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Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
92 terms share this root
Abducens Nerve

The cranial nerve responsible for "leading" the eye "away" from the midline.

  • Ducere (Latin) - To Lead
  • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Cranial Nerve VI
  • Innervates the lateral rectus muscle
  • The abducens nerve or abducens nerve (the sixth cranial nerve, also called the sixth nerve or simply CNVI) is a somatic efferent nerve that, in humans, controls the movement of a single muscle, the lateral rectus muscle of the eye
  • Accessory nerve

    Cranial Nerve XI med because it innervates an "additional thing" to what's in the head, mainly the muscles that raise the shoulders and turn the head.

    • Accessorius (Medieval Latin) - Additiol thing
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Innervates the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles
  • Tested for when examining the cranial nerves by asking the patient to shrug their shoulders and turn their head against resistance
  • Also referred to as the spinal accessory nerve because most of its nerve fibers originate in the spinal cord
  • Accessory obturator nerve

    Small "additional" nerve branch from L3 and L4 spinal nerves to supply the hip joint and pectineus muscle

    • Accessorius (Medieval Latin) - Additiol thing
    • Obturare (Latin) - To stop up, obstructor
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Descends the medial border of psoas major
  • Crosses superior ramus of pubis
  • Only present 30% of the time
  • Anterior interosseous nerve

    A "sinew" that runs 'in between" the "bones" of the forearm supplies the muscles "before or in front of" the forearm.

    • Ante (Latin) - Before
    • Inter (Latin) - Among, between, betwixt, in the midst of
    • Ossis (Latin) - Bone
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • A branch of the median nerve
  • Supplies that deep muscles on the front of the forearm
  • Anterior interosseous syndrome: damage to the anterior interosseous nerve (AIN), a motor branch of the median nerve, causes pain in the forearm and a characteristic weakness of the pincer movement of the thumb and index finger.
  • Auriculotemporal nerve

    The nerve that provides sensory innervation to the "ear" and "temples" or side of the head.

    • Auricula (Latin) - Ear
    • Temporalis (Latin) - Of a time, but for a time, pertaining to the temples.
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • A branch of the mandibular nerve (V3 a branch of the fifth cranial nerve) that runs with the superficial temporal artery and vein
  • This nerve is frequently injured in temporomandibular joint surgery
  • Pain from parotitis is carried by the auriculotemporal nerve to the brain
  • Axillary nerve

    Nerve of the brachial plexus that primarily supplies the "shoulder".

    • Axillaris (Latin) - Pertaining to the armpit or shoulder
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Supplies the deltoid, teres minor, and the long head of the triceps brachii.
  • Injured during anterior dislocation of humerus and fractured surgical neck of humerus
  • Presents as flattened deltoid, loss of arm abduction at shoulder, loss of sensation over deltoid muscle and lateral arm
  • Buccal branch of the facial nerve

    These are the "branches or twigs" that arise from the nerve "of the face" that supply the "cheek".

    • Bucca (Latin) - Cheek
    • Branche (Latin) - Branch, bough, twig; branch of family
    • Facialis (Latin) - Of the face
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • There are three buccal branches which supply motor innervation to various parts of the face before the eyes
  • The superficial branch supplies the superficial muscles of the face
  • The deep branch supplies the zygomaticus and quadratus labii superioris
  • The lower deep branch supplies the bacciform and orbicularis oris
  • Test nerve by asking patient to puff out cheeks and smile and show teeth
  • Also called the infraorbital branches
  • Buccal nerve

    The sensory "nerve" of the "cheek".

    • Bucca (Latin) - Cheek
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • A branch of the mandibular nerve which provides sensory information from the skin of the cheek and second and third molar teeth.
  • Cervical branch of the facial nerve

    Branch of facial nerve that runs by the "pe of the neck"

    • Cervix (Latin) - The Neck, pe of the Neck
    • Branche (Latin) - Branch, bough, twig; branch of family
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Innervates the platysma
  • Travels through the parotid gland but does not innervate it
  • Mnemonic to remember the branches of the Facial Nerve: Two Zebras Bit My Cousin (Temporal, Zygomatic, Buccal, Mandibular, Cervical)
  • Cochlear nerve

    A nerve that carries sound waves from the "snail shell" shaped organ in the inner ear directly to the brain to enable hearing.

