Term Successfully Added to Selected Deck
Unable to Add the term to selected Deck. Please try again later!
Haima (Greek) - Blood
87 terms share this root
Abetalipoproteinemia

An autosomal recessive disorder that interferes with fat and fatsoluble vitamins from food due to a condition of being "without" the "Beta" apolipoproteins or molecules made of "fat" and "protein" in the "blood".

  • A (Greek) - Not, Without
  • Beta (Greek) - The me of the second letter of the Greek alphabet, Indicator of the second
  • Lipos (Greek) - Fat
  • Protein (English) - A compound composed of amino acids
  • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • It can be easily confused with familiar dysbetalipoproteinemia, patients will show fat soluble vitamin deficiencies (A, E, D, and K), many of the symptoms are attributable to vitamin E deficiencies, foul smelling fatty diarrhea, symptoms appear in the first few months of life and can manifest as failure to thrive, acanthocytosis, and progressive blindness due to retinol (vitamin A) deficiency
  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    A "sharp" or quickly onset "mass" of "budding" or immature "white" blood cells in the "blood". The sharp onset does not refer to the time of onset, but the time within the cell development, in this case, even more immature cells.

    • Acuere (Latin) - To Sharpen, sharply onset
    • Lympha (Latin) - Water, clear water, a goddess of water
    • Blastos (Greek) - Germ, sprout, bud or budding, immature
    • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Leukemia seen more in children under 15 that involves an overproductions of either B or T lymphoblast (>20 % in bone marrow)
  • TdT positive
  • BALL is CD10+, CD19+, CD20+
  • BALL requires prophylactic chemotherapy to the scrotum and CSF
  • TALL is CD10 and presents as a thymic mass in teenagers
  • Increased incidence in Down Syndrome
  • Can be seen with the Philadelphia chromosome mutation
  • Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)

    A "sharp" or quickly onset cancer of "white" cells from the "marrow or pith" of the bones. The sharp onset does not refer to the time of onset, but the time within the cell development, in this case, even more immature cells.

    • Acuere (Latin) - To Sharpen, sharply onset
    • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
    • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • MPO+
  • Auer rods
  • Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has t(15:17) translocation of retinoic acid receptor
  • Acute monocytic leukemia lacks MPO and affects the gums
  • Acute megakaryoblast leukemia lacks MPO and is associated with Down syndrome
  • Leukemia involving > 20% myeloid cells in the bone marrow
  • Rudolf Virchow described the WBC excess as leukemia, to mean white blood
  • Alphathalassemia

    A "blood" disease med after the "sea" because it was first discovered in populations near the Mediterranean. It affects the "first" subunit of hemoglobin.

    • Alpha (Greek) - The me of the first letter of the Greek alphabet
    • Thalassa (Greek) - Sea
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • A condition in which the patient has a defect in the production of the alpha globin chain of hemoglobin. It can be a defect with varying severities depending on the number of alpha chain genes affected
  • The severity depends on the amount of alleles affected, more than 2 being clinically significant
  • Causes a microcytic anemia.
  • Individuals with thalassemia syndrome are most often of African, Asian, Mediterranean, or Middle Eastern descent.

  • Mnemonics
    These conditions make your red blood cells small really F. A. S. T.
    The Causes of Microcytic Anemia
    Fe (iron) deficiency anemia. Anemia of chronic Disease. Sideroblastic Anemia. Thalassemia
    Anemia

    Being "without" "blood".

    • An (Greek) - Without, not
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Microcytic, Megaloblastic, Iron Deficiency and Chronic Disease are major types of anemia and are characterized by lower than normal hemoglobin levels
  • During all of human history, blood has been revered as man's life force and has been treated with such severance going back to the Jews who would drain it from animals before eating, or the romans who would drink the blood of their vanquished foes to gain their strength.
  • Anemia of chronic disease

    A condition characterized by "lack of ease on the body" due to being "without" "blood" because of suffering from a disease for a "long time".

    • An (Greek) - Without, not
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
    • Khronikos (Greek) - Of time, concerning time
    • Desaise (Old French) - Lack of Ease
  • Expected findings are low Fe, low or normal TIBC and high ferritin.
  • Because the body regards any type of inflammation as an infection by a foreign bug, in order to starve the organism of iron and other resources, it prevents the release of iron into the blood. This can be seen in any inflammatory disease including cancer and other auto immune diseases that cause inflammation similar to that of an infection.

