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Karkinos (Greek) - Cancer, crab
30 terms share this root
Adenocarcinoma

A "mass" of "gland"ulnar tissue, med for as cancerous growths thought to resemble "crabs" in ancient Greece.

  • VIPoma, Glucagonoma, Insulinoma and pheochromocytoma are common types of adenomas
  • Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

    "Cancer" "tumor" arising "from" "glands"

    • Aden (Greek) - Gland
    • Oides (Greek) - From, like
    • Cystis (Latin) - Bladder, sac
    • Karkinos (Greek) - Cancer, crab
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Most often occurs in the head and neck region, particularly the salivary glands
  • Third most common malignant salivary gland tumor overall
  • Basal cell carcinoma

    "Cancer" of the "cells" that serve as the "foundation" for the epidermal layer of skin.

    • Basis (Greek) - A foundation upon which something rests
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Karkinos (Greek) - Cancer, crab
  • Locally invasive but does not metastasize
  • Pink pearly nodules with telangiectasis and central ulcer
  • Palisading nuclei
  • Most common skin cancer
  • Bronchial carcinoid

    A "cancer" of the "windpipe or throat".

  • Most symptoms associated with this type of cancer are due to mass effect and release of serotonin which leads to flushing, wheezing and diarrhea
  • One of two types of lung cancer not associated with smoking
  • Nests of neuroendocrine cells that are chromogranin positive
  • Carcinoid symptoms can arise without liver metastases since secreted serotonin goes directly into the bloodstream without activation by the liver
  • Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma

    A type of cancer of the "hollowed out structures" of the lungs and "windpipe".

  • One of two type of lung cancer that is not associated with smoking
  • Looks like pneumonia on chest xray so it important to repeat xray after treating a patient with pneumonia to ensure it is not this type of cancer
  • Causes thickening of the alveolar walls and arises from Clara cells
  • Carcinogenesis

    Process of multiple mutations that "births" normal cells into "cancer" cells.

    • Karkinos (Greek) - Cancer, crab
    • Gonos (Greek) - Offspring, seed, birth
  • Uncontrolled proliferation
  • Knock out of tumor suppressors or activation of protooncogenes
  • Carcinoid

    A "cancer" "like" tumor

  • Slow growing neuroendocrine tumor most commonly found in the ileum, appendix or lung that secretes excessive amounts of serotonin...increased serotonin production can decrease tryptophan levels leading to niacin deficiency
  • Serotonin secreted by gastro intestinal carcinoid tumors gets metabolized by the liver while serotonin secreted by bronchial carcinoid enters the systemic circulation
  • Most common tumor of appendix
  • GI carcinoids arise from enterochromaffin cells
  • Was first referred to as carcinoid or carcinomalike since it acted like a benign tumor but looked like a malignant tumor microscopically
  • Carcinoid syndrome

    Describes the symptoms that "run" "together" as a result of the "cancer" "like" tumor

  • Increased serotonin production can decrease tryptophan levels leading to niacin deficiency
  • Serotonin secreted by gastro intestinal carcinoid tumors gets metabolized by the liver while serotonin secreted by bronchial carcinoid enters the systemic circulation
  • Most common tumor of appendix
  • GI carcinoids arise from enterochromaffin cells
  • Group of symptoms including flushing, diarrhea, secondary restrictive
  • Flushing is due to kallikrein secretion rather than serotonin secretion
  • Carcinoma

    "Cancerous" "tumor" originating from epithelial cells

    • Karkinos (Greek) - Cancer, crab
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Spread lymphatically with the exception of renal cell carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, follicular carcinoma of the thyroid and choriocarcinoma
  • Carcinoma in situ

    "cancerous" "tumor" cells that do not invade the basement membrane and grow "in their normal place"

    • Karkinos (Greek) - Cancer, crab
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
    • In situe (Latin) - In its place or position
  • Some common examples include cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, ductal carcinoma in situ, Bowen's disease, colon polyps and bronchioloalveolar carcinoma
  • Carcinoma in situ

    A "cancer" "tumor" that is held "in its position/place"

