipe
    • Acidus (Latin) - Relating to acid
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
    Respiratory alkalosis

    A "condition" in which "breathing" is decreased, leading to an "increase in pH", or alkalosis; alkalotic soil, or soil with high pH, is where saltwort grows, and "alkali" refers to the burnt ashes of this plant.

    • Respirare (Latin) - To breath in and out
    • Alkali (Greek) - Cacined ashed
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
    Sarcoidosis

    A "state of disease" affecting the "fleshlike" organs in the body, such as the lungs

    • Sarx (Latin) - Flesh, Meat
    • Eidos (Greek) - Form, Resemblance or Shape, Likeness
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • A disease characterized by autoimmune inflammatory granules seen in a multitude of organs, most notably in hilum of the lungs
  • Causes hypercalcemia
  • Seen classically in African American women
  • Mimics the symptoms a TB infection

  • Mnemonics
    S. A. R. C. O. I. D
    Symptoms of Sarcoidosis
    Skin (Erythema Nodosum). Arthritis. Respiratory (Hilar Lymphadenopathy). Cardiac (Heart Block, Failure). Optic (Uveitis). Intracranial (Meningitis and neuropathy). Derangement of Liver and Kidneys
    Seborrheic keratosis

    A skin "condition" with benign growths (composed same protein that comprises animal "horns") that have "grease" "flowing" from them.

    • Sebum (Latin) - Tallow, grease
    • Hroia (Greek) - Flow, flux
    • Keras (Greek) - Horn
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Mostly associated with old age
  • LesserTrelat sign
  • Colon cancer
  • Sialosis/ Sialadenosis

    "Salivary condition" that is not due to inflammation or neoplasm

    • Sialon (Greek) - Saliva
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
    Silicosis

    A "condition or disease" affecting the lungs, caused by inhalation of silicon, a "flint"like material

    • Silex (Latin) - Flint
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • A pneumoconiosis that occurs as a result of exposure to silica, most commonly from occupational exposure.
  • Occupational exposure to silica include sandblasting and working in mines
  • Eggshell calcification
  • Disrupts phagolysosome formation and lead to TB reactivation
  • Affects the upper lobes of the lung
  • Most common occupational lung disease worldwide.
  • Spongiosis

    The "sponge"like condition in which fluid is accumulated in epithelial cells

    • Spongia (Latin) - Sponge
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Intracellular fluid accumulation within epithelial cells
  • Eczematous dermatitis
  • Aka "Diffuse vacuolization"
  • Named for the spongy appearing cellular structure under the microscope
  • Stenosis

    A "condition" which results in the "growing" inward or narrowing of a lumen.

    • Stenos (Greek) - Narrow
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Stenosis is most often caused by atherosclerosis but can also be caused by calcification, inflammation, ischemia, or neoplasm
  • Stenosis of certain blood vessels can result in turbulent blood flow, causing murmurs, such as a carotid artery bruit or renal artery bruit
  • Spinal stenosis can lead to neurological issues in extremities depending on the level of the spine
  • Synarthrosis

    A "joint" which is "joined" together and virtually immobile.

    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Arthron (Greek) - Pertaining to the Joint
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Immovably fixed joined between bones by fibrous tissue
  • Synchondrosis

    A nonpathological "condition" in which bones are "joined" to one another by a piece of "cartilage" or ligament.

    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Chondros (Greek) - Cartilage
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Cartilage joint between two bones
  • These are sometimes at growth plates before the cartilaginous material has been ossified
  • The place where the first rib meets the sternum is via a piece of cartilage and thus a synchondrosis
  • Syndesmosis

    A "condition or disease" of the slightly moveable joint where the tibia and fibula are connected "with" a "band" of tissue or ligament.

    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Desmos (Greek) - Bond, Chain, Fastening
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Damage to this is called a high ankle sprain
  • Thrombosis

    The "condition" of "blood clot" formation in the circulatory system.

    • Thrombos (Greek) - Clump of blood, clot of blood
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Virchow's famous triad delineates the basics of clot formation: endothelial damage, hypercoagulability, and blood stasis
  • The major complication of thrombosis is the formation of an embolism
  • Thyrotoxicosis

    A "condition" of elevated hormones produced by the "oblong shield" shaped gland, T3 and T4 "poisoning" the body.

    • Thureos (Greek) - Oblong shield
    • Toxikon (Greek) - Poison
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Graves disease, toxic multi or uni nodular goiter, and thyroiditis is the most common cause of thyrotoxicosis
  • Tuberculosis

    A very complex "disease" involving the "small pipes" of the lungs.

    • Tubulus (Latin) - A small pipe
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Classic cause of Caseating granulomas
  • Grows slowly and often uses LowensteinJensen agar
  • Classic clinical presentation of fever, weight loss, hemoptysis, and night sweats
  • Around 460 BC, Hippocrates described Phthisis (Greek for consumption, an old word for pulmonary tuberculosis, as the most widespread disease of the times. Before the Industrial Revolution, in folklore, it was believed that TB was associated with vampires because when one family member died, the other infected members lost health slowly, almost as if the original member was slowly draining the life out of the family members.

  • Medytoons

    MedyQuestion
    • A 33 year old incarcerated man with medical history significant for asthma is brought to the prison physician for complaint of ongoing productive cough. The patient reports that over the last few weeks, he has been coughing vigorously and bringing up green sputum, often times tinged with blood. On further investigation, the patient also discloses that he has lost 10 lbs in the last few weeks since the coughing began, and that he has occasionally been waking up drenched in sweat. Physical exam is significant for productive cough, and rhonchi appreciated over the left lung field. What type of lesion and where is most likely to be present on X-ray of this patient's lung?

    USMLE Step 1

    Xerosis

    A "condition" or "disease" characterized by abnormal "dryness" of the skin, mucus membranes, or conjunctiva. As a result, the skin may have a "withered" appearance.

    • Xeros (Greek) - Dry, whithered
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Essentially just dry skin
  • Associated with dryness, itching, scaling, and cracked skin
  • Commonly occurs on the knuckles, scalp, hands, thighs, arms, and lower legs
  • Adenomyosis

    A "condition" characterized by the presence of ectopic "glandular" tissue (endometrium) in the surrounding "muscle" (myometrium)

    • Adeno (Greek) - Gland
    • Myo (Greek) - Muscle
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Basically a gynecologic condition where the endometrium is present in the myometrium of the uterus. - Endometrial tissue outside the uterus is called endometriosis - The myometrium is the thick, muscular layer of the uterus - The endometrium is the inner lining of the uterus
  • MEDYMOLOGY