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Khroma (Greek) - Color, complexion character
8 terms share this root
Chromaffin cells

Cells produced in the adrenal glands that release hormones needed for the stress response. They are med for their "affinity" with chromium salts, which causes the hormones they produce to turn brown in "color."

  • Khroma (Greek) - Color, complexion character
  • Affinis (Latin) - Related, Near the border
  • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Neuroendocrine cells, adrenal glands, epinephrine, norepinephrine, paracrine signals
  • The word 'Chromaffin' comes from a portmanteau of chromium and affinity. They are med as such because they can be visualized by staining with chromium salts. Chromium salts oxidize and polymerize catecholamines to form a brown color, most strongly in the cells secreting noradreline.
  • Chromatin

    A dark "colored" complex of D and proteins in the nucleus of cells that allows the genetic material to be packaged to fit in a small space.

    • Khroma (Greek) - Color, complexion character
  • D, histones, control gene expression, control D replication, compact
  • Prevents D damage, and controls gene expression and D replication.
  • During interphase (longest phase of the cell cycle), the D is packaged loosely to allow for D replication and transcription. During mitosis or meiosis, the D condenses to facilitate segregation of chromosomes during anaphase.
  • Chromatolysis

    The "loosening" of "colored" cellular components of nerve cells that occur when the nerve is damaged.

    • Khroma (Greek) - Color, complexion character
    • Luein (Greek) - Loosen, set free
  • Nissl bodies, apoptosis, ischemia, toxicity, viral infection
  • Dissolution of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (Nissl bodies) in the cell body of a neuron in response to toxicity, lack of blood supply (ischemia), and viral infections as a precursor of nerve cell death (apoptosis).
  • Chromatolysis was the term first used in the 1940s to define cell death characterized by the gradual disintegration of nuclear components. This process is now called apoptosis. Now chromatolysis is the term used to distinguish the particular apoptotic process in neural cells, where the Nissl substance disintegrates.
  • Chromogranin A

    A small "grain"like and "colored" protein made by certain cells in the body that functions in helping cells to secrete substances and is also used as a marker for certain diseases.

    • Khroma (Greek) - Color, complexion character
    • Granum (Latin) - Grain, seed
  • Negative regulator of neuroendocrine function, precursor, neurons, endocrine cells
  • Its levels are elevated in pheochromocytoma and diabetes
  • It is used as an indicator for pancreas and prostate cancer and in carcinoid syndrome
  • In serves as a precursor to other and functions to neuroendocrine secretory protein located in vesicles in neurons and endocrine cells that is a precursor for several functional peptides that negatively regulate the neuroendocrine function of the releasing cell (autocrine) or nearby cells (paracrine).
  • Chromogranin A is a precursor for vasostatin, pancreastatin, catestatin, and pravastatin. These are all negative neuroendocrine regulators.
  • Cytochrome

    A protein that functions as a "receptacle" for electrons, changing "color" as electrons generate energy.

    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Khroma (Greek) - Color, complexion character
  • Cytochrome a
  • Heme
  • Electron transport
  • Mitochondrial membrane proteins
  • ATP
  • A group of membranebound carrier molecules that participate in a stepwise transfer of electrons, ultimately leading to the generation of ATP. They contain a heme group and can be found as monomeric proteins or subunits of bigger enzyme complexes.
  • Euchromatin

    Loosely packed D that is "truly" transcribed. med for the "color is stains vs. heterochromatin.

    • Eu (Greek) - True, Good, Well
    • Khroma (Greek) - Color, complexion character
  • Transcribed to R
  • Heterochromatin

    D that is "differently" "colored" because it is condensed

    • Hetero (Greek) - Other, different
    • Khroma (Greek) - Color, complexion character
  • Condensed D is sterically inaccessible and not transcriptionally active
  • Metachromatic leukodystrophy

    Lysosomal storage disease that affects "white" "colored" myelin due to lack of "nourishment" which leads to "improper" "formation".

    • Meta (English) - Beyond, in the midst of
    • Khroma (Greek) - Color, complexion character
    • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
    • Dys (Greek) - Bad, Ill, Abnormal, Evil
    • Trophe (Greek) - Food, Nourishment
  • Autosomal recessive condition due to defective arylsulfatase
  • Results in accumulation of cerebroside sulfate causing central and peripheral demyelination
  • With ataxia and dementia
  • MEDYMOLOGY