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Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
110 terms share this root
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

A quickly onset "sharp" condition of "inflammation" "spread abroad" or all over the "marrow" of the "brain".

  • Acuere (Latin) - To Sharpen, sharply onset
  • Disseminatus (Latin) - To Spread Abroad
  • Enkephalos (Greek) - Brain, WIthin the Head
  • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
  • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Commonly seen after an infection
  • Caused by autoimmune white matter demyelination
  • Symptoms include fever, headache, seizures, or coma 1 to 3 weeks after an infection
  • Treatment is corticosteroids
  • Acute lymphonodular pharyngitis

    A "sharp" or fast onset of "inflammation" involving "knot"like spots and "watery" discharge in the “throat” and tonsillar area

    • Acuere (Latin) - To Sharpen, sharply onset
    • Lympha (Latin) - Water, clear water, a goddess of water
    • Nodulus (Latin) - A small knot
    • Pharynx (Greek) - Throat, windpipe
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Caused by Coxsackie A virus, especially in children
  • Other manifestations of infections include herpangina and hand, foot and mouth disease
  • Acute Rarefying Osteomyelitis

    A "sharp" or fast occurring "inflammation" of the "bone" or "marrow" with "pus" formation

  • More commonly found in the "mandible" (lower jaw) than the maxilla (upper jaw)
  • Onset may be so fast that bone resorption (loss) does not occur
  • Occurrence lasting longer than one month is chronic
  • Acute Sialadenitis

    A "sharp" or fast onset of "Inflammation" of the "glands" that secrete "saliva" into the mouth.

    • Acus (Latin) - Needle
    • Sialon (Greek) - Saliva
    • Aden (Greek) - Gland
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Often associated with pain, tenderness, redness and localized swelling
  • Acute/chronic contact sotmatitis

    "Inflammation" of the "mouth" due to irritants "touching" "together" with the oral mucosa. May have a "sharp" onset or lasting a long "time"

    • Acus (Latin) - Needle
    • Khronikos (Greek) - Of time, concerning time
    • Con (Latin) - With, Together
    • Tangere (Latin) - To touch
    • Stoma (Greek) - Mouth
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Causative agent is easily associated in acute form
  • Chronic form is more common
  • Ankylosing spondylitis

    A "disease" characterized by the "stiffening of the joints" of the "spine" due to "inflammation".

    • Ankulosis (Greek) - A stiffening of the joints
    • Spondulos (Greek) - Vertebra
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Seronegative spondyloarthropathy associated with HLAB27 and negative rheumatoid factor
  • Associated with uveitis, sacroiliitis, and limitation of chest expansion
  • Chest infections are most common cause of death
  • On xray, commonly called bamboo spine due to the fusion of the vertebral bodies and resemblance to a bamboo stalk
  • Atrophic gastritis

    Chronic "inflammation" of the "stomach" that leads to destruction of the glandular tissue causing it to seem to be "without" "nourishment".

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Trophe (Greek) - Food, Nourishment
    • Gaster (Greek) - Stomach, belly, eater, devourer
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Decrease in gastric hydrochloric acid, pepsin and intrinsic factor
  • Causes a vitamin B12 deficiency leading to megaloblastic anemia
  • It can be caused by persistent infection with Helicobacter pylori (type B), or can be autoimmune (Type A). Those with the autoimmune version of atrophic gastritis are statistically more likely to develop gastric carcinoma, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and achlorhydria.
  • Bacterial Sialdentitis

    "Inflammation" of the salivary glands.

    • Sialon (Greek) - Saliva
    • Aden (Greek) - Gland
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Most common in the parotid glands. Most common cause of acute bacterial sialadenitis is Staphylococcus Aureus. Chronic more due to obstructive factors in reducing salivary flow and stasis.
  • Bacterial Sialdentitis

    "Inflammation" of the salivary glands.

    • Sialon (Greek) - Saliva
    • Aden (Greek) - Gland
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Most common in the parotid glands. Most common cause of acute bacterial sialadenitis is Staphylococcus Aureus. Chronic more due to obstructive factors in reducing salivary flow and stasis.
  • Bronchiolitis obliterans

    An "inflammation" of the lungs and "windpipe" caused by the "blotting out" or destruction of transplanted lung tissue by the immune system.

    • Bronkhos (Greek) - Windpipe, throat
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
    • Obliterare (Latin) - Cause to disappear, blot out, erase
  • Obstructive lung disease caused by chronic rejection of a lung transplant
  • Affects the bronchioles, first there is inflammation and necrosis of the bronchiolar walls followed by fibrous, purulent exudate and granulation tissue in the lumen that is later replaced by connective tissue
  • Bronchitis

    "Inflammation" of the airways in the "throat"

    • Bronkhos (Greek) - Windpipe, throat
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Chronic bronchitis is form of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease caused by an increase in size of the mucus producing glands in the bronchi
  • Characterized by excessive amounts of mucus, productive cough for more than 3 months for a year for more than 2 years, wheezing and crackles
  • Reid index (ratio of thickness of mucus gland layer compared to total thickness of the bronchial wall) is more than 50 percent
  • Smoking is the leading cause
  • Comorbidity with emphysema
  • Acute bronchitis is inflammation of the bronchi caused primarily by viruses. The main symptom is cough as patients try to get rid of the mucus. As most cases are caused by viruses, it is not recommended to use antibiotics for this illness
  • Bursitis

    An "inflammation" of the "wineskin or sac" within joints.