    • Cochlea (Latin) - Sil shell, Kokhlias (Greek) sil, screw
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Cranial Nerve VIII
  • Aka auditory nerve, aka acoustic nerve, aka vestibulocochlear nerve
  • Pathway: axons of the cochlear nerve (aka spiral ganglion) from the hair cells of the cochlea go to the ipsilateral (same side) cochlear nucleus in the medulla of the brain stem (first synapse) >it then goes to the inferior colliculus in the midbrain (second synapse) > it then goes to the medial geniculate nucleus in the thalamus (third synapse) > it filly arrives at the primary auditory cortex in the temporal lobe of the brain.
  • Common fibular nerve

    The "common" nerve of the leg that innervates the structures attached to the bone resembling a "clasp or buckle" in conjunction with the tibia.

    • Communis (Latin) - In Common, Shared by all or many, Familiar, Not Specific
    • Fibula (Latin) - Clasp, buckle, brooch
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Derived from the dorsal branches of L4S2
  • It functions in dorsiflexion and eversion of the foot
  • Also known as the common peroneal nerve
  • Damage leads to foot drop, impaired dorsiflexion and eversion
  • The most common cause of peroneal neuropathy is habitual leg crossing and trauma to the lateral leg. A common yoga kneeling exercise has been linked to a variant called yoga foot drop.
  • Deep fibular nerve

    The branch of the common fibular nerve (med for resembling a "clasp" made with the tibia), that runs "deeper" into the leg.

    • Deop (Old English) - Deep Water, Depth
    • Fibula (Latin) - Clasp, buckle, brooch
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • One of the terminal branches of the common fibular nerve, the deep fibular nerve courses in the anterior compartment of the leg and is composed of nerve roots L4 and L5. It innervates the anterior compartment of the leg as well as some of the intrinsic muscles of the foot while supplying the small area between the 1st and 2nd toe.
  • Dorsal scapular nerve

    A nerve that originates in the branchial plexus and innervates the rhomboid muscles (move the "scapula" towards the "spine") and levator scapulae muscle (elevates the "scapula").

    • Dorsum (Latin) - Back
    • Scapulae (Latin) - Shoulder blades
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Nerve
  • Brachial plexus
  • Muscle
  • Scapula
  • Rhomboid
  • Spine
  • Ethmoidal nerves

    The nerve that innervates the cells of the "sieve" like bone of the skull.

    • Ethmos (Greek) - A Sieve
    • Eidos (Greek) - Form, Resemblance or Shape, Likeness
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Branch from CN V1 that supplies sensation to ethmoidal cells and sal septum.
  • External laryngeal nerve

    The "outside" branch of the superior "laryngeal" nerve that innervates the cricothyroid muscle.

    • Externus (Latin) - Outward, Outside
    • Laryngeus (Latin) - Relating to the larynx, the upper windpipe
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Tenses vocal cords to increase pitch
  • Commonly injured during thyroidectomy and cricothyrotomy
  • Facial nerve

    Cranial nerve "cord" VII "of the face" that contains motor, sensory and parasympathetic fibers.

    • Facialis (Latin) - Of the face
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Taste for anterior 2/3 of tongue
  • Upper motor neuron lesion causes contralateral facial paralysis but spares forehead
  • Lower motor neuron lesion causes ipsilateral forehead and facial paralysis
  • Femoral nerve

    Lower extremity nerve "cord" from L2L4 in the "thigh."