  • Mnemonics
    These conditions make your red blood cells small really F. A. S. T.
    The Causes of Microcytic Anemia
    Fe (iron) deficiency anemia. Anemia of chronic Disease. Sideroblastic Anemia. Thalassemia
    Aplastic Anemia

    To be "without" "blood" due to the bone marrow "not" "forming" new cells.

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Plassein (Greek) - To mold or form
    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Causes pancytopenia, a decrease in white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets
  • Commonly caused by parvo virus B19 in sickle cell patients
  • Idiosyncratic aplastic anemia is a potential adverse effect of chloramphenicol use and may be allergic in origin
  • Autoimmune hemolytic anemia

    The process by which "one's own" immune system "loosens" or destroys "one's own" red "blood" cells. This leads to the individual having decreased circulating red "blood" cells.

    • Auto (Greek) - Self, one's own
    • Immunis (Latin) - Free, exempt
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
    • Lutikos (Greek) - Able to loosen
    • An (Greek) - Without, not
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Caused by two types of antibodies: Warm agglutinin (IgG) seen in SLE, CLL. Cold Agglutinin (IgM) seen in Mycoplasma pneumonia or infectious mononucleosis
  • Bacteremia

    "Small stuff" in the "blood", mely bacteria.

  • Bacteremia occurs when source of infection has encroached the vascular space. Symptoms include fever, weight loss, tachycardia, etc. Treatment requires blood cultures, chest xrays, urinalysis, CSF analysis, and empiric antibiotic therapy.
  • Betathalassemia

    A "blood" disease med after the "sea" because it was first discovered in populations near the Mediterranean. It affects the "second" subunit of hemoglobin.

    • Beta (Greek) - The me of the second letter of the Greek alphabet, Indicator of the second
    • Thalassa (Greek) - Sea
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Inherited blood disorder with decreased production of adult hemoglobin (HbA) due to decreased or absent synthesis of beta chains
  • Beta thalassemia minor is the mildest form and is asymptomatic
  • Beta thalassemia major is the most severe form and patients present with severe anemia a few months after birth
  • Microcytic, hypochromic anemia with target cells
  • HbA2 and HbF on electrophoresis
  • Chipmunk facies and crewcut appearance on xray of skull due to erythroid hyperplasia

  • Mnemonics
    These conditions make your red blood cells small really F. A. S. T.
    The Causes of Microcytic Anemia
    Fe (iron) deficiency anemia. Anemia of chronic Disease. Sideroblastic Anemia. Thalassemia
    Carboxyhemoglobin

    "Spherical" protein in red "blood" cells that usually carries oxygen, but is instead bound to a "carbon" and "oxygen" group

  • Carboxy Hb has decreased oxygen binding capacity and decreased oxygen unloading in tissues...Chronic CO poisoning presents with headaches
  • Classic finding of CO poisoning is cherry red skin color
  • CO exposure from carbon monoxide that has decreased oxygen binding capacity and decreased oxygen unloading in tissues
  • Exhaust and gas heaters
  • PaO2 is normal, SaO2 is decreased
  • Carbon monoxide has 200x more affinity than oxygen for hemoglobin
  • Cavernous hemangioma

    Benign, slow growing "tumors" derived from dilated "blood" "vessels" causing "hollow spaces" filled with blood

    • Cavus (Latin) - Hollow, Space
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
    • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Common in von HippelLandau disease
  • Biopsy contraindicated due to risk of hemorrhage
  • Cephalohematoma

    A condition in which part of the "head" of a newborn baby accumulates a "mass" of "blood."

    • Kephale (Greek) - Head
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Contrast this with caput succedaneum, in which the bleeding crosses the suture lines.
  • Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

    A cancer of the "blood," specifically "originating" from the "white" blood cell line in the bone "marrow," that slowly progresses over a period of "time."

    • Khronikos (Greek) - Of time, concerning time
    • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
    • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Aka chronic granulocytic leukemia, granulocytes, leukemia, Philadelphia chromosome
  • Characterized by unregulated growth of mostly myeloid cells (neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils) in the bone marrow and their accumulation in the blood
  • 90% of CML cases are due to the characteristic chromosomal translocation, the Philadelphia chromosome (translocation between chromosome 9 and chromosome 22).
  • Dysfibrinogenemia

    A group of disorders characterized by "badly" formed proteins found in the "blood" that are normally responsible for "producing" the "fibers" of blood clots.