    • Karkinos (Greek) - Cancer, crab
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
    • In situe (Latin) - In its place or position
  • A malignant new growth localized in the epithelium, showing no tendency of invasion or metastasize to other host tissues
  • Will show dysplastic epithelium and malignant cell transformation throughout the full length of the epithelium, but does not penetrate the basal epithelial layer
  • "Cancer in you" that hasn't spread to other areas in your body
  • Carcinoma in situ

    A "cancer" "tumor" that is held "in its position/place"

    • Karkinos (Greek) - Cancer, crab
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
    • In situe (Latin) - In its place or position
  • A malignant new growth localized in the epithelium, showing no tendency of invasion or metastasize to other host tissues
  • Will show dysplastic epithelium and malignant cell transformation throughout the full length of the epithelium, but does not penetrate the basal epithelial layer
  • "Cancer in you" that hasn't spread to other areas in your body
  • Carcinomatosis

    A "conditiion" in which one develops many "cancerous" "growths" after the primary cancer dessimnates throughout the body.

    • Karkinos (Greek) - Cancer, crab
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • A form of disseminated cancer
  • Often times pertaining only to cancers of epithelial cell origin
  • Choriocarcinoma

    A malignant "cancer" of the "membrane enclosing the fetus."

    • Khorion (Greek) - Membrane enclosing the fetus, afterbirth
    • Karkinos (Greek) - Cancer, crab
  • Cancer, placenta, hematogenous spread, lung, germ cell tumor, ovary, testis
  • Usually spreads to the lungs early via the blood
  • Since this cancer includes syncytiotrophoblast (cell type in the placenta that secretes βhCG), there are elevated blood levels of beta human chorionic gonadotropin (βhCG).
  • Clear cell adenocarcinoma

    A "cancer" of "glandular" tissue, composed of cells that look "clear" on the inside, that primarily affect female reproductive organs.

    • Clear (English) - A clean space
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Aden (Greek) - Gland
    • Karkinos (Greek) - Cancer, crab
  • CCA of the vagi, uterine clear cell carcinoma, clear cell ovarian carcinoma
  • Tumors composed of cells with clear cytoplasm that contain glycogen
  • In the vagi, CCA is linked to the drug diethylstilbestrol (DES)
  • In the ovary, CCA forms cystic tumors with polypoid (projection arising from flat mucosa) masses that protrude into the cyst
  • In the uterus, CCA is a rare form of endometrial cancer that arises from atrophic (degenerative) endometrium instead of endometrial hyperplasia (increase in number of cells).
  • DES used to be prescribed to pregnant women because it was mistakenly thought to prevent miscarriages and ensure a healthy pregnancy. However, research has shown that any woman exposed to DES in utero has an increased risk of clear cell carcinoma of the vagi.
  • Comedocarcinoma

    A noninvasive "cancer" that "eats" away at tissue centrally, producing a central necrosis.

    • Comedere (Latin) - To consume
    • Karkinos (Greek) - Cancer, crab
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Ductal carcinoma in situ, earlystage, intraductal, noninfiltrating, cordlike calcification, cheesylike material
  • Earlystage breast cancer (ductal carcinoma in situ) that is intraductal and noninfiltrating and which demonstrates central necrosis with calcification of the duct that feels cordlike and yields a cheesylike material when squeezed.
  • The ducts fill with plugs of tumor growth, which squeezed out as sebum (yellow, cheeselike material). This is the most aggressive of intraductal carcinomas.
  • Ductal carcinoma in situ

    Abnormally proliferating cells located in one or more milk "ducts" in the breast. In situ by definition means it has not invaded other tissues (it is "in its original place"). However, It can progress to invasive breast cancer.

  • Breast cancer
  • Mammogram
  • Precancerous
  • Milk duct
  • From the Latin "ductus", leading, "Karakinos", a cancer (literally crab), and "oma", a mass. In situ is Latin for "in its original place or position".
  • Follicular carcinoma (thyroid)

    "cancerous" "growth" of the "little bag" of cells within the thyroid

  • Invades fibrous capsule
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma

    "Liver cell cancer."