    • Femur (Latin) - Thigh, but applide to the one of the upper leg
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Motor lesion presents as impaired thigh flexion and impaired leg extension
  • Sensation over the anterior and medial aspects of the thigh, medial shin, and arch of the foot
  • Genitofemoral nerve

    A "cord" which carries sensory and motor information from the "thigh" and the "external organs" "pertaining to birth"

    • Genitalis (Latin) - Pertaining to generation or birth, Exterl sexual organs
    • Femur (Latin) - Thigh, but applide to the one of the upper leg
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Controls the cremasteric reflex
  • Composed of L1L2 of the lumbar plexus
  • Sensation of the upper anterior thigh and scrotum
  • The me of this nerve comes from its terminal branches, the genital nerve that innervates the cremasteric reflex, and the femoral nerve that supplies sensory innervation to the anterior thigh.
  • Glossopharyngeal nerve

    The 9th cranial nerve that innervates the "tongue" and "throat/ windpipe"

    • Glossa (Greek) - Tongue
    • Pharynx (Greek) - Throat, windpipe
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Taste and touch sensation from the posterior 1/3 of the tongue
  • Salivation of the parotids
  • Monitors carotid body and sinus
  • Motor innervation to the stylopharyngeus
  • Greater auricular nerve

    The "big" nerve of the "ear."

  • A nerve composed of C2 and C3 spinal nerves that contains fibers for sensory innervation of the parotid glands, mastoid process, and outer
  • Greater petrosal nerve

    A branch of the facial nerve that innervates the lacrimal gland

    • Great (Old English) - Big
    • Petrosus (Latin) - Stony, rocky
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
    Hypoglossal nerve

    The "cord" that runs "under" the "tongue"

    • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
    • Glossa (Greek) - Tongue
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Cranial nerve XII
  • Innervates extrinsic muscles of the tongue
  • Inferior alveolar nerve

    The nerve that runs "below" the "hollowed out space" of the jaw.

    • Inferus (Latin) - Lower Down, Below
    • Alveus (Latin) - Any hollowed out structure
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Third branch of the trigeminal nerve
  • Inferior gluteal nerve

    The nerve that innervates the "lower" muscle of the "buttocks".

    • Inferus (Latin) - Lower Down, Below
    • Gloutos (Greek) - Buttocks
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • A nerve that innervates the gluteus maximus muscle, allowing for the hip to extend the thigh, needed for actions such as climbing stairs
  • Injury due to posterior hip dislocation > loss of hip extension
  • Inferior palpebral nerve

    The nerve that innervates the skin and conjunctiva of the "lower" "eyelid"

    • Inferus (Latin) - Lower Down, Below
    • Palpebra (Latin) - Eyelid
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
    Infraorbital nerve

    Derived from the maxillary nerve after it enters the infraorbital canal, which is located in the "lower" aspect of the orbit.

    • Infra (Latin) - Under, below, further on
    • Orbis (Latin) - A ring or circle
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Provides innervation to the lower eyelid, upper lip, and part of the sal vestibule
  • Exits the infraorbital foramen of the maxilla
  • Intercostal nerves

    Eleven nerves that arise from thoracic spinal nerves and that run along the lower border of each "rib." Even though they run close to ribs, they are technically "in between" the ribs.

    • Inter (Latin) - Among, between, betwixt, in the midst of
    • Costa (Latin) - A Rib
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Their function differs slightly based on their location, but they primarily innervate the abdominal wall and skin
  • Internal laryngeal nerve

    The "inward" branch of the superior laryngeal nerve. It gets its me because it is located in the "larynx."

    • Internus (Latin) - Interl, inside, inward, within
    • Laryngeus (Latin) - Relating to the larynx, the upper windpipe
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • This nerve pierces the thyrohyoid membrane along with the superior laryngeal artery and provides sensory innervation to the epiglottis, larynx, base of the tongue, and above the vocal cords
  • Irritation of this nerve by trapped food particles can cause uncontrollable coughing.
  • Lacrimal nerve

    The nerve that controls the lacrimal gland which in turn controls "tears."

    • Lacrimare (Latin) - Weep, tear
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • This nerve is the smallest of the three branches of the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve. It provides sensory innervations for the lacrimal gland, conjunctiva, and the lateral upper eyelids.
  • Lateral pectoral nerve

    The "side" "cord" in the "breast"

    • Latus (Latin) - The side
    • Pectus (Latin) - Breast
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Innervates pectoralis major
  • Lateral plantar nerve

    The "side" "cord" in the "sole of the foot."

    • Latus (Latin) - The side
    • Planta (Latin) - Sole of the foot
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Similar course as the ulnar nerve in the hand
  • Innervates sole, abductor digiti minimi muscle
  • Lateral pterygoid nerve

    A "side" "cord" in the face "resembling" a "wing."

