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Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
57 terms share this root
Anaphylactic hypersensitivity

When there is an "over" exaggerated "sensation" or reaction by the body in attempts to "guard" itself from reexposure to a perceived toxic substance "again".

  • Ana (Greek) - Again, on, upon
  • Phulaxis (Greek) - Precautiory, To guard or ward off
  • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
  • Sensitivus (Medieval Latin) - Capable of sensation
  • An allergic reaction in which the patient experiences widespread swelling, hives, itchiness, injected conjunctiva and running nose
  • Widespread degranulation of mast cells releasing histamine
  • Can lead to death if not addressed immediately
  • Treat right away with epinephrine in order to keep the airway patent
  • Often times associated with bee stings or the ingestion of peanuts if one is allergic to either.

  • Mnemonics
    Hypersensitivity Reactions
    From I-IV: Anaphylactic, Cytotoxic, Immune Complex, Delayed
    The ABCDEs of Melanoma
    Moles: signs of trouble
    Asymmetry, Border irregular, Colour irregular, Diameter usually > 0.5 cm, Elevation irregular

    • A 25-year-old man is brought to the emergency department 20 minutes after being stung by several bees.. He is altered and is struggling to breathe. His temperature is 100.9°F, pulse is 117/min, respirations are 30/min, and blood pressure is 85/43 mm Hg. Physical examination shows prolonged capillary refill. There are several red, raised, marks on the back and 2+ pitting edema of the ankles. In addition to the administration of 0.9% saline, the most appropriate next step in management is administration of what?

    USMLE Step 1

    Autosomaldominant hyperIgE syndrome (Job syndrome)

    Immune disease due to a mutation in Th17 cell leading to impaired recruitment of neutrophils to sites of infection, allowing for opportunistic infections.

    • Auto (Greek) - Self, one's own
    • Soma (Greek) - Body
    • Domint (Latin) - Ruling
    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Immunis (Latin) - Free, exempt
    • Globus (Latin) - Sphere, globe
    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
  • Presentation: FATED: course Facies, noninflamed staphylococcal Abscess, retained primary Teeth, increased IgE, Dermatologic problems (eczema)
  • The disease is med after the biblical character Job, whose body was covered with boils by Satan
  • Benign hypertension

    A condition in which "excessive" blood pressure "stretches" the vessel walls and is not actually "well""born".

    • Benigmus (Latin) - Kindly, kindhearted, friendly
    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Tensio (Latin) - Stretching
  • Leads to heart disease
  • Not accompanied by any symptoms until a later stage
  • Stage I is systolic (140159) and diastolic (9099)
  • Stage II is systolic (160179) and diastolic (100119).
  • Chronic Hyperplastic candidiasis

    A "condition" that lasts a long "time" due to "white" fungi that causes "excess" "formation" of tissue

    • Khronikos (Greek) - Of time, concerning time
    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Plasis (Greek) - Molding, Formation
    • Candidus (Latin) - White
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • The major etiologic agent of the disease is the oral fungal pathogen Candida
  • Typically presents as a white adherent patch on the commissures of the oral mucosa
  • A minor proportion may demonstrate dysplasia and develop into carcinomas
  • Cytotoxicdependent hypersensitivity

    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Toxikon (Greek) - Poison
    • Dependant (Middle English) - Hanging Down
    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Sensitivus (Medieval Latin) - Capable of sensation
  • Cytotoxic hypersensitivity
  • IgG
  • Ab against cell
  • Antibodies directed against cell surface antigens leading to destruction via complement activation or ADCC. IgG mediated. Examples include blood transfusions and autoimmune hemolytic anemia.
  • Delayedtype hypersensitivity

    A type IV sensitivity response which takes 34 days to occur.

    • De (Latin) - Away, Off, Down
    • Laier (Old French) - Leave
    • Tupos (Greek) - Impression
    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Sensitivus (Medieval Latin) - Capable of sensation
  • Type 4 hypersensitivity
  • Cell mediated response
  • CD4+ helper Tcell
  • CD8+ Tcell
  • Type 4 hypersensitivity which takes two to three days to occur. This is a cell mediated response.
  • Endometrial hyperplasia

    "Excessive" "formation" of the lining "within" the "womb."