    • Bursa - Wineskin sac, hide, leather
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Common types include acromial and prepatellar bursitis. Acromial bursitis is usually associated with repetitive shoulder abductions, while prepatellar bursitis is associated with repetitive use of working while on your knees.
  • Cellulitis

    "Inflammation" of the "cells" of the skin.

    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Bacterial infection, usually due to Group A Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus, involving the skin, dermis, and subcutaneous fat resulting in a sharply demarcated and painful area.
  • Cholecystitis

    "Inflammation" of the "sac" that stores "bile".

    • Chole (Greek) - Bile
    • Cystis (Latin) - Bladder, sac
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Fat, female, forty, fertile
  • Inflammation of the gallbladder secondary to obstruction of the bile duct, most commonly by a gallstone
  • The obstruction of bile duct leads to pileup of bile within the gallbladder and increased pressure
  • The Murphy sign is a sensitive but nonspecific physical exam test for cholecystitis.
  • Chronic bronchitis

    "Inflammation" of the airways in the "throat" that persists over "time".

    • Khronikos (Greek) - Of time, concerning time
    • Bronkhos (Greek) - Windpipe, throat
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Cough due to inflammation of bronchial tubes causing mucus production and difficulty getting air in and out
  • Lasts for at least 3 months, two years in a row.
  • Cigarette smoking is the most common cause. This is a longterm condition that keeps coming back and never goes away completely.
  • Chronic diffuse sclerosing osteomyelitis

    "Inflammation" of "bone" or "marrow" lasting a long "time" resulting in abnormal "hardening" of the bone. Distribution of hardening "pour out" into surrounding bone.

  • "Cotton Wool Appearance" of bone radio graphically
  • Chronic Focal Sclerosing Osetomyelitis

    "Inflammation" of "bone" or "marrow" lasting a long "time" resulting in abnormal localized "focal" "hardening" of the bone.

    • Khronikos (Greek) - Of time, concerning time
    • Focus (Latin) - Hearth, fireplace, center of activity
    • Skleroun (Greek) - To Harden
    • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
    • Muelos (Greek) - Marrow
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Results from a reaction to periodontal infection
  • Most common site is near apex of premolar and molars
  • Usually associated with nonvital tooth
  • Condensing osteitis

    A periapical inflammatory process, where "bone" "thickens" around the tooth root

    • Con (Latin) - With, Together
    • Densus (Latin) - Thick
    • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Condensing osteitis often occurs at the apices of nonvital teeth, and it is the most common radiopacity associated with teeth
  • Cystitis

    An "inflammatory" condition of the "pouch" that holds urine.

    • Kustis (Greek) - Bladder, atomical pouch or sac
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Inflammation
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Dysuria
  • Increased urinary frequency
  • Inflammation of the bladder leading to a frequent need to urite along with a burning sensation. It can be due to an infection of ascending bacteria from the urethra to the bladder or from persistent irritants near the urethral opening.
  • Dacryocystitis

    A "tear" in a tear/lacrimal "sac" that leads to an "inflammation"

    • Dakryon (Greek) - Tear
    • Kustis (Greek) - Bladder, atomical pouch or sac
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Inflammation of the lacrimal sac due to obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct
  • Commonly caused by Staph aureus or strep pneumoniae
  • Oral antibiotics are first line
  • Dactylitis

    "Inflammation" of the "fingers".

    • Dactyl (Greek) - A Finger
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Common first symptom of sickle cell amenia in children, especially on board exams
  • Also known as sausage fingers
  • Dermatitis

    "Inflammation" of the "skin".

    • Derma (Greek) - Skin
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Skin inflammation
  • Dermatitis herpetiformis

    An "inflammatory" condition of skin in which rash resembles "herpes" infection.

    • Derma (Greek) - Skin
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
    • Herpes (Laitn) - Creeping, Spreading
    • Forma (Latin) - Form
  • Blistering of the skin
  • Itchy and papulovesicular eruptions
  • Celiac disease
  • A chronic blistering of the skin containing fluid. Dermatitis herpetiformis is characterized by itchy, papulovesicular eruptions located on extensor surfaces and is commonly associated with celiac disease.
  • Dermatitis herpetiformis was discovered by Louis Duhring!
  • Dermatomyositis

    An "inflammatory" condition in which "skin" and "muscle" are effected.

    • Derma (Greek) - Skin
    • Mus (Greek) - Muscle, mouse
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Muscle and skin inflammation
  • A connective tissue disorder that leads to inflammation of the skin and muscles. It presents as dysphagia, fevers, and proximal muscle weakness with vasculitis.
  • Desquamative gingivitis

    "Scaly" "gums" that easily peel "away" and "pertain to a disease" or "inflammation"

    • De (Latin) - Away, Off, Down
    • Squama (Latin) - Scale, scaly
    • Gingiva (Latin) - Gums
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • An erythematous, desquamates and ulcerated appearance of the gums
  • A descriptive term that can be caused by several different disorders, like MMP and Pemphigus Vulgaris
  • Extends beyond the marginal gingiva, sometimes involving alveolar mucosa
  • Often show + Nikolsky's sign
  • Looks similar to your skin peeling after getting a sunburn
  • Diverticulitis

    When a diverticulum (an outpouching in the wall of the intestine that "turns away" from the main path) becomes inflamed or infected.