    • Latus (Latin) - The side
    • Pteryx (Greek) - Wing
    • Eidos (Greek) - Form, Resemblance or Shape, Likeness
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Innervates pterygoideus externus
  • Lingual nerve

    The nerve that innervates the "tongue."

    • Lingua (Latin) - Tongue
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • General somatic afferent innervation of the anterior 2/3 of the tongue
  • Commonly injured in wisdom tooth surgery
  • Long ciliary nerve

    A "long or extended" nerve of the "eyelashes."

    • Longus (Latin) - Long
    • Ciliaris (Latin) - Pertaining to Eyelashes, upper eyelid
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Provides sensory innervation to the eyeball
  • Innervates the dilator pupillae muscle which dilates the cornea
  • Long thoracic nerve

    A "long or extended" nerve that runs down the "chest."

    • Longus (Latin) - Long
    • Thorax (Greek) - Chest, breastplate
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Damage results in winged scapula
  • Damaged in radical mastectomies involving removal of axillary lymph nodes
  • Lumbar splanchnic nerves

    "Cords" extending from the "loin" to the "internal organs."

    • Lumbus (Latin) - The loin
    • Splanchnon (Greek) - Viscera or interl organs
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
    Mandibular nerve

    The "Cord" that controls the "jaw".

  • The third branch of the trigeminal nerve (CN V3)
  • Sensory innervation to the buccal mucosa, anterior 2/3 of the tongue, mandibular teeth, auricula, skin of the temporal region, lower lip, and chin
  • Motor innervation to the mylohyoid, anterior belly of the digastric, tensor tympani, tensor veli palatini, masseter, temporalis, medial pterygoid, and lateral pterygoid
  • Marginal mandibular branch of facial nerve

    Branch of the "facial" nerve that runs down the "margin" of the "jaw".

  • Innervates the depressor labii inferioris, depressor anguli oris, and mentalis
  • Commonly injured during excision of the submandibular salivary gland
  • Masseteric nerve

    "Nerve" involved in "chewing"

    • Maseter (Greek) - Chewer
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Off the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve (CN V3) that gives filament to the temporomandibular joint
  • Maxillary nerve

    The second branch of the trigeminal "nerve" (CN V2) to the upper jaw.

    • Maxilla (Latin) - Upper jaw
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Sensory innervation to the maxillary, sal cavity, sinuses, palate, and midface
  • Medial cutaneous nerve

    "Nerve" derived from the "medial" cord of the brachial plexus that provides sensory innervation to medial "skin" of the arm.

    • Medius (Latin) - In the middle
    • Cutis (Latin) - Skin
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
    Medial pectoral nerve

    "Nerve" derived from the "medial" cord of the brachial plexus that innervates "breast".

    • Medius (Latin) - In the middle
    • Pectus (Latin) - Breast
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Innervates the pectoralis minor and pectoralis major
  • Medial plantar nerve

    "Nerve" derived from the "medial" cord of the brachial plexus that innervates the "sole of the foot".

    • Medius (Latin) - In the middle
    • Planta (Latin) - Sole of the foot
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Sensory innervation the sole of the foot
  • Motor innervation to the abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum brevis, flexor hallucis brevis, and the first lumbrical.
  • Medial pterygoid nerve

    "Wing" "shaped" branch of the trigeminal nerve (CN V3) that innervates the tensor tympani, tensor veli palatini, and "medial" pterygoid muscle.

    • Medius (Latin) - In the middle
    • Pteryx (Greek) - Wing
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
    Median nerve

    A "nerve" toward the "middle" of the brachial plexus.

    • Medialis (Latin) - Middle
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Sensory innervation to the palmar side and il beds of the thumb, index and middle finger, and half the ring finger as well as the lateral part of the palm
  • Motor innervation to the proctor teres, flexor carpi radialis, palmaris longus, flexor digitorum superficialis, lateral of the flexor digitorum profundus, flexor pollicis longus, proctor quadratus, first and second lumbrical, opponens pollicis, abductor pollicis brevis, and flexor pollicis brevis
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome, ape hand deformity, pope's blessing, median claw, thenar atrophy
  • Musculocutaneous nerve

    "Nerve" that controls "muscles" and "skin" sensation of the arm.