    • Endon (Greek) - Within, Inside, Interl
    • Metrium (Latin) - Womb
    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Plasis (Greek) - Molding, Formation
  • It can lead to heavy bleeding episodes and can be the precursor to endometrial cancer
  • Growth
  • Uterus
  • Endometrium
  • Proliferation
  • Epithelial hyperkeratosis

    A “condition” in which “excess” material that also makes up animal “horns” in is made in the “above” surface layer of tissue

    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Thele (Greek) - Nipple, teat
    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Keras (Greek) - Horn
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Thickening of the stratum corneum layer with an increased production of keratin that can be benign or due to friction
  • Benign frictional hyperkeratosis
  • Epithelial hyperplasia

    An “excess” “formation” of the “above” surface layer of tissue

    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Thele (Greek) - Nipple, teat
    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Plasis (Greek) - Molding, Formation
  • A thickening of the epithelium due to an increased formation of epithelial cells
  • Gestational hypertension

    A condition in which a woman "bearing" a child develops "excessive" blood pressure that "stretches" the vessel walls

    • Gerere (Latin) - To bear, carry
    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Tenein (Greek) - To stretch, strain
  • Usually diagnosed around the 20th week of gestation
  • May progress to preeclampsia, eclampsia, and/or HELLP Syndrome.
  • It is thought that humans have evolved a more deeply implanted uterus in order to achieve better oxygen transport between the mother and fetus, which allows for faster blood perfusion back into the mother.
  • HyperIgM syndrome

    A condition in which an "excess" of "spherical" proteins which "exempt" the body from disease (IgM) causes a set of symptoms that 'run" "together".

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Immunis (Latin) - Free, exempt
    • Globus (Latin) - Sphere, globe
    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
  • Xlinked recessive disorder in which a defective CD40 ligand on T helper cells prevents the ability of B cells to undergo antibody class switching to IgG, IgA, and IgE
  • Severe pyogenic infections early in life
  • Infections with opportunistic pathogens, such as Pneumocystis, Cryptosporidium, CMV
  • Literally "excess IgM."
  • Hyperacute

    A "sharp" change that happens "excessively" quickly, within minutes.

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Acuere (Latin) - To Sharpen, sharply onset
  • Hyperacute transplant rejection type II hypersensitivity reaction that manifests as ischemia and necrosis of graft vessels
  • Hyperaldosteronism

    Condition in which "excess" "aldosterone" is produced by the adrenal glands

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Aldehyde (Latin) - Alcohol deprived of oxygen
    • Sterol (English) - Steroid, act as second messengers and in membrane stabilizers
  • Can be due to an intrinsic problem with the adrenal gland (primary) or an overactive reninangiotensin system (secondary)
  • Conn syndrome (primary) caused by adrenal adenoma, leading to low renin, normal sodium, low potassium levels, hypertension, and metabolic alkalosis
  • Secondary hyperaldosteronism manifests as high renin, high sodium, low potassium levels, and hypertension
  • Literally "excess aldosterone."
  • Hyperammonemia

    "Excess ammonia" in the "blood."

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Amine (English) - Compound in which one of the hydrogens of ammonia is replaced by a hydrocarbon radical
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Can be acquired (e.g. liver disease) or congenital (e.g. urea cycle enzyme deficiency)
  • Can cause neurological symptoms such as tremor (asterixis), slurred speech, blurred vision, somnolence, vomiting and cerebral edema
  • Treat by limiting protein intake and/or using benzoate, phenylbutyrate and lactulose to lower ammonia levels and promote excretion
  • Literally "excess ammonia in blood."
  • Hyperbilirubinemia

    Metabolic condition characterized by an "excess" of the "red" pigment in "bile" found in the "blood".

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Bilis (Latin) - Bile, Fluid secreted by liver
    • Rubor (Latin) - Redness
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Causes of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia include hemolysis, congenital enzyme deficiencies (e.g. Criglerjjar, Gilbert syndrome)
  • Causes of conjugated hyperbilirubinemia include biliary tract obstruction/disease or congenital excretion defects (e.g. Dubin Johnson syndrome, Rotor syndrome)
  • Other causes include hepatitis or cirrhosis
  • Hyperbolic

    Adjective describing something that resembles or pertains to a hyperbola (a curve). It resembles the curve of an "extreme" "throw" of a projectile.

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Bole (Greek) - To throw
  • Enzymatic reactions follow MichaelisMenten kinetics, represented by the hyperbolic curve
  • Hypercalcemia

    "Excess chalk," or calcium, in the "blood."

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Calx (Greek) - Chalk, limestone
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Associated with primary hyperparathyroidism, sarcoidosis, hypervitaminosis D, paraneoplastic syndromes (squamous cell lung cancer, lymphomas, renal cell carcinoma, breast cancer), and multiple myeloma
  • Literally "excess calcium in blood."

  • Medytoons

    "Excess" carbon dioxide, or "smoke."