    • Devertere (Latin) - Turn down or aside
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Large intestine
  • Colon
  • Pouches
  • Diverticula
  • Encephalitis

    An "inflammation" "within the head, brain"

    • En (Greek) - Within
    • Kephale (Greek) - Head
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Commonly results from an infection but not necessarily
  • Endarteritis obliterans

    "Inflammation" of the innermost coat (intima) of an artery leading to the "obliteration" or growing of smaller vessels.

    • Endon (Greek) - Within, Inside, Interl
    • Arteria (Greek) - Windpipe, artery
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
    • Obliterare (Latin) - Cause to disappear, blot out, erase
  • Causes include allergic, nervous, endocrine or hormonal aspects. Typical in male heavy smokers between the age of 2035 years.
  • May also to be referred to as "Buerger's Disease"
  • Endarteritis obliterans

    "Inflammation" of the innermost coat (intima) of an artery leading to the "obliteration" or growing of smaller vessels.

    • Endon (Greek) - Within, Inside, Interl
    • Arteria (Greek) - Windpipe, artery
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
    • Obliterare (Latin) - Cause to disappear, blot out, erase
  • Causes include allergic, nervous, endocrine or hormonal aspects. Typical in male heavy smokers between the ages of 2035 years.
  • May also to be referred to as "Buerger's Disease"
  • Endocarditis

    "Inflammation" of the "internal" layer of the "heart".

    • Endon (Greek) - Within, Inside, Interl
    • Kardia (Greek) - Heart
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Commonly caused by bacterial and viral infections
  • Associated with Roth Spots

  • Mnemonics
    FROM JANE
    Endocarditis Criteria
    Fever, Roth Spots, Osler Nodes, Murmur, Janeway Lesions, Anemia, Nail Hemmorhages, Emboli
    Enterocolitis

    An "inflammation" of the digestive tract involving portions of the "small intestine" and "large intestine".

    • Enteron (Greek) - Intestine, Small intestint, Piece of Gut, Bowel
    • Kolon (Greek) - Large intestine
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Many agents can cause enterocolitis, including salmonella, shigella, campylobacter, e. coli, the enteroviruses, norovirus, giardia, cryptosporidium, etc.
  • Enthesitis

    An "inflammation" of the point of "insertion" of muscles, tendon, or ligament to bone

    • Enthesis (Greek) - Putting in, insertion
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Inflammation of the enthesis is usually caused by psoriatic arthritis and other inflammatory disease or by physical strain and injury
  • Episcleritis

    "Inflammation" of the layer of tissue that lies "upon" the "hard" white part of the eyeball.

    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Skleroun (Greek) - To Harden
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Causes redness and irritation of the sclera
  • Generally benign and selflimiting.
  • Exudative tonsilitis

    "Inflammation" and "sweating" "out" of substances from the of pharyngeal "goiters" or tonsils.

    • Ex (Latin) - Out of
    • Sudare (Latin) - To sweat
    • Tonsillae (Greek) - Tonsils, Goiter
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Commonly caused by group A beta hemolytic strep, streptococcus pyogenes, and scarlet fever
  • Tonsillectomy described in first century AD by Celsus
  • Gastroenteritis

    "Inflammation" of the "stomach" and "intestines."

    • Gaster (Greek) - Stomach, belly, eater, devourer
    • Enteron (Greek) - Intestine, Small intestint, Piece of Gut, Bowel
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Involves stomach and small intestine
  • Presents with diarrhea, abdominal pain, and vomiting
  • Commonly caused by rotavirus in children globally
  • Commonly caused by norovirus in adults
  • Gingivitis

    "Inflammation" of the "gums"

    • Gingiva (Latin) - Gums
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Nondestructive periodontal disease
  • Reversible
  • Most common etiological factor is bacterial plaque
  • Most common form of periodontal disease
  • May progress to periodontitis if uncontrolled
  • Gingivostomatitis

    "inflammation" of the "gums" and "mouth".

    • Gingiva (Latin) - Gums
    • Stoma (Greek) - Mouth
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Associated with HSV1
  • Glomerulonephritis

    "Inflammation" of the "balllike structure", or small vessels of the "kidneys".

    • Glomus (Latin) - Ballshaped mass
    • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Leads to blood and/or excess protein in the urine.
  • Glossitis

    "Inflammation" of the "tongue"

    • Glossa (Greek) - Tongue
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Characterized as strawberry tongue in scarlet fever
  • Associated with irondeficiency anemia, niacin and folate deficiencies, and infection
  • Granulomatosis with polyangiitis

    "Seed"like "inflammation" of "multiple" "blood vessels".

    • Granum (Latin) - Grain, seed
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
    • Polloi (Greek) - Many
    • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Affects the nasopharynx, lung, and kidneys
  • May be diagnosed by presence of PR3ANCA/cANCA
  • Triad of necrotizing vasculitis, necrotizing glomerulonephritis, and necrotizing granulomas in the lung
  • May present clinically with hemoptysis, hematuria, and saddlenose deformity
  • Originally known as Wegener's Granulomatosis, the me has been changed to granulomatosis with polyangiitis due to Wegener's Nazi past.
  • Hemorrhagic Cystitis

    Severe "inflammation" of the "bladder" that results in "bleeding" into the "bladder."