    • Musculus (Latin) - Little mouse [the shape and movement of some muscles were thought to resemble mice]
    • Cutis (Latin) - Skin
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Branch of brachial plexus composing of roots C5, C6, C7
  • Arises from lateral cord
  • Innervates coracobrachialis and biceps brachii
  • Sensory portion goes to lateral forearm
  • Mylohyoid nerve

    Branch of mandibular "nerve" that innervates mylohyoid muscle and anterior belly of digastric muscle used in "grinding" of teeth.

    • Myle (Greek) - Grinder, A mill
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
    Nasociliary nerve

    Branch of ophthalmic "nerve" responsible for afferent signal of corneal reflex. Runs near the "nose" and interacts with "eyelash" shaped cilia in the nose.

    • Nasus (Latin) - Nose
    • Ciliaris (Latin) - Pertaining to Eyelashes, upper eyelid
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
    Nasopalatine nerve

    Branch of maxillary "nerve" that controls the "nose" and "throat" and supplies the front upper teeth.

    • Nasus (Latin) - Nose
    • Palatum (Greek) - Roof of the mouth, of the Palace
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Target of nerve block for dental work on upper incisors
  • Nervous

    Relating to nerves which look like thin "cords".

    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
    Obturator nerve

    The nerve, "cord," arising from L2L4 that supplies the medial aspect of the thigh and leg. Its initial course is "obstructed" by the psoas muscle.

    • Obturare (Latin) - To stop up, obstructor
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Innervates external obturator, gracilis, adductor longus/brevis
  • Obturator nerve block
  • Oculomotor nerve

    Cranial nerve III is responsible for "producing movement" "of the eyes" every direction except lateral and inferomedial.

    • Oculus (Greek) - Eye
    • Motor (Latin) - Producing movement
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Palsy results in a down and out pupil
  • Pupillary reflex
  • Olfactory nerve

    Cranial nerve I, which is the "cord" that carries afferent information about "smell" to the brain.

    • Olfacere (Latin) - To smell
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Olfactory epithelium
  • Technically it is a tract not a nerve since it does not exit the CNS
  • Ophthalmic nerve

    It is a branch, "cord" of cranial nerve V that carries sensory fibers to the "eye" and area around it.

  • Enters the orbit via the superior orbital fissure
  • CN V1
  • Optic nerve

    The cranial nerve that acts as a "cord" to transmit visual information from the retina of the "eye" to the brain.

  • CN II
  • Pupillary reflex
  • Palatine nerves

    Nerves with different "cords" to the "roof of the mouth," soft palate, tonsil, and lining membrane of the sal cavity

    • Palatum (Greek) - Roof of the mouth, of the Palace
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • From maxillary nerve
  • Sphenopalatine ganglion
  • Perforating cutaneous nerve

    A "piercing" of the muscle by a nerve in order to supply the "overlying skin."

    • Perforare (Latin) - To bore or pierce through
    • Cutis (Latin) - Skin
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Cutaneous sensory innervation supplying skin over gluteus maximus muscle
  • Gluteus maximus muscle
  • Arises from pudendal nerve in most people
  • Often absent in people, with its place being taken by posterior cutaneous nerve of thigh
  • Pharyngeal branch of vagus nerve

    A "branch" of the nerve "that wanders" through the body that goes to the "throat."

    • Pharynx (Greek) - Throat, windpipe
    • Vagus (Latin) - Wandering
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Branch of the vagus nerve going to the pharynx
  • Innervates muscles of the pharynx and soft palate, except the stylopharyngeus and tensor veli palatini
  • Pharyngeal nerve

    A "nerve" that innervates the "throat."

    • Pharynx (Greek) - Throat, windpipe
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • A nerve off of the maxillary part of the of the trigeminal nerve
  • Sensory innervation to the nasopharynx
  • Phrenic nerve

    A nerve that innervates the "diaphragm" muscle.

