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Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
28 terms share this root

Catecholamine that acts as both a hormone and a neurotransmitter produced "around or near" the "kidneys".

  • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
  • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
  • Secreted by adrenal gland medulla and sympathetic nerve fibers
  • Treats aphylaxis, open angle glaucoma, and hypotension
  • Stimulates glycogenolysis
  • Inhibits glycogenesis
  • Glomerulonephritis

    "Inflammation" of the "balllike structure", or small vessels of the "kidneys".

    • Glomus (Latin) - Ballshaped mass
    • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Leads to blood and/or excess protein in the urine.
  • Hydronephrosis

    "Pathological" accumulation of "water" in the "kidney."

    • Hydro (Greek) - Water
    • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Swelling of the kidney with urine due to a blockage to the outflow of urine or as a result of reflux
  • May be caused by a kidney stone, a tumor in or near the ureter, enlarged prostate, or vesicoureteral reflux
  • May lead to UTI
  • Commonly presents as flank pain
  • Diagnosed with ultrasound or CT
  • Interstitial nephritis

    "Inflammation" of the space that "stands" "amongst" or throughout the "kidney", or the space between the tubules.

    • Inter (Latin) - Among, between, betwixt, in the midst of
    • Sistere (Latin) - To stand
    • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Most commonly caused by analgesics and antibiotics (methicillin)
  • Lipoid nephrosis

    A "kidney" "disease" with the "likeness" of "fat."

    • Lipos (Greek) - Fat
    • Eidos (Greek) - Form, Resemblance or Shape, Likeness
    • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Also known as minimal change disease
  • Most common in young children
  • Causes edema in feet and legs and proteinuria
  • May see fats in the blood in order to thicken it due to decreased oncotic pressure with protein loss
  • Treat with corticosteroids
  • This disease is med because of the elevated fat levels in the blood. The liver makes more fat to dump into circulation to increase the oncotic pressure lost via proteinuria.
  • Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis

    "Inflammation" of the "kidneys" due to "growth" of the "membrane".

  • Nephrotic: Type I tramtrack appearance due to mesangial ingrowth
  • Type II dense deposits Nephritic: Type I HBV, HCV
  • Type II C3 nephritic factor
  • Membranous nephropathy

    "Disease" of the basement "membrane" of the "kidney".

  • LM capillary and GBM thickening
  • EM spike and dome with subepithelial deposits
  • IF granular
  • Associated with SLE
  • Mesonephric duct

    Embryological structures from the "middle" of the future "kidneys" that differentiates into seminal vesicles, epididymis, ejaculatory duct, ductus deferens

    • Mesos (Greek) - Middle, in the middle, in between
    • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
  • Becomes the Wolffian duct
  • Described by Caspar Friedrich Wolff in 1750s, a German physiologist.
  • Mesonephros

    Embryological "middle" portion of "kidney"

    • Mesos (Greek) - Middle, in the middle, in between
    • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
  • Functions as interim kidney for 1st trimester
  • Later contributes to male genital system
  • Metanephric mesenchyme

    Embryological origin of glomerulus through "fusion" of distal convoluted tubules in the "midsts of" the "middle" of "kidneys".

    • Meta (English) - Beyond, in the midst of
    • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
    • Mesos (Greek) - Middle, in the middle, in between
    • Enkhuma (Greek) - Infusion

    Permanent tissue "beyond" the "kidneys" appearing in 5th week of gestation, gives rise to ureteric bud, metanephric mesenchyme.

    • Meta (English) - Beyond, in the midst of
    • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
    Nephritic syndrome

    "Kidney" disorder due to inflammation. Characterized by blood and RBC "running" in the urine "with" protein loss.

    • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
  • Red urine possibly following an infection or other illness
  • Edema is due to salt retention
  • Nephritis

    "Inflammatory" disease of the "kidneys". Can result in either Nephrotic or Nephritic syndromes

    • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease

    Wilm's tumor "growth", the most common "kidney" cancer in children. Single sided "budding" flank mass in a child that does not cross the midline.

    • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
    • Blastos (Greek) - Germ, sprout, bud or budding, immature
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • WAGR complex: Wilms' Tumor, Aniridia, GU malformation, Retardation
  • The second most common palpated mass in a child behind a distended urinary bladder
  • Nephrogenesis

    Growth and development "originating" from the "kidneys", the lack of which causes oligohydramnios and poor lung development.

    • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
  • Potter's sequence
  • Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

    Massive production of dilute urine and "prudent" thirst "originating" from "kidneys" that can "not" respond to ADH that "goes through" them.

    • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
    • Diabainein (Greek) - Go Through
    • In (Unknown) - To carry off by evacuation
    • Sapidus (Latin) - Taste or flavor
  • Lithium side effect
  • Polyuria and polydipsia that does not respond to desmopressin
  • Nephrolithiasis

    "Inflammation" caused by "kidney" "stones".

  • Colicky flank pain
  • Hematuria without RBC casts
  • In descending order of frequency, Kidney stones can be composed of Calcium, Ammonium/Magnesium/Phosphate , Uric Acid, or Cystine
  • Commonly caused by dehydration
  • Nephron

    The functional unit of the "kidney". Traces the path of urine production from the glomeruli to the collecting ducts.


    "Kidney" disease. Diabetic nephropathy is the damage to the kidney that results from nonenzymatic glycosylation of the glomerular basement membrane, leading to loss of protein in the urine.

    • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
    • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling

    A condition in which the "kidney" "falls" or drops into the pelvis upon the individual standing.

  • Mostly asymptomatic, but can present as a colicky flank pain, nausea, vomiting, hypertension, proteinuria or hematuria. Believed to be caused by a lack of stabilizing connective tissue, allowing the kidney to float free in the abdominal cavity. Treatment is Nephropexy , and is reserved for symptomatic patients.
  • Nephrotic syndrome

    "Kidney" "disease" "with" loss of blood proteins "running through" the filtration barrier.

    • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
  • Frothy urine
  • Thromboembolism
  • Infection
  • Edema is due to loss of capillary oncotic pressure
  • Nephrotoxin

    "Poisoning" agent that causes damage to the "kidneys". Can manifest as tubular necrosis, inflammation, or obstruction.

  • Common side effect of medications including NSAIDs and numerous antimicrobials
  • Any renal symptoms following medication use
  • Norepinephrine

    Neurotransmitter released from poststyptic sympathetic fibers. It is synthesized in the adrenal glands "above" the "kidney."

    • Nor (Early English) - From Norwalk, Ohio where an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred from which the virus was isolated
    • Nor (English) - Normal
    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
    • Ine (Latin) - Resembling in ture
  • Fightorflight response
  • Released from adrenal medulla
  • Made from dopamine
  • Paramesonephric duct

    Ducts that run "along" the "middle" section of the embryological structure that will give rise to the "kidneys"

    • Para (Greek) - Along, side, beside, near, against, contrary to
    • Mesos (Greek) - Middle, in the middle, in between
    • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
  • Paired ducts of embryogenesis that form the Fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, and upper 1/3 of the vagi in females
  • Müllerian inhibitory factor secreted by Sertoli cells causes degeneration of the paramesonephric duct
  • Perinephric

    "Surrounding" the "kidney."

    • Peri (Greek) - Around, about, beyond
    • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
  • Acute pyelonephritis can result in perinephric abscesses
  • Normally, there is fat in the perinephric area.
  • Pronephros

    "First" phase of "kidney" development in embryo, followed by mesonephros.

    • Pro (Greek) - Before, Forward
    • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney

    "Inflammation" of the "renal pelvis" and "kidney", often secondary to infection.

    • Pyelum (Latin) - Rel pelvis
    • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Costovertebral Tenderness, Rel Reflux (Vesicoureteral Reflux)
  • Tubulointerstitial nephritis

    "Inflammation" of the "small pipes" in the "kidneys."

    • Tubulus (Latin) - A small pipe
    • Interstitium (Latin) - Interval, space between
    • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Can be caused by NSAIDs, sulfonamides, penicillins
  • Associated with eosinophilic pyuria
  • Can be asymptomatic