    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
    • Rhegnunai (Greek) - To bust forth
    • Kustis (Greek) - Bladder, atomical pouch or sac
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Leads to dysuria, hematuria, and hemorrhage
  • Common side effect of cyclophosphamide but can be prevented with mes
  • Associated with EHEC
  • Hepatitis

    "Inflammation" of the "liver."

    • Hepatos (Greek) - Liver
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Symptoms include jaundice, poor appetite, and malaise
  • Associated with hepatitis viruses AE, chronic alcohol abuse, and mixed hyperbilirubinemia

  • Mnemonics
    Vowels are Bowels
    Hepatitis Transmission Routes
    Hepatitis A and E transmitted by fecal-oral route.
    ToRCHeS
    Teratogens: placenta-crossing organisms
    Toxoplasma, Rubella, CMV, Herpes simplex, Herpes zoster (varicella), Hepatitis B,C,E, Syphilis
    Hidradenitis

    "Inflammation" of the "glands" that produce sweat, or "water".

    • Hydro (Greek) - Water
    • Aden (Greek) - Gland
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Inflammation of the sweat glands
  • Hidradenitis suppurative is a chronic skin condition that affects the apocrine glands. There various ways to medically mage it, but refractory disease is ultimately treated with surgical excision.
  • Hidradenitis suppurativa

    An "inflammation" of the apocrine sweat "glands" that produce "water" causing "pusforming" abscesses

    • Hydro (Greek) - Water
    • Aden (Greek) - Gland
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
    • Suppurare (Latin) - To form pus
    Hidranitis suppurativa

    A condition in which there is "inflammation" of the "water" or sweat "glands" leading to excessive "pus" formation and blisters.

    • Hydro (Greek) - Water
    • Aden (Greek) - Gland
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
    • Suppurare (Latin) - To form pus
  • This condition often times manifests itself in obese individuals
  • The lesions occur mostly in regions of the body where there is a lot of rubbing as well as high concentrations of hair and sweat follicles
  • Areas of concern include the armpits
  • Groin, under the breasts and inside of the thighs.
  • Hyperplastic pulpitis

    Condition with “excess” “formation” of cells in the “soft part” of a tooth, resulting in “inflammation”

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Plasis (Greek) - Molding, Formation
    • Pulpa (Latin) - Soft part of animal body
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • An irreversible condition found in nonvital teeth also known as pulp polyp, where the pulp chamber is exposed to the oral cavity
  • Hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    A disease in which the "lungs" become "inflamed" due to inhalation of certain allergenic dusts which causes an "excessive" "sensation" .

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Sensitivus (Medieval Latin) - Capable of sensation
    • Pneumon (Greek) - Lung
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Interstitial lung disease (restrictive) that causes decreased lung volumes (FVC, TLC) and increased FEV1/FVC ratio greater or equal to 80%
  • Inclusion body myositis

    An "inflammation" of the distal "muscles" characterized by protein deposits causing the appearance of "bodies" "shut in" within the cell..

    • Includere (Latin) - Shut in
    • Bodig (Old English) - Trunk, chest
    • Myo (Greek) - Muscle
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Often confused with polymyositis (however, polymyositis has a course of weeks to months and responds to steroids)
  • Interstitial nephritis

    "Inflammation" of the space that "stands" "amongst" or throughout the "kidney", or the space between the tubules.

    • Inter (Latin) - Among, between, betwixt, in the midst of
    • Sistere (Latin) - To stand
    • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Most commonly caused by analgesics and antibiotics (methicillin)
  • Keratoconjunctivitis

    "Inflammation" of the cornea (which contains "keratin") and "conjunctiva".

    • Keras (Greek) - Horn
    • Conjugere (Late Latin) - To Bring Together
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Most common causes are eye dryness (keratoconjunctivitis sicca) or adenoviral infection.
  • Laryngotracheobronchitis

    A respiratory condition that is triggered by an acute viral infection of the upper airway. An "inflammation" of the "throat," "windpipe," and "bronchi"

    • Laryngeus (Latin) - Relating to the larynx, the upper windpipe
    • Trakhys (Greek) - Rough
    • Bronkhos (Greek) - Windpipe, throat
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • The infection leads to swelling inside the throat, which interferes with normal breathing and produces the classical symptoms of a barking cough, stridor, and hoarseness. It may produce mild, moderate, or severe symptoms, which often worsen at night
  • Known as croup
  • Leukocytoclastic Angiitis

    A condition in which the "white" blood "cells" "break" up blood "vessels", leading to "inflammation."

    • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Klastos (Greek) - Broken
    • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Smallvessel vasculitis
  • Presents as palpable purpura
  • Leukocytoclastic vasculitis

    "Inflammation" of small blood "vessels" due to "broken" down "white" blood cells

    • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Klastos (Greek) - Broken
    • Vasculum (Latin) - A small vessel
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Characterized by palpable purpura
  • The most common vasculitis seen in clinical practice
  • May be secondary to medications, underlying infection, collagenvascular disorders, or malignancy but approximately half of them are idiopathic
  • Leukocytoclastic vasculitis

    "Inflammation" of small blood "vessels" due to "broken" down "white" blood cells

    • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Klastos (Greek) - Broken
    • Vasculum (Latin) - A small vessel
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Characterized by palpable purpura
  • The most common vasculitis seen in clinical practice
  • May be secondary to medications, underlying infection, collagenvascular disorders, or malignancy but approximately half of them are idiopathic
  • Libmansacks endocarditis

    "Inflammation" "inside" the "heart."

    • Endon (Greek) - Within, Inside, Interl
    • Kardia (Greek) - Heart
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Lupus, vegetation, mitral valve
  • Med after Emanuel Libman and Benjamin Sacks
  • Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus

    "Poisonous substance" that causes an "inflammation" of the "membranes" surrounding the brain and spinal cord; a diagnostic marker is an increased amount of "cells" found in the "clear" part of the blood

    • Lympha (Latin) - Water, clear water, a goddess of water
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Khorion (Greek) - Membrane enclosing the fetus, afterbirth
    • Meninx (Greek) - Membrane
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Rodentborne viral infectious disease caused by Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV)
  • LCMV is a spherical, enveloped negative strand R virus, member of Arenaviridae
  • This condition presents as aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, or meningoencephalitis
  • It is transmitted to humans by inhaling aerosolized particles of feces, urine, or saliva of the house mouse (Mus musculus) or by ingesting contaminated food
  • Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis

    "Inflammation" of the "kidneys" due to "growth" of the "membrane".

  • Nephrotic: Type I tramtrack appearance due to mesangial ingrowth
  • Type II dense deposits Nephritic: Type I HBV, HCV
  • Type II C3 nephritic factor
  • Meningoencephalitis

    "Inflammation" of neural "membranes" (meninges) and "brain" parenchyma.

    • Meninx (Greek) - Membrane
    • Enkephalos (Greek) - Brain, WIthin the Head
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Usually caused by Naeglaria Fowleri
  • Most commonly seen in people after swimming in freshwater lakes
  • Amoebas that cause the disease are seen in spinal fluid
  • The amoeba enters via cribriform plate
  • Meningoencephalitis is believed to have been the cause of death for Mary Ingalls, older sister of Laura Ingalls Wilder, author of the Little House on the Prairie series.
  • Microscopic polyangiitis

    Necrotizing "inflammation" of "many" "small" blood "vessels" commonly involving lung, kidneys, and skin with pauciimmune glomerulonephritis and palpable purpura.

    • Mikros (Greek) - Small, little, petty, trivial, slight
    • Skopein (Greek) - To look, see
    • Polloi (Greek) - Many
    • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Treat with cyclophosphamide
  • PANCA positive, No granulomas
  • Migratory polyarthritis

    "Moving" "inflammation" of "multiple" "joints".

    • Migrare (Latin) - To move from one place to another
    • Polloi (Greek) - Many
    • Arthron (Greek) - Pertaining to the Joint
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Crohn's disease
  • Myocarditis

    "Inflammatory" disease of "cardiac" "muscle". It has numerous causes and may result in heart failure.

    • Myo (Greek) - Muscle
    • Kardia (Greek) - Heart
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Diphtheria
  • Coxsackie B
  • Rheumatic fever
  • Cause of death in acute rheumatic fever

  • Medytoons
    Myositis ossificans

    Metaplasia and "inflammation" of skeletal "muscle" into "bone" following traumatic injury.

    • Mus (Greek) - Muscle, mouse
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
    • Ossis (Latin) - Bone
  • Tumor or suspicious mass following injury to extremity
  • Necrotizing ulcerative mucositis

    "Inflammation" on mucous membranes with "dead cell bodies" manifesting as an "ulcer(s)" with a "slimelike" coating

    • Nekros (Greek) - Dead body, Corpse, Death
    • Ulcus (Latin) - A sore, ulcer
    • Mucus (Latin) - Slime, mold, snot
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Can be related to Stomatitis, which is an inflammatory process affecting the mucous membranes of the mouth and lips, with or without oral ulceration.
  • Necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis

    "Inflammation" "around" a "tooth" containing "dead cell bodies"

    • Nekros (Greek) - Dead body, Corpse, Death
    • Peri (Greek) - Around, about, beyond
    • Odous (Greek) - Tooth
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • A type of inflammatory periodontal (gum) disease caused by bacteria (notably fusobacterium and spirochaete species)
  • Rapid rate of attachment loss (loss of alveolar bone)
  • Will show lack of response to conventional periodontal treatment
  • Clinically similar to NUG but is a destructive form of periodontitis leading to loss of clinical attachment and alveolar bone.
  • Neisseria Meningitidis

    Gram negative diplococci responsible for "inflammation" of brain's "membranes" (meninges).

    • Meninx (Greek) - Membrane
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Ferments maltose
  • Has a polysaccharide capsule and thus a vaccine
  • Petechial rash
  • WaterhouseFriderichsen syndrome

  • MedyQuestion
    • A 14 year old girl comes into the emergency room with her mother because of fevers for 4 days and a one day history of fatigue. Her mother reports that when she is awake, it's very difficult to keep her up. Her temperature is 102F. On physical exam, there are petechial hemorrhages diffusely and rigidity on attempted flexion of the neck while lying down. The decision to perform an LP is made, on which examination of it reveals segmented neutrophils, and a gram stain demonstrating pink diplococci. Which of the following is the most likely causal organism?