    • Phren (Greek) - Diaphragm or mind
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Innervated by C3,4,5
  • Irritation of the diaphragm can be referred to above the shoulder
  • Important nerve in the control of breathing
  • Posterior scrotal nerves

    Posterior labial in women. Two nerves (medial and lateral), come from peroneal nerve which comes from the pudendal nerve. Comes atomically from "behind" to serve the "skin" of the "scrotum"

    • Posterior (Latin) - After, later, behind
    • Scrotum (Latin) - Scrotum, a skin, a hide
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
    Pudendal nerve

    Responsible for sensation of "external genitalia" and peroneal region.

    • Pudendum (Latin) - Thing to be ashamed of, the exterl genitals
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Pudendal nerve block is a common procedure performed during childbirth
  • Pudendum in Latin means 'parts to be ashamed of'
  • Radial nerve

    Nerve that runs along the radius bone

    • Radius (Latin) - Staff, spoke, ray
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Supplies triceps, posterior forearm muscles, and cutaneous sensation of the dorsum of the hand
  • Branches off the posterior cord of brachial plexus
  • Saturday night palsy is a radial nerve injury that can result in wrist drop
  • Midshaft humeral fractures can damage the radial nerve
  • Recurrent laryngeal nerve

    The branch of the vagus nerve that "runs back" or "returns" "to the larynx".

    • Recurrere (Latin) - Run back, hasten back, return
    • Laryngeus (Latin) - Relating to the larynx, the upper windpipe
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Hoarseness, Pancoast tumor, damage during surgery
  • Supplies all intrinsic muscles of larynx (except cricothyroid). Emerges at level of aorta then rises on sides of trachea up to larynx
  • Described by Roman physician Galen, who found pigs with this nerve severed were unable to squeal.
  • Saphenous nerve

    A branch/"cord" of the femoral nerve that "manifests" when it is varicose.

    • Saphenes (Greek) - Clear or manifest
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Provides sensory innervation to the front of the knee cap
  • Travels alongside the great saphenous vein behind the medial malleolus
  • Sciatic nerve

    Longest and widest nerve or "cord" in the body, originating in the hip, that supplies muscular and sensory function to the lower limb

  • Straight leg raise test
  • Spinal disk herniation
  • Short ciliary nerves

    "small" "fibers that convey impulses from the brain and body" "near the eyes" that are both sympathetic and parasympathetic

    • Sceort (Old English) - Short, not long, not tall, brief
    • Ciliaris (Latin) - Pertaining to Eyelashes, upper eyelid
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Branches of the ciliary ganglion that contain both sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers that are responsible for innervating the ciliary muscle, iris, and cornea.
  • Damage may result in mydriasis
  • Sphenopalatine nerves

    A "cord" of nerve cells located between the "roof" of the mouth and the "wedge"shaped sphenoid bone

    • Sphen (Greek) - Wedge
    • Palatum (Greek) - Roof of the mouth, of the Palace
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Branch of the maxillary nerve
  • Also known as the pterygopalatine nerves
  • Subcostal nerve

    A "cord" of nerve cells which is "below" the "ribs"

    • Sub (Latin) - Under, below, beneath, at the foot of
    • Costa (Latin) - A Rib
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Nerve that originates from the 12th thoracic nerve and runs along the lower border of the 12th rib. Responsible for innervating some muscles of the abdomen and gives off sensory fibers to the lower abdomen and gluteal region.
  • Runs along lower border of 12th rib
  • Suboccipital nerve

    A "cord" of nerve cells "below" the "base" of the skull

    • Sub (Latin) - Under, below, beneath, at the foot of
    • Occiput (Latin) - Back of the skull
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • The posterior branch (dorsal primary ramus) of C1
  • Innervates muscles of the suboccipital triangle such as the rectus capitis, posterior major, obliquus capitis superior and inferior and rectus capitis posterior minor
  • Exits the spinal cord at the atlas
  • Superficial fibular nerve

    A "cord" of nerves near the "surface" of the fibula, or "bone resembling a clasp, like a modern safety pin"