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Kapnos (Greek) - Smoke, vapor
  • Metabolic condition characterized by elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the blood over 45 mmHg
  • Caused by hypoventilation, lung disease, or diminished consciousness
  • Literally "excess smoke."
  • Hypercementosis

    It is idiopathic, nonneoplastic condition characterized by the "excessive" buildup of normal cementum (calcified tissue) on the roots of one or more teeth

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Caedere (Latin) - To cut
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • A thicker layer of cementum can give the tooth an enlarged appearance, which mainly occurs at the apex or apices of the tooth.
  • Hypercholesterolemia

    Metabolic condition characterized by "excess" "cholesterol" in the "blood"

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Khole (Greek) - Bile
    • Steros (Greek) - Solid, stiff
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • May be seen in nephrotic syndrome or hypothyroidism
  • Familial hypercholesterolemia due to defective/absent LDL receptor
  • Literally "excess cholesterol in blood."
  • Hyperemesis Gravidarum

    A condition in which "pregnant" women "vomit" "excessively".

  • Associated with high levels of hCG
  • Leads to nausea, vomiting, dehydration, ketosis, weight loss, electrolyte abnormalities.
  • Hyperemia

    A state with "excess" flow of "blood" to an organ.

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Can be seen clinically as erythema
  • Hyperemic fungiform papilla

    "Excess" "Blood flow" to the taste buds on the tongue called fungiform papilla

  • Seen as a symptom called "Strawberry Tongue" in diseases such as Scarlet Fever
  • Hyperesthesia

    "Excess sensation."

  • Increased sensitivity to the senses, such as touch, smell, sight or sound
  • Literally "excess sensation."
  • Hyperestrinism

    Metabolic condition characterized by "excessive" levels of "estrogencompounds" in the "blood"

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Estrinism - Pertaining to Estrogen
  • May be seen in cirrhosis (liver can no longer metabolize estrogen)
  • Associated with spider nevi, gynecomastia, testicular atrophy
  • Hypergastrinemia

    "Excess stomach" hormone, or gastrin, in the "blood.

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Gaster (Greek) - Stomach, belly, eater, devourer
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • May result from gastrinoma (ZollingerEllison syndrome) or chronic proton pump inhibitor use
  • May present with stomach ulcers
  • Literally "excess gastrin in blood."
  • Hyperglycemia

    "Excess sweet wine," or glucose, in the "blood."

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Glykys (Greek) - Sweet, sweet wine
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Chronic hyperglycemia associated with Cushing syndrome and diabetes
  • May lead to peripheral neuropathy and retinopathy
  • Side effect of cyclosporine, protease inhibitors, glucocorticoids, tacrolimus, niacin, hydrochlorothiazide, beta blockers
  • Literally "excess glucose in blood."
  • Hyperkalemia

    "Excess potassium" in "blood."

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Kalium (Latin) - Potassium
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Associated with certain drugs (digitalis, K+ sparing diuretics, ACE inhibitors), hyperosmolarity, insulin deficiency, cell lysis, acidosis, betaadrenergic antagonists, renal failure
  • May present with arrhythmias or muscle weakness
  • Wide QRS and peaked T waves on ECG
  • Literally "excess potassium in blood."
  • Hyperkeratosis

    "Disease" resulting in an "excess horny" layer of the skin.

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Keras (Greek) - Horn
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Thickening of the outermost layer of the epidermis (stratum corneum)
  • Often associated with an abnormal increase in the amount of keratin
  • Associated with psoriasis, calluses, and verrucae
  • Literally "excess horny tissue disease." Horny tissue is keratin, which is found in skin.
  • Hypernatremia

    "Excess" "sodium" in "blood."

  • Associated with Conn Syndrome due to overproduction of aldosterone
  • The word natrium was an alternative me for sodium, hence the symbol on the periodic table of elements
  • Hyperopia

    "Excess sight," leading to farsightedness.

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Opsis (Greek) - Sight, eye
  • Also known as hypermetropia or farsightedness
  • Causes difficulty in focusing on near objects as a result of the eyeball being too short in length
  • Light focused behind retina
  • Hyperparathyroidism

    "Excess" hormone from the parathyroid, which is "beside" the "oblong shieldshaped" thyroid.

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Para (Greek) - Along, side, beside, near, against, contrary to
    • Thureos (Greek) - Oblong shield
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism caused by adenomas, hyperplasia, and carcinoma
  • May lead to osteitis fibrosa cystica
  • Secondary hyperparathyroidism due to hypocalcemia of chronic kidney disease
  • Causes hypercalcemia, which can present as stones, bones, groans and psychiatric overtones (renal stones, weakness and constipation, abdominal/flank pain, depression)
  • Hyperpathia

    A neurologic condition in which a person experiences "over or beyond" the normal sensation of "pain" than would be expected.

