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Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
19 terms share this root
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

A quickly onset "sharp" condition of "inflammation" "spread abroad" or all over the "marrow" of the "brain".

  • Acuere (Latin) - To Sharpen, sharply onset
  • Disseminatus (Latin) - To Spread Abroad
  • Enkephalos (Greek) - Brain, WIthin the Head
  • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
  • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Commonly seen after an infection
  • Caused by autoimmune white matter demyelination
  • Symptoms include fever, headache, seizures, or coma 1 to 3 weeks after an infection
  • Treatment is corticosteroids
  • Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculopathy

    A quickly onset "sharp" condition in which "many" Schwann cells, or "marrow" of the nerve cells are "set aflame" or destroyed at the "root" of the brain.

    • De (Latin) - Away, Off, Down
    • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
    • Polloi (Greek) - Many
    • Radicula (Latin) - Pertaining to the ROOTS (Root, Language, Definition_1, status, user_id)
    • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
  • Variant of GuillainBarre
  • Symmetric ascending weakness beginning in legs
  • Increased CSF protein with normal cell count
  • Papilledema
  • Associated with Campylobacter jejuni and CMV
  • Discovered by Georges Guillain and Jean Barre in 1916 in two soldiers with ascending paralysis.
  • Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)

    A "sharp" or quickly onset cancer of "white" cells from the "marrow or pith" of the bones. The sharp onset does not refer to the time of onset, but the time within the cell development, in this case, even more immature cells.

    • Acuere (Latin) - To Sharpen, sharply onset
    • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
    • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • MPO+
  • Auer rods
  • Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has t(15:17) translocation of retinoic acid receptor
  • Acute monocytic leukemia lacks MPO and affects the gums
  • Acute megakaryoblast leukemia lacks MPO and is associated with Down syndrome
  • Leukemia involving > 20% myeloid cells in the bone marrow
  • Rudolf Virchow described the WBC excess as leukemia, to mean white blood
  • Acute Rarefying Osteomyelitis

    A "sharp" or fast occurring "inflammation" of the "bone" or "marrow" with "pus" formation

  • More commonly found in the "mandible" (lower jaw) than the maxilla (upper jaw)
  • Onset may be so fast that bone resorption (loss) does not occur
  • Occurrence lasting longer than one month is chronic
  • Central pontine myelinolysis

    A "destruction" of cells that make up the coating of nerves, located in the center of the brainstem or "bridge" to the "brain."

    • Centrum (Latin) - Center
    • Pons (Latin) - Bridge
    • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
    • Lysis (Greek) - Destruction, A loosening, setting free, releasing, dissolution
  • Hyponatremia, rapid correction, paralysis
  • Rapid correction (rapid rise in serum tonicity) of hyponatremia can cause damage to the myelin sheath of nerve cells in the pons resulting in acute paralysis, dysphagia, and dysarthria.
  • Osmotic demyelination syndrome is similar to Central pontine myelinolysis except it includes areas outside the pons.
  • Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

    A cancer of the "blood," specifically "originating" from the "white" blood cell line in the bone "marrow," that slowly progresses over a period of "time."

    • Khronikos (Greek) - Of time, concerning time
    • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
    • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Aka chronic granulocytic leukemia, granulocytes, leukemia, Philadelphia chromosome
  • Characterized by unregulated growth of mostly myeloid cells (neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils) in the bone marrow and their accumulation in the blood
  • 90% of CML cases are due to the characteristic chromosomal translocation, the Philadelphia chromosome (translocation between chromosome 9 and chromosome 22).
  • Meningomyelocele

    Herniation of neural "membranes" (meninges) of "brain" and "associated" spinal cord through spinal cal.

    • Meninx (Greek) - Membrane
    • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
    • Cele (Old Irish) - Associate, Companion
  • Chiari II malformation (thoracolumbar meningomyelocele)
  • Chiari II malformation (partially herniated cerebellar tonsils and enlarged 4th ventricle) is always secondary to another deformity
  • In the case of meningomyelocele, the herniated spinal cord and meninges pulls the brain stem caudally, resulting in a partial herniation.
  • Myelencephalon

    Region of the "middle" of the "brain" that develops into the medulla and lower 4th ventricle.

    • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
    • En (Greek) - Within
    • Kephale (Greek) - Head
    Myelin

    Insulating material that surrounds nerves in the "brain" and body allowing for faster saltatory conduction across nodes of Ranvier.

    • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
  • Oligodendrocytes in CNS, Schwann cells in PNS
  • Increases space constant
  • Kids need whole milk so they have enough fat to make myelin. Saltatory from the Latin saltare, meaning to leap.
  • Myeloblast

    Stem cell of "marrow" that "buds" into granulocytes (neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils).

    • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
    • Blastos (Greek) - Germ, sprout, bud or budding, immature
  • AML
  • Myelodysplastic syndrome

    "Improper" "forming" of blood cells associated "with" hypercellular bone "marrow" and pancytopenia.

    • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
    • Dys (Greek) - Bad, Ill, Abnormal, Evil
    • Plasis (Greek) - Molding, Formation
    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
  • Associated with preexisting dysplasia, such as radiation treatment or chemotherapy
  • Can progress to AML
  • Robin Roberts developed myelodysplastic syndrome after her treatment for breast cancer
  • Myelofibrosis

    "Condition" of "inflammation" of bone "marrow" causing decreased RBC production.

    • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
    • Fibra (Latin) - A fiber, filament, entrail
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Tear drop shaped RBC
  • Myeloid

    Cell line "formed" from "marrow" which RBC, platelets, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils arise.

    • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
    • Eidos (Greek) - Form, Resemblance or Shape, Likeness
    Myeloperoxidase

    Neutrophil enzyme from bone "marrow" which produces hypochlorite by "sharply" cutting "through" hydrogen peroxide.

    • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
    • Per (Latin) - Through, by means of
    • Oxys (Greek) - Sharp
    • Ase (English) - Used to form the me of enzymes
  • Deficiency associated with Candida infections
  • PANCA is a myeloperoxidase antibody
  • Osteomyelitis

    Infection causing "inflammation" of the "bone" and "bone marrow".

    • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
    • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • S. aureus is most common cause
  • Salmonella most common cause in sickle cell patients
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a common cause in sexually active individuals
  • Poliomyelitis

    A "inflammation" of the "grey" matter of the spinal cord and "brain."

    • Polios (Greek) - Grey
    • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Causes destruction of anterior horns of spinal cord
  • Can result in flaccid paralysis with lower motor neuron damage
  • Transmitted via fecaloral
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt had poliomyelitis.
  • Poliovirus

    A "poisonous substance" med for infecting the "grey" matter of the spinal cord and "brain".

    • Polios (Greek) - Grey
    • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Causes destruction of anterior horns of spinal cord
  • Can result in flaccid paralysis with lower motor neuron damage
  • Transmitted via fecaloral
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt had poliomyelitis.
  • Sphingomyelin

    A sphingolipid, or "tightly"binding "fat"containing molecule, found in cell membranes, especially that of neurons or in the "brain".

  • Sphingomyelin is heavily increased in NiemannPick disease, in which there is a deficiency in the sphingomyelinase enzyme
  • Neuronal membranes
  • NiemannPick disease
  • Syringomyelia

    A "tube"like cystic cavity involving the spinal cord.

  • Associated with Chiari 1 malformation
  • Usually affects the anterior white commissure
  • Loss of pain and temperature sensation bilaterally
  • MEDYMOLOGY