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Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
26 terms share this root
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia

A "sharp" or quickly onset "mass" of "budding" or immature "white" blood cells in the "blood". The sharp onset does not refer to the time of onset, but the time within the cell development, in this case, even more immature cells.

  • Acuere (Latin) - To Sharpen, sharply onset
  • Lympha (Latin) - Water, clear water, a goddess of water
  • Blastos (Greek) - Germ, sprout, bud or budding, immature
  • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
  • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Leukemia seen more in children under 15 that involves an overproductions of either B or T lymphoblast (>20 % in bone marrow)
  • TdT positive
  • BALL is CD10+, CD19+, CD20+
  • BALL requires prophylactic chemotherapy to the scrotum and CSF
  • TALL is CD10 and presents as a thymic mass in teenagers
  • Increased incidence in Down Syndrome
  • Can be seen with the Philadelphia chromosome mutation
  • Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)

    A "sharp" or quickly onset cancer of "white" cells from the "marrow or pith" of the bones. The sharp onset does not refer to the time of onset, but the time within the cell development, in this case, even more immature cells.

    • Acuere (Latin) - To Sharpen, sharply onset
    • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
    • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • MPO+
  • Auer rods
  • Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has t(15:17) translocation of retinoic acid receptor
  • Acute monocytic leukemia lacks MPO and affects the gums
  • Acute megakaryoblast leukemia lacks MPO and is associated with Down syndrome
  • Leukemia involving > 20% myeloid cells in the bone marrow
  • Rudolf Virchow described the WBC excess as leukemia, to mean white blood
  • Adrenoleukodystrophy

    A disease in which there is an accumulation of very long chain fatty acids in the "white" matter of the CNS and inside the organ "near" the "kidneys" adrenal cortex, leading to "bad" "nourishment" of the tissue.

    • Ad (Latin) - Near, At, To Add On
    • Renes (Latin) - Kidneys
    • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
    • Dys (Greek) - Bad, Ill, Abnormal, Evil
    • Trophe (Greek) - Food, Nourishment
  • Peroxisomal beta oxidation problem
  • Xlinked
  • Adrenal insufficiency
  • Progressive demyelination leading to vegetative state
  • Candidal Leukoplakia

    A "white" oral mucosal lesion

  • A persistent white lesion, characterized by the increased production keratin (parakeratosis) and chronic intraepithelial inflammation with fungal (Thrush) hyphae invading the superficial layers of the epithelium

  • MedyQuestion
    • A 21-year-old female presents to the doctor’s office with a 3-day history of sore throat. She is currently taking an inhaled corticosteroid for her asthma. Her temperature is 99.4°F. A KOD prep taken from a sample of one of the plaques shows budding year. An illustration of her tongue is shown. Which is the most likely course of pharmacotherapy that the doctor will prescribe for this patient.

    USMLE Step 1

    Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

    A cancer of the "blood," specifically "originating" from the "white" blood cell line in the bone "marrow," that slowly progresses over a period of "time."

    • Khronikos (Greek) - Of time, concerning time
    • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
    • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Aka chronic granulocytic leukemia, granulocytes, leukemia, Philadelphia chromosome
  • Characterized by unregulated growth of mostly myeloid cells (neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils) in the bone marrow and their accumulation in the blood
  • 90% of CML cases are due to the characteristic chromosomal translocation, the Philadelphia chromosome (translocation between chromosome 9 and chromosome 22).
  • Hairy cell leukemia

    A condition in which the "white" "cells" in the "blood" become "hairy" appearing due to cytoplasmic projections.

    • Haer (Old English) - Hair, a hair
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • TRAP+
  • Hairlike projections
  • OSU School of Medicine helped characterize this disease and termed it hairy due to its appearance under a microscope.
  • Hairy leukoplakia

    Painless "flat white" plaques on the tongue that cannot be scraped off.

  • Associated with HIV and EBV
  • This disease was first discovered during the huge AIDS epidemic in the early 1980's.
  • IL12 receptor deficiency

    A deficiency of the receptor for interleukin 12 on the surface of ïve T cells, which is needed for differentiation into Helper T cells, type 1 (Th1)

    • Inter (Latin) - Among, between, betwixt, in the midst of
    • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
    • Recept (Latin) - Taken back
    • Deficere (Latin) - To Desert, Revolt, Fail
  • Disseminated mycobacterial and fungal infections
  • May present after administration of BCG vaccine
  • Autosomal recessive
  • Decreased interferon gamma
  • Interleukin

    Proteins and signalling molecules (cytokines) secreted by "white" blood cells that allow them to communicate "among" one another.