    • Dys (Greek) - Bad, Ill, Abnormal, Evil
    • Fibra (Latin) - A fiber, filament, entrail
    • Gene (French) - Something that produces
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Group of autosomal dominant disorders of fibrinogen
  • Epidural hematoma

    A "mass" of "blood" accumulating "above" the "hard" surface of the skull.

    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Durus (Latin) - Hard
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Associated with temporal bone fracture and tear of the middle meningeal artery
  • Lens shape on CT scan
  • Lucid interval immediately after trauma that leads to unconsciousness

  • MedyQuestion
    • A 62 year old man is brought into the emergency room after being struck in the head with blackjack during a robbery. The patient was found unconscious by paramedics. In the van, the patient regained consciousness, able to recall the assault. During your interview of the patient, he begins to become somnolent, and then become unresponsive. A rapid response is called and patient is rushes to CT. Rupture of the which artery lead to this patient’s condition?

    USMLE Step 1

    • A 62 year old man is brought into the emergency room after being struck in the head with blackjack during a robbery. The patient was found unconscious by paramedics. In the van, the patient regained consciousness, able to recall the assault. During your interview of the patient, he begins to become somnolent, and then become unresponsive. A rapid response is called and patient is rushes to CT. What classic sign would you expect to see on imaging?

    USMLE Step 1

    Extramedullary hematopoiesis

    "Blood" "made" "outside" the "pith or marrow" of bone.

  • Physiological in fetal development (liver, spleen, yolk sac)
  • May be pathological (e.g. from myelofibrosis)
  • Extravascular hemolysis

    The "destruction" of red "blood" cells "outside" of the "blood vessels".

    • Extra (Latin) - Outside
    • Vasculum (Latin) - A small vessel
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
    • Lysis (Greek) - Destruction, A loosening, setting free, releasing, dissolution
  • Usually occurs in the spleen, liver, and bone marrow by macrophages
  • Immune mediated hemolytic anemia
  • Pyruvate kinase deficiency
  • Disseminated intravascular coagulation
  • Glucose6phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency
  • Haemophilus Influenzae

    An encapsulated, gramnegative bacillus that "loves blood"

  • Secretes IgA protease
  • Cultured in chocolate agar with factors V (D+) and X (hematin)
  • Associated with epiglottitis, meningitis, otitis media, and pneumonia
  • HiB vaccine has drastically reduced cases of HiBassociated meningitis
  • The first freeliving organism to have its entire genome sequenced.
  • Hairy cell leukemia

    A condition in which the "white" "cells" in the "blood" become "hairy" appearing due to cytoplasmic projections.

    • Haer (Old English) - Hair, a hair
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • TRAP+
  • Hairlike projections
  • OSU School of Medicine helped characterize this disease and termed it hairy due to its appearance under a microscope.
  • Hemangioblastoma

    CNS "tumor or mass" that originates from "budding" cells of "blood vessels".

    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
    • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
    • Blastos (Greek) - Germ, sprout, bud or budding, immature
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Associated with VHL syndrome
  • May produce EPO
  • Hemangioma

    A benign "tumor or mass" composed of "blood" "vessels".

    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
    • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Characterized as raised red lesions
  • Found on children's faces as strawberry hemangiomas
  • Regress spontaneously in children
  • Liver hemangiomas contraindicated for biopsy due to risk of hemorrhage
  • Associated with SturgeWeber syndrome and VHL syndrome
  • Literally Named blood vessel tumor
  • Hemarthrosis

    "Bleeding" in the "joints".

    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
    • Arthron (Greek) - Pertaining to the Joint
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Associated with hemophilia, scurvy, and CrimeanCongo Fever
  • Hematemesis

    "Vomiting" "blood".

  • Blood usually originates in upper GI tract
  • Associated with MalloryWeiss syndrome and esophageal varices
  • Literally named vomiting blood
  • Hematin

    An porphyrin that is "like" the protein that contains iron in "blood" (hemin) in this case, a hydroxide group substitutes the chloride group found in hemin

  • Also known as Factor X
  • Required to culture H. influenza
  • Hematobilia

    "Bleeding" into the "biliary" tree.

    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
    • Bilis (Latin) - Bile, Fluid secreted by liver
  • May occur due to fistula between biliary tree and splanchnic arteries
  • Discovered by Francis Glisson from Cambridge.
  • Hematochezia

    "Defecating blood."