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
  • Associated with loss or disruption of afferent nerve fibers.
  • Hyperpigmentation

    "Excess pigment" in the skin from melanin, resulting in darkened skin.

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Pigmentum (Latin) - Color matter, pigment, paint
  • Hyperpigmentation of mouth/hands/feet seen in PeutzJeghers syndrome
  • Also seen in Addison disease, acanthosis nigricans, melasma
  • Can be the result of Busulfan toxicity or oral contraceptive pill use
  • Hyperplasia

    Growth of tissues due to “excess” “formation” of cells

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Plassein (Greek) - To mold or form
  • Can be either reversible or nonreversable depending on the tissue type
  • Seen in benign prostatic hyperplasia (A nonpathologic type), chronic bronchitis (hyperplasia of mucous cells), congenital adrenal hyperplasia
  • Depending on the tissue tpe, can progress to cancer
  • Hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis

    A "hardening" of the "arteries" causing them to be thick and "over" "formed".

  • Onion skin appearance on histology
  • Associated with severe chronic hypertension
  • Hyperplastic follicle

    Growth of due to “excess” “formation” of cells in a “little bag” particularly in a lymph node

  • This could also refer to an abnormal increase in cells in the dental follicle, which surrounds the developing tooth
  • The dental follicle differentiated into the periodontal ligament (PDL)
  • Hyperplastic pulpitis

    Condition with “excess” “formation” of cells in the “soft part” of a tooth, resulting in “inflammation”

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Plasis (Greek) - Molding, Formation
    • Pulpa (Latin) - Soft part of animal body
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • An irreversible condition found in nonvital teeth also known as pulp polyp, where the pulp chamber is exposed to the oral cavity
  • Hyperpyrexia

    Abnormally "Excess" "Fever"

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Pyretos (Greek) - Fever, burning heat
  • This is a very high fever (>41.5 degrees Celsius or >106.7 degrees Fahrenheit)
  • Many causes, including intracranial hemorrhage, sepsis, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and thyroid storm.
  • Hypersecretion

    "excessive" production of a bodily fluid that is "moved" into a lumen (as gastric acid, mucus, or growth hormone).

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Secretionem (Latin) - A dividing, separation
  • Stomach acid hypersecretion can lead to ulcers
  • Hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    A disease in which the "lungs" become "inflamed" due to inhalation of certain allergenic dusts which causes an "excessive" "sensation" .

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Sensitivus (Medieval Latin) - Capable of sensation
    • Pneumon (Greek) - Lung
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Interstitial lung disease (restrictive) that causes decreased lung volumes (FVC, TLC) and increased FEV1/FVC ratio greater or equal to 80%
  • Hypertelorism

    "Excess distance" between two organs.

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Tele (Greek) - Far off, afar, at or near a distance
  • Commonly used to describe abnormally widely spread eyes (ocular hypertelorism)
  • Associated with a number of congenital syndromes, such as DiGeorge syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome and Greig's syndrome
  • Hypertension

    "Excess stretching" of blood vessels from increased blood pressure.

  • Blood pressure in the arteries elevated above 140/90 mmHg
  • Risk factors include increased age, obesity, diabetes, smoking, genetics, African American
  • Predisposes to atherosclerosis, left ventricular hypertrophy, stroke, heart failure, renal failure, retinopathy, and aortic dissection
  • Hyperthyroidism

    "Excess" hormone from the "oblong shieldshaped" thyroid.

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Thureos (Greek) - Oblong shield
  • Symptoms include heat intolerance, weight loss, diarrhea, increased reflexes, pretibial myxedema, periorbital edema, warm and moist skin, fine hair, chest pain, palpitations
  • Graves disease, toxic multinodular goiter, thyroid storm
  • Hypertrichosis

    A "condition" in which an individual grows an "excess" amount of "hair".

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Tricho (Greek) - Hair
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Do not confuse with Hirsutism, which is a type of hypertrichosis. Hirsutism is abnormal hair growth caused by excess androgens, and is exclusive to women and children. Hypertrichosis is the more general term for abnormal and excessive hair growth over the body. Underlying diseases include malignancy, trauma, or it can be congenital.
  • Hypertriglyceridemia

    "Excess" triglycerides in the "blood."

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Tri (Greek) - Three
    • Glyceride (English) - Compound of glycerol and organic acids
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • May be caused by autosomal dominant mutation that results in hepatic overproduction of VLDL
  • May cause acute pancreatitis
  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    "Disease" of "excess heart muscle."

