Term Successfully Added to Selected Deck
Unable to Add the term to selected Deck. Please try again later!
Kardia (Greek) - Heart
28 terms share this root

Antibodies directed "against" the "fat" within the "heart", a part of the inner mitochondrial membrane.

  • Anti (Greek) - Against, opposite, opposed to
  • Kardia (Greek) - Heart
  • Lipos (Greek) - Fat
  • Found in several diseases, including syphilis, antiphospholipid syndrome, livedoid vasculitis, vertebrobasilar insufficiency, Behçet's syndrome, idiopathic spontaneous abortion, and systemic lupus erythematosus(SLE).
  • Bradycardia

    A "slow" "heart" rate.

  • It presents with symptoms of lightheadedness and dizziness, may result in syncope. Potential etiologies include bradyarrhythmias like heart block (varying degrees), vasovagal episodes, medication side effects, cholinergic toxicity, etc. Consider treating with atropine, epinephrine, norepinephrine.
  • Cardiac cirrhosis

    "Condition" of right sided "heart" failure that causes back up of blood leading to chronic venous congestion and fibrosis and a "tawny appearance" of the liver

  • Also referred to as nutmeg liver due to uneven, different shaded spots throughout the liver
  • Cardiac tamponade

    A condition in which fluid accumulates and "plugs up" the "heart",

  • Blood and fluid buildup in the pericardial space, which is between the heart muscle (myocardium) and outer covering (pericardium), leads to increased pressure on the heart
  • Caused by pericardial effusion that can be rapid or gradual
  • Beck's triad of hypotension, distended neck veins and muffled heart sounds
  • Pulsus paradoxus.

  • Mnemonics
    The 3 D's
    Beck's Triad of Cardiac Tamponade
    Distant heart sounds, Distended jugular veins, Decrease arterial pressure


    • A 23 year old man is brought into the emergency trauma bay after being involved in a motor vehicle collision. The patient was the driver of a vehicle that was struck head on by an oncoming motorist going 40mph. The patient is noticeably short of breath. Blood pressure demonstrates a marked decrease to 80/40 and there are muffled heart sounds on auscultation. ECG demonstrates varying sized QRS complexes. What is the best treatment for this patient?

    USMLE Step 1

    Cardiogenic shock

    "Violent attack" on the body in which the "origin" of the problem is the ventricles of the "heart"

    • Kardia (Greek) - Heart
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
    • Choc (Middle French) - Violent Attack
  • Low output heart failure with decreased cardiac output, decreased venous return and increased total peripheral resistance
  • Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure is increase
  • Vasoconstriction throughout the body producing a cold, clammy patient
  • Blood pressure can be restored with IV fluids
  • Cardiomyopathy

    A "disease" of the "muscles" of the "heart."

    • Kardia (Greek) - Heart
    • Mus (Greek) - Muscle, mouse
    • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
  • A problem with functioning and weakness of the heart, most commonly due to failure of the heart's pumping mechanism
  • Dextrocardia

    A condition in which the "heart" is on the "right" side.

  • A condition in which the heart points to the right side of the body instead of the left
  • Typically dextrocardia exists with situs inversus, a condition in which the heart is a mirror image located on the right side of the body
  • A commonly seen complication in Kartagener's syndrome
  • Endocarditis

    "Inflammation" of the "internal" layer of the "heart".

    • Endon (Greek) - Within, Inside, Interl
    • Kardia (Greek) - Heart
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Commonly caused by bacterial and viral infections
  • Associated with Roth Spots

  • Mnemonics
    Endocarditis Criteria
    Fever, Roth Spots, Osler Nodes, Murmur, Janeway Lesions, Anemia, Nail Hemmorhages, Emboli

    The "internal" layer of the "heart".

    • Endon (Greek) - Within, Inside, Interl
    • Kardia (Greek) - Heart
  • Heart
  • Inner layer
  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    "Disease" of "excess heart muscle."

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Trophe (Greek) - Food, Nourishment
    • Kardia (Greek) - Heart
    • My (Greek) - Muscle
    • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
  • Most cases are autosomal dominant
  • Also seen in Friedreich's ataxia, Pompe disease
  • Causes a S4 and systolic murmur on the left sternal border that increases with valsalva and standing
  • Cause of sudden death in young athletes
  • Concentric hypertrophy of left ventricle with myofibrillar disarray and fibrosis
  • Libmansacks endocarditis

    "Inflammation" "inside" the "heart."