  • Also known as lower GI bleed
  • Usually passes bright red blood
  • Commonly associated with diverticulosis, colorectal cancer, angiodysplasia, inflammatory bowel diseases, and hemorrhoids
  • Hematocolpos

    A condition in which the "womb" or vagi fills with menstrual "blood".

  • Usually caused by imperforate hymen
  • Treat with surgical hymenotomy
  • Hematopoiesis

    "To make blood" from stem cells.

  • Stem cells may undergo myeloid or lymphoid differentiation.
  • Literally named to make blood
  • Hematuria

    "Blood" in the "urine".

  • The most common causes of hematuria are urinary tract infections (UTIs), kidney stones, or bladder stones. In older men, consider benign prostatic hyperplasia in the differential.
  • Less commonly seen but frequently tested causes of hematuria include IgA nephropathy, trauma, glomerulus disease, sickle cell trait/disease, rhabdomyolysis, renal cell carcinoma and drugs
  • Common drugs that cause hematuria include rifampin, metronidazole, chloroquine, sulfonamides, and phenytoin
  • Hemochromatosis

    "Disease" caused by the accumulation of iron in the body causing skin to become "blood" "colored"

    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
    • Chromo (Greek) - Color
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Clinical triad of cirrhosis, diabetes, and skin pigmentation
  • Bronze diabetic
  • Associated with a HFE gene mutation and HLAA3
  • Treated with deferoxamine
  • Lab values show increased ferritin, increased serum iron, decreased TIBC, and increased transferrin saturation
  • Hemolytic

    "Loosening" of red "blood" cells

    Hemolytic anemia

    "No" red "blood" cells caused by the "loosening" of red blood cells

    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
    • Lutikos (Greek) - Able to loosen
    • An (Greek) - Without, not
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • May be intravascular or extravascular
  • This disease is found in black rhinos.
  • Hemolytic uremic syndrome

    The triadic set of symptoms "running" "together" of anemia due to "loosening" of red "blood" cells, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure (leading to "urine" in the "blood"

    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
    • Lutikos (Greek) - Able to loosen
    • Ouron (Greek) - Urine
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
  • Associated with EHEC serotype O157:H7 and Shigella
  • Argentina has the highest incidence of HUS.
  • Hemorrhagic cyst

    A "bladder" filled with "blood" from a vessel that has "bust forth."

    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
    • Rhegnunai (Greek) - To bust forth
    • Kustis (Greek) - Bladder, atomical pouch or sac
  • Bloodfilled membrane
  • Usually selfresolve
  • Hemorrhagic Cystitis

    Severe "inflammation" of the "bladder" that results in "bleeding" into the "bladder."

    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
    • Rhegnunai (Greek) - To bust forth
    • Kustis (Greek) - Bladder, atomical pouch or sac
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Leads to dysuria, hematuria, and hemorrhage
  • Common side effect of cyclophosphamide but can be prevented with mes
  • Associated with EHEC
  • Hemorrhoid

    An area in the anus in which there is inflammation secondary to a change in "blood" "flow".

  • Can be seen secondary to increased pressure as in constipation
  • May be internal or external
  • Internal associated with painless bleeding and found above the pectite line
  • External associated with pain with minimal bleeding and are found below the pectite line
  • The first recorded hemorrhoid in history was documented on Egyptian papyrus.

  • Medytoons
    Hemosiderin

    "Iron" storage complex found within macrophages that have engulfed red "blood" cells

  • Usually found within cells
  • Heart failure cells in lungs are hemosiderinladen macrophages
  • Hemosiderosis

    "Disease" from accumulation of "iron" storage complex commonly found in macrophages that have engulfed red "blood" cells.

  • Associated with hemochromatosis and frequent blood transfusions
  • Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangeictasia/ OslerRenduWeber Disease

    Hereditary genetic disorder resulting in abnormal formation of blood vessels.

    • Hereditatem (Latin) - Heirship, inheritance, condition of being an heir
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
    • Rhegnunai (Greek) - To bust forth
    • Telos (Greek) - The end
    • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
    • Ektasis (Greek) - A Stretching Out, Extension, Dilation
    Hyperammonemia

    "Excess ammonia" in the "blood."