    • Superficialis (Latin) - Near the surface
    • Fibula (Latin) - Clasp, buckle, brooch
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • The superficial fibular (superficial peroneal) nerve is a branch of the common peroneal nerve, which courses near the surface of the later calf. It innervates the fibularis longus and fibularis brevis and gives sensation to the dorsum of the foot except the area between the big toe and second toe.
  • Injury to the superficial fibular nerve results in inability to evert the foot and loss of sensation of the dorsal aspect of the foot
  • Superior cardiac nerve

    A "cord" of nerve cells that innervates the "heart" from "above"

    • Superior (Latin) - Higher, Above
    • Kardia (Greek) - Heart
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • The superior cardiac nerve arises from the superior cervical ganglion and courses down the neck behind the common carotid artery to innervate the heart. The right nerve courses towards the back of the aortic arch and joins the deep cardiac plexus, while the left nerve joins the superficial part of the cardiac plexus.
  • Innervates the heart
  • Superior gluteal nerve

    A "cord" of nerve cells "above" the "buttocks"

    • Superior (Latin) - Higher, Above
    • Gloutos (Greek) - Buttocks
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • The superior gluteal nerve originates from the sacral plexus and innervates the gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, and tensor fasciae latae. It is located above the inferior gluteal nerve. It courses through the greater sciatic foramen above the piriformis.
  • Trendelenburg sign occurs when the nerve is damaged
  • Superior laryngeal nerve

    The "upper" nerve that innervates the "upper windpipe, or larynx".

    • Superior (Latin) - Higher, Above
    • Laryngeus (Latin) - Relating to the larynx, the upper windpipe
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Branch of the vagus nerve
  • Injured during thyroidectomy
  • Divides into the external and internal laryngeal nerves
  • Superior lateral cutaneous nerve of arm

    Nerve that supplies the "skin" of the "upper" "outer" area of the arm and right under the shoulder

    • Superior (Latin) - Higher, Above
    • Latus (Latin) - The side
    • Cutis (Latin) - Skin
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Originates from axillary nerve
  • Supraclavicular nerves

    Nerves arising from the 3rd and 4th cervical roots coursing "above" the "clavicle" and next to the sternocleidomastoid muscle.

    • Supra (Latin) - Above, over, beyond, on the upper side
    • Clavicula (Latin) - Small Key, vinetendril
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Branches of the 3rd and 4th cervical nerves
  • Supraorbital nerve

    A nerve that supplies areas "above" the "orbit".

    • Supra (Latin) - Above, over, beyond, on the upper side
    • Orbis (Latin) - A ring or circle
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Supplies the frontal sinus, conjunctiva, and skin of the forehead
  • Passes through the supraorbital foramen
  • Suprascapular nerve

    A nerve coursing "above" the "scapula".

    • Supra (Latin) - Above, over, beyond, on the upper side
    • Scapulae (Latin) - Shoulder blades
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Innervates the supraspinatus and infraspinatus
  • Arising from the 5th/6th cervical roots (the upper trunk of the brachial plexus)
  • Supratrochlear nerve

    A nerve "above" the "pulley"like superior oblique muscle.

    • Supra (Latin) - Above, over, beyond, on the upper side
    • Trochlea (Latin) - Pulley, a small wheel
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Supplies the lower forehead, conjunctiva, skin of eyelid
  • Branch of the frontal nerve
  • Trochlea means pulley in latin
  • Therefore supratrochlear means above the trochlea. The pulley in this case is the pulley of the superior oblique. This nerve is found above this area.
  • Sural nerve

    A nerve that provides sensory innervation to the "calf".

    • Sura (Latin) - Calf
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Used in nerve biopsy and nerve grafts
  • Temporal branches of the facial nerve

    "Branches" of the "facial" nerve supply the muscles of the temporal region.

    • Temporalis (Latin) - Of a time, but for a time, pertaining to the temples.
    • Facialis (Latin) - Of the face
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • This nerve can be tested by asking a patient to frown and wrinkle forehead
  • It acts at the efferent limb of the corneal reflex
  • It supplies the frontalis, orbicularis oculi, and other facial muscles
  • Third occipital nerve

    A "nerve" branch of the third cervical nerve innervating the "back of the head".