    • Endon (Greek) - Within, Inside, Interl
    • Kardia (Greek) - Heart
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Lupus, vegetation, mitral valve
  • Med after Emanuel Libman and Benjamin Sacks
  • Multifocal atrial tachycardia

    A type of "rapid" "heart" beat in which the signals that tell the heart to pump originate from "multiple" "centers of activity" rather than at the SA node where they belong.

    • Multiplus (Latin) - Multiple
    • Focus (Latin) - Hearth, fireplace, center of activity
    • Atrium (Latin) - Central court or main room of an ancient Roman house, or either of the upper cavities of the heart
    • Takhys (Greek) - Swift, rapid, hasty
    • Kardia (Greek) - Heart
  • A common type of supraventricular tachycardia commonly seen in patients with COPD
  • Myocardial infarction

    When the vessels feeding the "muscles" of the "heart" become "stuffed" or closed off.

  • Blockage of the coronary arteries that leads to a dramatic decrease in blood flow to the heart tissue, inducing ischemia
  • Characterized as STEMI (ST Elevated myocardial infarction) or nonstemi, the former of which is a medical emergency requiring immediate intervention
  • Vegetations within the heart or ruptured plaques may clog the coronary arteries.
  • Myocarditis

    "Inflammatory" disease of "cardiac" "muscle". It has numerous causes and may result in heart failure.

    • Myo (Greek) - Muscle
    • Kardia (Greek) - Heart
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Diphtheria
  • Coxsackie B
  • Rheumatic fever
  • Cause of death in acute rheumatic fever

  • Medytoons
    Oculocardiac reflex

    Involuntary movement pertaining to the "eye" as the sensory component and the "heart" as the motor component

  • Applying pressure to the eyes slows the heart rate
  • This is caused by connections of the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve (CN V1, ciliary ganglion) and the vagus nerve (CN X)
  • Can be seen more in children
  • Pancarditis

    "Inflammation" of the "entire" "heart".

    • Pan (Greek) - All, every
    • Kardia (Greek) - Heart
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
    Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia

    The "sudden attack" or onset of a "rapid" "heart" beat originating "above" the "little belly" of the heart.

    • Paroxysmos (Greek) - Sudden attack, convulsion
    • Supra (Latin) - Above, over, beyond, on the upper side
    • Ventriculus (Latin) - Little belly
    • Takhys (Greek) - Swift, rapid, hasty
    • Kardia (Greek) - Heart
  • Electrical rhythm originates at or above the AV node
  • May be caused by reentry or automaticity
  • Treated acutely with vagal maneuvers, adenosine, or synchronized electrical cardioversion.
  • Pericardial effusion

    A "flowing" out of fluid "around" the "heart".

    • Peri (Greek) - Around, about, beyond
    • Kardia (Greek) - Heart
    • Efluerre (Latin) - A flowing out
  • Fluid, usually blood, accumulated within the pericardial sac around the heart, leading to increased pressure on the organ
  • Significant enough pressure on the heart from the fluid can lead to cardiac tamponade, a serious medical condition
  • Pericardial tamponade

    "A plugging" up of the space "nearby" the "heart" by fluid.

  • Compression of the heart by fluid filling the pericardial sac
  • Can lead to pulsus paradoxus and decreased cardiac output
  • Causes beck triad of hypotension, distended neck veins, and muffled heart sounds
  • Electrical alternans on ECG
  • Can be caused by aortic dissection or MI
  • Pericarditis

    "Inflammation" "around" the "heart tissue."

    • Peri (Greek) - Around, about, beyond
    • Kardia (Greek) - Heart
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Inflammation/irritation of the pericardial sac
  • Fibrinous 13 days postMI
  • Dressler's syndrome several weeks after MI
  • Presents with friction rub on auscultation

  • MedyQuestion
    • A 47 year old woman with recent history of upper respiratory infection for a week, comes to the emergency room complaining of chest pain. She describes the pain in the middle of her chest, constant, non-radiating and has been going on for the last day. She said that the pain gets worse when she takes deep breathes, but improves when she leans forward. She is afebrile at this time, with a heart rate of 112bpm, and blood pressure of 135/95. An ECG is ordered, demonstrating ST segment elevations in all leads. What is the most likely diagnosis in this patient?