    USMLE Step I

    Nephritis

    "Inflammatory" disease of the "kidneys". Can result in either Nephrotic or Nephritic syndromes

    • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
    Nonspecific granulomatous gingivitis

    "Inflammation of the gums" (gingivitis), not due to a "certain kind" of cause (nonspecific), which forms "granular masses"

    • Non (Latin) - Not
    • Specificus (Latin) - Constituting a kind or sort
    • Granulum (Latin) - Granule
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
    • Gingiva (Latin) - Gums
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Granulomatous gingivitis is the term given to inflammation (generally localized areas along gingival margin or papillae) of the gums with no apparent cause. Histology shows granulomatous inflammation as focal areas of histiocytic and lymphocytes.
  • If this type of inflammation is found to be caused by a foreign element (dental materials such as amalgam dust, toothpaste), then it is termed a foreign body gingivitis, rather than granulomatous gingivitis.
  • Obliterative endarteritis of the vasa vasorum

    "Inflammation" of "vessels of the vessels" supplying the largest "arteries" of the body. These arteries "within" these larger vessels become "inflamed" and are "blotted out" and occluded by disease.

    • Obliterare (Latin) - Cause to disappear, blot out, erase
    • Endon (Greek) - Within, Inside, Interl
    • Arteria (Greek) - Windpipe, artery
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
    • Vasa vasorum (Latin) - Vessels of the vessels
  • Associated with tertiary syphilis
  • Syphilitic aortitis
  • Long standing, untreated syphilis in an older patient
  • Oophoritis

    "Inflammation" of the ovary.

    • Oophoron (Latin) - Ovary
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Often seen in pelvic inflammatory disease
  • Orchitis

    "Inflammation" of one or both of the "testicles."

    • Orkhis (Greek) - Testicle
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Commonly seen in mumps
  • Osteitis deformans

    Chronic disorder "pertaining to a disease" that results large, "distorted" "bones."

  • Paget disease of the bone
  • Bisphosphonates are used for treatment
  • Osteitis fibrosa cystia

    Skeletal disorder "pertaining to a disease" caused by hyperparathyroidism resulting in "bones" with too much "fiber" and fibrous tissue

    • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
    • Fibra (Latin) - A fiber, filament, entrail
    • Kustis (Greek) - Bladder, atomical pouch or sac
  • Von Recklinghausen disease
  • Neurofibromatosis type 1
  • Osteomyelitis

    Infection causing "inflammation" of the "bone" and "bone marrow".

    • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
    • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • S. aureus is most common cause
  • Salmonella most common cause in sickle cell patients
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a common cause in sexually active individuals
  • Otitis

    "Inflammation" of the "ear" due to infection.

    • Ous (Greek) - Ear
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Usually caused by staph infection
  • Pancarditis

    "Inflammation" of the "entire" "heart".

    • Pan (Greek) - All, every
    • Kardia (Greek) - Heart
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
    Pancreatitis

    "Inflammation" of the organ that "creates" various hormones for the "entire" body.

    • Pan (Greek) - All, every
    • Kreas (French) - Flesh, meat
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
    Parotitis

    "Inflammation" of the gland "beside" the ear (parotid gland)

    • Para (Greek) - Along, side, beside, near, against, contrary to
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Inflammation of the parotid gland may be due to infection (Staph aureus), autoimmune disorder (Sjogren’s syndrome), or blockage (salivary stones).
  • Otitis = ear infection, Parotitis = beside the ear infection, i.e. parotid infection
  • Pericarditis

    "Inflammation" "around" the "heart tissue."

    • Peri (Greek) - Around, about, beyond
    • Kardia (Greek) - Heart
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Inflammation/irritation of the pericardial sac
  • Fibrinous 13 days postMI
  • Dressler's syndrome several weeks after MI
  • Presents with friction rub on auscultation

  • MedyQuestion
    • A 47 year old woman with recent history of upper respiratory infection for a week, comes to the emergency room complaining of chest pain. She describes the pain in the middle of her chest, constant, non-radiating and has been going on for the last day. She said that the pain gets worse when she takes deep breathes, but improves when she leans forward. She is afebrile at this time, with a heart rate of 112bpm, and blood pressure of 135/95. An ECG is ordered, demonstrating ST segment elevations in all leads. What is the most likely diagnosis in this patient?

    USMLE Step 1

    Periostitis

    "Inflammation" of the layer "around" the "bone".

    • Peri (Greek) - Around, about, beyond
    • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Usually caused by infection, and can cause necrosis.
  • Pharyngitis

    "Inflammation" of the "throat, windpipe" (pharynx).

    • Pharynx (Greek) - Throat, windpipe
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Pseudomembranous pharyngitis seen with diphtheria
  • Streptococcus pyogenes, Adenovirus, EBV can cause pharyngitis

  • MedyQuestion
    • A 13-year-old boy is seen at the physician’s office due to shortness of breath, a red, erythematous rash, and painful joints both at the hips and the knees. He appears to be agitated over the course of the visit. A chest x-ray was ordered which revealed cardiomegaly and changes similar to those seen in pulmonary edema cases. CHF develops and he dies 2 days after the visit. The boy most likely had a recent history of which of the following ailments?