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Trophe (Greek) - Food, Nourishment
    • Kardia (Greek) - Heart
    • My (Greek) - Muscle
    • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
  • Most cases are autosomal dominant
  • Also seen in Friedreich's ataxia, Pompe disease
  • Causes a S4 and systolic murmur on the left sternal border that increases with valsalva and standing
  • Cause of sudden death in young athletes
  • Concentric hypertrophy of left ventricle with myofibrillar disarray and fibrosis
  • Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy

    A "disease" which causes "over" "nourishment" and enlargement of the "joints" and "bones".

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Trophe (Greek) - Food, Nourishment
    • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
    • Arthron (Greek) - Pertaining to the Joint
    • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
  • A syndrome of clubbing of the digits, periostitis of the long (tubular) bones, and arthritis
  • Hippocrates first described digital clubbing 2500 years ago, hence the use of the term Hippocratic fingers
  • Hypertrophy

    Growth of tissues due to “excess” “nourishment” of cells

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Trophe (Greek) - Food, Nourishment
  • Seen in congenital pyloric stenosis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, peptic ulcer disease (hypertrophy of Brunner glands), Menetrier disease (gastric hypertrophy), Gardener syndrome (congenital hypertrophy of retinal pigment epithelium), weight training (hypertrophy of muscle), asthma (hypertrophy of smooth muscle)
  • Hyperuricemia

    "Excess urine," or uric acid, in the "blood."

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Ouron (Greek) - Urine
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Associated with LeschNyhan syndrome, drug toxicity (pyrazinamide, thiazide, furosemide, niacin, cyclosporine), tumor lysis syndrome, and von Gierke disease
  • Immunecomplex mediated hypersensitivity

    A "plait" of antigenantibody (cells that help "exempt" body from disease) complexes that act as the "middle" man of a condition where the body feels "excess" "sensation"

  • Also known as Type III Hypersensitivity
  • AbAg complexes not adequately cleared by innate immune cells accumulate, giving rise to an inflammatory response and attraction of leukocytes
  • Serum sickness, Arthus reaction
  • SLE
  • Polyarteritis nodosa
  • Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
  • Malignant hypertension

    An "excess" "stretching" of blood vessels with "malicious" effect.

    • Malignare (Latin) - Injure maliciously
    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Tensio (Latin) - Stretching
  • Hypertensive emergency
  • Involves potentially irreversible damage to one or more organ systems
  • Occurs after a person is put under anesthesia
  • Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia

    An "excess" "formation" of growth "upon" the epithelium that appears as a "fake" "tumor"

    • Pseudein (Greek) - To deceive, cheat by lies, fake
    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Thele (Greek) - Nipple, teat
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Plasis (Greek) - Molding, Formation
  • A benign nonspecific reactive hyperplasia of stratified mucocutaneous epithelium
  • Observed in chronic inflammatory dermatoses and over some dermal neoplasms and nevi
  • Microscopically, resembles welldifferentiated squamous cell carcinoma
  • Psoriasiform hyperplasia

    A "formation" of "excess" dermis/skin growth that may become "itchy"

  • A nonspecific, histologically defined appearance that consists of regular elongation of rete ridges, supramaxillary thinning, mild spongiosis, telangiectasis of blood vessels in the papillary dermis and fusion of foot processes
  • Seen in Plasma Cell Gingivitis, which is a rare allergic reaction of unknown cause. Possible sources of antigens include certain toothpastes, food, possibly chewing gum, cinnamon, etc.
  • Clinically resembles Psoriasis
  • Psuedoepitheliomatous hyperplasia

    "Overformation" (hyperplasia) of epithelial cells, which "deceptively" resembles squamous cell carcinoma

    • Pseudein (Greek) - To deceive, cheat by lies, fake
    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Thele (Greek) - Nipple, teat
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Plasis (Greek) - Molding, Formation
  • This type of hyperplasia results from chronic inflammation and resembles squamous cell carcinoma on histology however, there is no cellular dysplasia
  • Renovascular hypertension

    A syndrome of high blood pressure, or "excess tension on the vascular system" (hypertension), caused by the kidneys in response to a growing of the "renal" arteries supplying the kidneys; Also called "renal hypertension".

    Somatic hypermutation

    A mechanism for cells to create "exceeding" amounts of "changes" or mutations in certain immune cells, that takes place in the "body"

    • Soma (Greek) - Body
    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Mutare (Latin) - To change
  • A cellular mechanism of B cells to create diversity among cellular receptors that react to foreign antigens involving a series of mutations in the variable regions of immunoglobulin genes