    USMLE Step 1

    Polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (Torsades de pointes)

    A type of ventricular "swift, rapid" "heart" beat distinguished by "many" different "forms/shapes" (morphology) for each heart beat. Of significance, 'torsades de pointes' is a specific type of PVT, unique in its presence of prolonged resting QT intervals.

  • Torsades de Pointes is a type of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, Long QT syndrome predisposes to Torsades de Pointes
  • Can be drug induced (sotalol, amiodarone)
  • Subendocardial infarction

    A "stuffing" of the coronary arteries, leading to necrosis "beneath" the "inside" layer of the "heart"

    • Sub (Latin) - Under, below, beneath, at the foot of
    • Endon (Greek) - Within, Inside, Interl
    • Kardia (Greek) - Heart
    • Infarcire (Latin) - To stuff into
  • Myocardial infarction of the innermost layer of the myocardium that does not extend out to the epicardium.
  • Involves the inner layers of the myocardium
  • Sudden cardiac death

    "Abrupt" death, usually from cardiac or "heart"related causes with loss of consciousness quickly following onset of symptoms

    • Kardia (Greek) - Heart
    • Dheu (ProtoIndoEuropean) - Process, Act, Condition of Dying
  • Often caused by some cause of cardiac arrhythmia, such as ventricular fibrillation
  • Enlarged heart can predispose someone to an arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death
  • Superior cardiac nerve

    A "cord" of nerve cells that innervates the "heart" from "above"

    • Superior (Latin) - Higher, Above
    • Kardia (Greek) - Heart
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • The superior cardiac nerve arises from the superior cervical ganglion and courses down the neck behind the common carotid artery to innervate the heart. The right nerve courses towards the back of the aortic arch and joins the deep cardiac plexus, while the left nerve joins the superficial part of the cardiac plexus.
  • Innervates the heart
  • Supraventricular tachycardia

    "Fast" "heart rate" originating from an electrical source "above" the heart's "ventricles", the atria.

    • Supra (Latin) - Above, over, beyond, on the upper side
    • Ventriculus (Latin) - Little belly
    • Takhys (Greek) - Swift, rapid, hasty
    • Kardia (Greek) - Heart
  • Supraventricular tachycardia(SVT) often refers to paroxysmal SVTs, or SVTs that appear rapidly
  • The most common cause of SVT is AV nodal reentrant tachycardia, which will show arrow QRS complexes with no discernible P waves on ECG
  • The first line treatment for SVTs are vagal maneuvers, such as a carotid sinus massage, Valsalva maneuver, or head immersion in cold water
  • Intravenous adenosine is the pharmacologic agent of choice for treatment of SVTs refractory to vagal maneuvers, with the exception of SVTs caused by WolffParkinsonWhite (WPW) syndrome
  • Tachycardia

    A "rapid" or fast "heart" rate.

  • Tachycardia is defined as a heart rate over 100 beats per minute
  • Tachycardia can be physiologic (e.g. transient anxiety, exercise) or pathologic, seen in certain cardiac arrhythmias (e.g. atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, ventricular tachycardia)
  • Velocardiofacial syndrome

    Genetic condition affecting many organs including "heart" and "face."

    • Velum (Latin) - A cloth, covering, curtain, veil
    • Kardia (Greek) - Heart
    • Facialis (Latin) - Of the face
    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
  • More commonly known as DiGeorge's syndrome. Genetic condition where pharyngeal arch development dysfunction causes varying developmental disruptions of the heart, parathyroid, thymus, palate, eyes, and developmental delay
  • First described in 1978. Word comes from the latin words 'velum' (palate), 'cardia' (heart), 'facies' (face)
  • Pericardiocentesis

    A procedure in which the area "around" the "heart" is "punctured" in order to extract and sample fluid

  • This procedure is generally used to relieve pericardial effusions, the buildup of fluid in the pericardium (the sac around the heart). It is also used in emergent situations with cardiac tamponade, where the fluid builds up too rapidly causing compression on the heart impairing its pumping action.