    USMLE Step 1

    Plasma cell gingivitis

    An "inflammation" of the "gums". Histologically, "chambers" that appear "molded" is seen

    • Plassein (Greek) - To mold or form
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Gingiva (Latin) - Gums
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Appear as generalized erythema (redness) and edema (swelling) of the attached gingiva, occasionally accompanied by cheilitis (lip swelling) or glossitis (tongue swelling)
  • Caused by hypersensitivity to antigens, like toothpaste, chewing gum, mints, etc.
  • Pneumonitis

    "Inflammation" of the "lung" tissue

    • Pneumon (Greek) - Lung
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Hypersensitivity pneumonitis in farmers
  • Poliomyelitis

    A "inflammation" of the "grey" matter of the spinal cord and "brain."

    • Polios (Greek) - Grey
    • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Causes destruction of anterior horns of spinal cord
  • Can result in flaccid paralysis with lower motor neuron damage
  • Transmitted via fecaloral
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt had poliomyelitis.
  • Poliovirus

    A "poisonous substance" med for infecting the "grey" matter of the spinal cord and "brain".

    • Polios (Greek) - Grey
    • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Causes destruction of anterior horns of spinal cord
  • Can result in flaccid paralysis with lower motor neuron damage
  • Transmitted via fecaloral
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt had poliomyelitis.
  • Polyarteritis Nodosa

    An autoimmune "inflammation" of "many" "arteries" leading to micro aneurysms that cause small "knots" along the chest.

    • Polloi (Greek) - Many
    • Arteria (Greek) - Windpipe, artery
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
    • Nodosus (Latin) - Tied into many knots, full of knots
  • Polyarteritis nodosa is a type III hypersensitivity disorder characterized by transmural inflammation, fibrinoid necrosis and aneurysm formation in medium sized vessels
  • Characteristically see "rosary bead" like nodules on the front of the chest
  • PAN is usually seen in young adults and is associated with Hepatitis B and presents with malaise, fever, rash, abdominal pain
  • Corticosteroids are the cornerstones of treatment
  • Known for sparing of pulmonary vasculature
  • Polymyositis

    Pain and weakness in "many" "muscles" caused by chronic "inflammation" of poorly understood etiology. Thought to be consequence of autoimmune disorder.

    • Polloi (Greek) - Many
    • My (Greek) - Muscle
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Associated with AntiJo1, antiSRP, and AntiMi2 antibodies
  • Increased MHC I expression on muscle cells
  • High CD8+ lymphocyte infiltration
  • Treat with steroids
  • Prostatitis

    "Inflammation" of the gland that "stands" 'before" the base of the bladder

    • Pro (Greek) - Before, Forward
    • Statos (Greek) - Standing, statiory
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Can be acute, chronic or asymptomatic
  • Asymptomatic leukocytosis
  • Psoriatic arthiritis

    "Inflammation" of "joints" associated with a disease of being "itchy".

    • Psoriasis (Greek) - To be itchy
    • Arthron (Greek) - Pertaining to the Joint
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • HLAB27 association, Seronegative spondyloarthropathy
  • Pyelonephritis

    "Inflammation" of the "renal pelvis" and "kidney", often secondary to infection.

    • Pyelum (Latin) - Rel pelvis
    • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Costovertebral Tenderness, Rel Reflux (Vesicoureteral Reflux)
  • Reactive arthritis

    "Inflammation" "pertaining to joints" due to autoimmune crossreactivity

    • Arthron (Greek) - Pertaining to the Joint
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Reactive arthritis is a HLAB27 associated condition
  • Infections with chlamydia, gonorrhea, shigella, and other bugs can result in reactive arthritis
  • Reiter's syndrome is the triad of large joint arthritis, conjunctivitis, and urethritis/cervicitis
  • Described during WW1 by soontobe zi physician Hans Reiter. Used to be called Reiter syndrome, but the me was changed because of Reiter's connection to Nazism.
  • Retinitis

    An "inflammation" of the "netlike" structure of the retina

    • Rete (Latin) - Net
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • May lead to blindness
  • Reversible pulpitis

    "Inflammation" of the "soft part" of a tooth that can be "reversed" once the irritant is removed

    • Reverser (Old French) - Reverse, turn around, roll, turn up
    • Pulpa (Latin) - Soft part of animal body
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • The pulp is inflamed and is actively responding to an irritant
  • Symptoms include transient pain or sensitivity resulting from many stimuli, notably hot, cold, sweet, water and touch
  • The pulp is still considered to be vital
  • Rhinitis

    An "inflammation" of the "nose".

    • Rhino (Greek) - Nose
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Associated with colds, the flu, URI's and commonly, as part of an allergic response
  • The me literally means flowing nose
  • Sacroilitis

    "Inflammation" of the "sacred bone" and "flanks of the hip bone".

    • Sacrum (Greek) - Sacred bone
    • Ilium (Latin) - Flank
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Common condition associated with ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, reactive arthritis, and inflammatory bowel diseases
  • Salpingitis

    "Inflammation" of the "Greek trumpetshaped" fallopian tubes.