    • Occiput (Latin) - Back of the skull
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • The third occipital nerve innervates the C23 zygapophyseal joint. This joint refers pain to the occipital, frontotemporal, and periorbital regions the third occipital headache
  • Thoracic splanchnic nerves

    Group of "nerves" that arise from the sympathetic trunk in the "chest" and provide sympathetic innervation to the abdominal "visceral organs".

    • Thorax (Greek) - Chest, breastplate
    • Splanchnon (Greek) - Viscera or interl organs
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • In general, the greater splanchnic nerves (T5T9) innervate the foregut while the lesser splanchnic nerves (T9T12) innervate the midgut, and the least splanchnic nerves (T12L2) innervate the renal ganglia.
  • Thoracodorsal nerve

    "Nerve" (C6C8) that arises from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus and innervates the latissimus dorsi muscle in the "back" of the "chest".

    • Thorax (Greek) - Chest, breastplate
    • Dorsum (Latin) - Back
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • The thoracodorsal nerve innervates the latissimus dorsi, a muscle of the back that extends, adducts, and internally rotates the arm.
  • Tibial nerve

    A large "nerve" passing down the posterior thigh and leg, behind the "shinbone".

    • Tibia (Latin) - Shinbone, Flute, Pipe
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • TIP toe with the tibial nerve (Tibial nerve is responsible for Inversion and Plantar flexion of the foot)
  • Trigeminal nerve

    The cranial nerve that has "three" branches "born at the same time" from it to innervate various parts of the head.

    • Tri (Greek) - Three
    • Geminus (Latin) - Born at the same birth
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Cranial Nerve V
  • Receives sensation from the face and provides motor innervation to the muscles of mastication
  • Receives tactile sensation from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue
  • Associated with trigeminal neuralgia
  • Med literally thrice twinned. There are two trigeminal nerves, one on each side of the pons, that have three major branches: the ophthalmic (V1), the maxillary (V2), and the mandibular (V3).
  • Trochlear nerve

    Cranial nerve 4, which innervates the superior oblique muscle of the eye. Superior oblique acts like a "pulley" when moving the eye.

    • Trochlea (Latin) - Pulley, a small wheel
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Lesion to this nerve can cause vertical diplopia, often manifesting while walking up or down stairs
  • Tympanic nerve

    Sensory to middle ear, containing ear "drum."

    • Tympanon (Greek) - A drum
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Epidermodysplasia verruciformis
  • Also known as the tympanic nerve of Jacobson
  • Ulnar nerve

    Nerve derived from the medial cord of the brachial plexus and around the "elbow" to supply medial forearm.

    • Ulna (Latin) - Elbow
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Damage to the hook of hamate in the hand can damage the ulnar nerve
  • Guyon Cal Syndrome occurs due to compression of the ulnar nerve
  • Damage to the distal ulnar nerve can result in the ulnar claw
  • Vagus nerve

    "Wandering" nerve, med for its many branches throughout body.

    • Vagus (Latin) - Wandering
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Efferent limb or motor limb of the Gag Reflex
  • Vagal stimulation of the heart leads to a decreased heart rate and contractility
  • Vagal stimulation of the GI tract increases digestion
  • Vagotomy of the stomach is performed to decrease the amount of gastric acid in patients with GERD or peptic ulcers
  • Called the pneumogastric nerve because of its innervation of the stomach and lungs
  • Vestibular nerve

    Transmit equilibrium information from the "entrance" of ear cal.

    • Vestibulum (Latin) - Forecourt, entrance
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Division of cranial nerve VIII that arises in the vestibular ganglion at the entrance of the ear canal and provides information about equilibrium
  • Vestibulocochlear nerve

    Cranial nerve or "cord" from the cochlea which is a "silk shell" looking organ.

    • Vestibulum (Latin) - Forecourt, entrance
    • Cochlea (Latin) - Sil shell, Kokhlias (Greek) sil, screw
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Cranial nerve VIII transmits sound and information about equilibrium/balance
  • Previously referred to as the auditory or acoustic nerve but vestibulocochlear nerve is now preferred since it indicates the nerves function in equilibrium as well as sound
  • MEDYMOLOGY