    • Hepatos (Greek) - Liver
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Karkinos (Greek) - Cancer, crab
  • Most common primary type of malignant liver cancer in adults
  • Associated with HBV, HCV, Wilson's disease, hemochromatosis, alpha1AT deficiency, alcoholic cirrhosis, and aflatoxin from Aspergillus
  • Symptoms include elevated alphafetoprotein levels, jaundice, increased liver size, ascites, polycythemia, and hypoglycemia.
  • Inflammatory breast carcinoma

    A rare and aggressive "cancer" of the breast that leads to inflammation: redness, swelling, tenderness, and warmth

  • Peau d'orange
  • Cancer cells block lymph vessels in the skin of the breast,
  • Large cell carcinoma

    This is an undifferentiated malignant neoplasm originating from epithelial cells in the lung.

    • Large (Old French) - Broad, wide; generous, bounteous
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Karkinos (Greek) - Cancer, crab
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • This neoplasm is different from small cell carcinoma because of larger size of the aplastic cells, a higher cytoplasmictonuclear size ratio, and a lack of saltandpepper chromatin.
  • Medullary carcinoma (thyroid)

    "Cancer" of the "marrow or pith" of the kidney.

  • Produces calcitonin, sheets of cells in amyloid stroma, MEN 2A, 2B
  • Medullary invasive carcinoma

    Malignant "invasive" "cancer" of the "pith" of the breast that consist of lymphocytic infiltrate that typically has a good prognosis.

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Polypoid "cancerous" "growth" in "nose" and "throat".

    • Nasus (Latin) - Nose
    • Pharynx (Greek) - Throat, windpipe
    • Karkinos (Greek) - Cancer, crab
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Associated with EBV
  • Extremely common in Guangdong province of China
  • Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma

    "Birthmarks" which are "cancerous" "masses" from the "foundation" layer of "cells"

    • Naevus (Latin) - Birthmark related to tus, birth
    • Basal (Latin) - Foundation
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Karkinos (Greek) - Cancer, crab
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Aka Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS)
  • An inherited autosomal dominant medical condition involving defects within multiple body systems
  • Most common finding is multiple Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumors, seen in 75% of patients
  • There are usually multiple lesions found in the mandible
  • Occur at a young age (19 yrs. average).
  • People with this syndrome are particularly prone to developing a common and usually nonlifethreatening form of nonmelanoma skin cancers.
  • Papillary carcinoma

    A "cancer" or "constellation" that look like "nipple"like structures.

    Serous cystadenocarcinoma

    A malignant "mass" of a "gland" filled with "watery fluid" resembling a small "bladder".

    • Serum (Latin) - Watery fluid, whey
    • Kustis (Greek) - Bladder, atomical pouch or sac
    • Aden (Greek) - Gland
    • Karkinos (Greek) - Cancer, crab
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Common malignant ovarian neoplasm filled with clear fluid
  • Psammoma bodies can be seen
  • Small cell carcinoma

    A highly malignant "cancer" of "fine" "cells" within the lung tissue.

    • Smael (Old English) - Thin, slender, rrow; fine
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Karkinos (Greek) - Cancer, crab
  • A highly malignant carcinoma of very primitive cells that most commonly arises in the lungs
  • Has paraneoplastic syndromes that secrete ACTH, ADH, or antibodies against presynaptic Ca2+ channels (LambertEaton syndrome)
  • Also known as oat cell carcinoma
  • Squamous cell carcinoma

    A "cancer" of "scaly" "cells".

    • Squama (Latin) - Scale, scaly
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Karkinos (Greek) - Cancer, crab
  • Pathognomonic location of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin is the lower half of the face or bottom lip
  • Transitional cell carcinoma

    A malignant "cancer" of the epithelial "cells" that go "across" the bladder, lining its interior.

  • Most common cancer of the urinary tract system
  • Hematuria without casts (casts indicate a renal origin)
  • Exposure to aniline dyes, smoking, phenacetin, cyclophosphamide (metabolizes into acrolein), radiation
  • MEDYMOLOGY