    • Salpinx (Greek) - Trumpet
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Associated with Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
  • Infertility can be a sequela
  • Sarcoid Sialadenitis

    "Inflammation" of "salivary" "glands," causing them to have a "fishy" texture

    • Sarx (Latin) - Flesh, Meat
    • Sialon (Greek) - Saliva
    • Aden (Greek) - Gland
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Affects both major and/or minor glands
  • Parotid glands enlarged in 1020% of patients
  • Bilateral, firm, painless enlargements, causing xerostomia
  • May cause dyspnea and chest discomfort
  • Scleritis

    "Inflammation" of the "hard" white part of the eyeball.

    • Skleroun (Greek) - To Harden
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Causes redness of the sclera, severe pain, and vision loss.
  • Sialadenitis

    "Inflammation" of the "glands" that produce "saliva".

    • Sialon (Greek) - Saliva
    • Aden (Greek) - Gland
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Can be acute, chronic, or recurrent
  • Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    “Inflammation” in “all” areas “within the head” involving an “under sharp,” or somewhere between acute and chronic, that appears as a “hardening” radio graphically

    • Sub (Latin) - Under, below, beneath, at the foot of
    • Acumen (Latin) - Point, Sharpness
    • Skleroun (Greek) - To Harden
    • Pan (Greek) - All, every
    • En (Greek) - Within
    • Kephale (Greek) - Head
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • A rare condition that involves complications with the measles virus
  • Synovitis

    "Inflammation" of the membrane surrounding the joint capsule.

    • Sinovia (Latin) - Albuminous fluid secreted by glands
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Causes swollen nodules at joints
  • Takayasu arteritis

    "Inflammation" of large "arteries", mainly the aorta and its branches.

    • Arteria (Greek) - Windpipe, artery
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Commonly associated with Rayud's phenomenon
  • Pulseless disease
  • Large vessel vasculitis with intimal fibrosis
  • Affects the aorta and associated branches
  • It was med after Dr. Mikito Takayasu.
  • Temporal arteritis

    "Inflammation" of large "arteries", commonly including the "temporal" artery and others nearby.

    • Temporalis (Latin) - Of a time, but for a time, pertaining to the temples.
    • Arteria (Greek) - Windpipe, artery
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Also known as giant cell arteritis
  • Commonly involves the ophthalmic artery and can lead to blindness
  • Diagnosed via palpation of the temporal arteries and/or biopsy of vessel
  • It is med giant cell arteritis because these were the cells described on biopsy of involved inflammatory cells. It is also called temporal arteritis because the temporal artery is commonly involved.
  • Tenosynovitis

    "Inflammation" of "fluidsecreting" synovial membranes surrounding "tendons".

    • Teno (Greek) - Tendon
    • Sinovia (Latin) - Albuminous fluid secreted by glands
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Treat with NSAIDs or cortisone injections
  • Trigger finger
  • Thromboangiitis obliterans

    "Inflammation" of the "vessels" that affects smokers and is commonly known as Buerger's disease. Often results in "blood clots" and "wiping out" of the blood vessels.

    • Thrombos (Greek) - Clump of blood, clot of blood
    • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
    • Obliterare (Latin) - Cause to disappear, blot out, erase
  • Associated with heavy smoking
  • Treatment is smoking cessation
  • Can lead to gangrene/autoamputation of digits
  • Associated with Raynaud phenomenon
  • King George VI of England suffered from thromboangiitis obliterans.
  • Thrombophlebitis

    A condition in which a blood "clot" blocks a "vein" leading to "inflammation".

    • Thrombos (Greek) - Clump of blood, clot of blood
    • Phleb (Latin) - Vein
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • May be seen in patients in hypercoagulable states
  • Associated with acute leukemia and malignancies of the pancreas, lung, prostate, stomach, and colon
  • Treat with NSAIDs and anticoagulation
  • May require thrombolytic or surgical stripping
  • Thyroiditis

    "Inflammation" of the "oblong shield" like gland.

    • Thureos (Greek) - Oblong shield
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Hashimoto's thyroiditis, an autoimmune condition, is a common cause of hypothyroidism
  • Tubulointerstitial nephritis

    "Inflammation" of the "small pipes" in the "kidneys."

    • Tubulus (Latin) - A small pipe
    • Interstitium (Latin) - Interval, space between
    • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Can be caused by NSAIDs, sulfonamides, penicillins
  • Associated with eosinophilic pyuria
  • Can be asymptomatic
  • Urethritis

    Inflammation of the urethra, an organ needed for the "passage of urine"

    • Ourethra (Greek) - Passage for urine
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Commonly caused by gonorrhea and chlamydia
  • When accompanied with conjunctivitis and arthritis, consider Reactive arthritis
  • Uveitis

    Inflammation of "grape"like structure in oropharynx.

    • Uva (Latin) - A grape
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Associated with HLAB27 conditions as well as other inflammatory conditions.
  • Vasculitis

    "Inflammation" of the "blood vessels"

    • Vasculum (Latin) - A small vessel
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Many types of vasculitis that present in a variety of fashions
  • Can affect arteries, veins, or both
  • MEDYMOLOGY