    • Inter (Latin) - Among, between, betwixt, in the midst of
    • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
  • Regulate cell growth, differentiation, motility, and stimulate an immune response.
  • Leukemia

    A group of cancers of the "white" "blood" cells

    Leukemoid reaction

    A reaction involving "white" blood cells which "resembles" leukemia (although it is not actually leukemia)

    • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
    • Eidos (Greek) - Form, Resemblance or Shape, Likeness
    • React (Medieval Latin) - Done again
  • Occurs during infection, stress, decay or sulfa drugs/steroids
  • Distinguished from acute leukemia by the presence of early mature neutrophil precursors
  • Leukocyte

    A "white" blood "cell."

    • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    Leukocyte extravasation

    "Outward" movement of "white" blood "cells" from the "vessels."

    • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Externus (Latin) - Outward, Outside
    • Vas (Latin) - Vessel
  • IL8, LTB4, C5a are all chemotactic signals that trigger this process
  • Leukocytoclastic Angiitis

    A condition in which the "white" blood "cells" "break" up blood "vessels", leading to "inflammation."

    • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Klastos (Greek) - Broken
    • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Smallvessel vasculitis
  • Presents as palpable purpura
  • Leukocytoclastic vasculitis

    "Inflammation" of small blood "vessels" due to "broken" down "white" blood cells

    • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Klastos (Greek) - Broken
    • Vasculum (Latin) - A small vessel
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Characterized by palpable purpura
  • The most common vasculitis seen in clinical practice
  • May be secondary to medications, underlying infection, collagenvascular disorders, or malignancy but approximately half of them are idiopathic
  • Leukocytoclastic vasculitis

    "Inflammation" of small blood "vessels" due to "broken" down "white" blood cells

    • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Klastos (Greek) - Broken
    • Vasculum (Latin) - A small vessel
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Characterized by palpable purpura
  • The most common vasculitis seen in clinical practice
  • May be secondary to medications, underlying infection, collagenvascular disorders, or malignancy but approximately half of them are idiopathic
  • Leukocytosis

    A "condition" in which there is a rise in "white" "cells" in the blood.

    • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • More commonly known as a 'white count"
  • Precipitated often times by infection or malignancy
  • Leukoedema

    A "white" "swelling" found on the mucosa

  • Most commonly found on the buccal mucosa (cheeks)
  • Because it is so common, it is sometimes referred to as a variation of the normal appearance rather than a disease
  • Fades by stretching the cheeks
  • Acquired condition caused by local irritation
  • Leukoencephalopathy

    A "disease" of the "white" matter of the "brain."

    • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
    • En (Greek) - Within
    • Kephale (Greek) - Head
    • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
    Leukopenia

    A "deficiency" in "white" blood cells

    • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
    • Penia (Latin) - Deficiency, a lack
    Leukoplakia

    A "white" "plate" or patch found on the mucous membrane of the oral cavity

  • EBV is associated with oral leukoplakia
  • Occurs more commonly in smokers
  • Etiology is believed to be from chronic irritation, although exact cause is unknown
  • Cannot be scraped off
  • Leukorrhea

    A "white" yellowish "flow" or discharge from the vaginal canal.

  • Can be physiologic, due to an estrogen imbalance, or due to an inflammatory condition.
  • Leukotriene

    A hydrocarbon that contains "three" "double bonds" that is produced by "white" blood cells

    • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
    • Tri (Greek) - Three
    • Ene (Greek) - Hydrocarbon Suffix
    Metachromatic leukodystrophy

    Lysosomal storage disease that affects "white" "colored" myelin due to lack of "nourishment" which leads to "improper" "formation".

    • Meta (English) - Beyond, in the midst of
    • Khroma (Greek) - Color, complexion character
    • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
    • Dys (Greek) - Bad, Ill, Abnormal, Evil
    • Trophe (Greek) - Food, Nourishment
  • Autosomal recessive condition due to defective arylsulfatase
  • Results in accumulation of cerebroside sulfate causing central and peripheral demyelination
  • With ataxia and dementia
  • Periventricular leukomalacia

    A disease which causes the "white" matter "around" the lateral "bellies" of the brain to become "soft".

    • Peri (Greek) - Around, about, beyond
    • Ventriculus (Latin) - Little belly
    • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
    • Malacia (Latin) - A softness, a calm at sea
  • The most common type of ischemic brain injury in premature infants, often leading to cerebral palsy and intellectual impairment
  • Periventricular leukomalacia occurs around the ventricles and is characterized by coagulative necrosis
  • Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy

    A "disease" of the "white" matter of the "brain" that "moves forward" getting worse and leads to "many" "sources" of deficits.

    • Multus (Latin) - Much, many
    • Focus (Latin) - Hearth, fireplace, center of activity
    • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
    • Enkephalos (Greek) - Brain, WIthin the Head
    • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
  • Progressive inflammation and damage of white matter caused by the JC virus. AIDS defining illness and occurs in immunocompromised individuals only.
  • Seen in heavily immunocompromised patients (such as HIV)
  • Certain MS treatments, such as talizumab, can precipitate PML
  • It is a demyelinating disorder
  • The JC virus is a polyomavirus
  • MEDYMOLOGY