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Amine (English) - Compound in which one of the hydrogens of ammonia is replaced by a hydrocarbon radical
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Can be acquired (e.g. liver disease) or congenital (e.g. urea cycle enzyme deficiency)
  • Can cause neurological symptoms such as tremor (asterixis), slurred speech, blurred vision, somnolence, vomiting and cerebral edema
  • Treat by limiting protein intake and/or using benzoate, phenylbutyrate and lactulose to lower ammonia levels and promote excretion
  • Literally "excess ammonia in blood."
  • Hyperbilirubinemia

    Metabolic condition characterized by an "excess" of the "red" pigment in "bile" found in the "blood".

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Bilis (Latin) - Bile, Fluid secreted by liver
    • Rubor (Latin) - Redness
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Causes of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia include hemolysis, congenital enzyme deficiencies (e.g. Criglerjjar, Gilbert syndrome)
  • Causes of conjugated hyperbilirubinemia include biliary tract obstruction/disease or congenital excretion defects (e.g. Dubin Johnson syndrome, Rotor syndrome)
  • Other causes include hepatitis or cirrhosis
  • Hypercalcemia

    "Excess chalk," or calcium, in the "blood."

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Calx (Greek) - Chalk, limestone
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Associated with primary hyperparathyroidism, sarcoidosis, hypervitaminosis D, paraneoplastic syndromes (squamous cell lung cancer, lymphomas, renal cell carcinoma, breast cancer), and multiple myeloma
  • Literally "excess calcium in blood."

  • Medytoons
    Hypercholesterolemia

    Metabolic condition characterized by "excess" "cholesterol" in the "blood"

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Khole (Greek) - Bile
    • Steros (Greek) - Solid, stiff
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • May be seen in nephrotic syndrome or hypothyroidism
  • Familial hypercholesterolemia due to defective/absent LDL receptor
  • Literally "excess cholesterol in blood."
  • Hyperemia

    A state with "excess" flow of "blood" to an organ.

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Can be seen clinically as erythema
  • Hyperemic fungiform papilla

    "Excess" "Blood flow" to the taste buds on the tongue called fungiform papilla

  • Seen as a symptom called "Strawberry Tongue" in diseases such as Scarlet Fever
  • Hypergastrinemia

    "Excess stomach" hormone, or gastrin, in the "blood.

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Gaster (Greek) - Stomach, belly, eater, devourer
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • May result from gastrinoma (ZollingerEllison syndrome) or chronic proton pump inhibitor use
  • May present with stomach ulcers
  • Literally "excess gastrin in blood."
  • Hyperglycemia

    "Excess sweet wine," or glucose, in the "blood."

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Glykys (Greek) - Sweet, sweet wine
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Chronic hyperglycemia associated with Cushing syndrome and diabetes
  • May lead to peripheral neuropathy and retinopathy
  • Side effect of cyclosporine, protease inhibitors, glucocorticoids, tacrolimus, niacin, hydrochlorothiazide, beta blockers
  • Literally "excess glucose in blood."
  • Hyperkalemia

    "Excess potassium" in "blood."

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Kalium (Latin) - Potassium
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Associated with certain drugs (digitalis, K+ sparing diuretics, ACE inhibitors), hyperosmolarity, insulin deficiency, cell lysis, acidosis, betaadrenergic antagonists, renal failure
  • May present with arrhythmias or muscle weakness
  • Wide QRS and peaked T waves on ECG
  • Literally "excess potassium in blood."
  • Hypernatremia

    "Excess" "sodium" in "blood."

  • Associated with Conn Syndrome due to overproduction of aldosterone
  • The word natrium was an alternative me for sodium, hence the symbol on the periodic table of elements
  • Hypertriglyceridemia

    "Excess" triglycerides in the "blood."

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Tri (Greek) - Three
    • Glyceride (English) - Compound of glycerol and organic acids
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • May be caused by autosomal dominant mutation that results in hepatic overproduction of VLDL
  • May cause acute pancreatitis
  • Hyperuricemia

    "Excess urine," or uric acid, in the "blood."

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Ouron (Greek) - Urine
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Associated with LeschNyhan syndrome, drug toxicity (pyrazinamide, thiazide, furosemide, niacin, cyclosporine), tumor lysis syndrome, and von Gierke disease
  • Hypocalcemia

    "Less chalk," or calcium, in the "blood."

    • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
    • Calx (Greek) - Chalk, limestone
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Chvostek sign (facial muscle spasm upon tapping)
  • Tetany
  • Seen in secondary hyperparathyroidism, DiGeorge syndrome, hypoparathyroidism, and pseudohypoparathyroidism
  • Hypokalemia

    "Less" "potassium" in the "blood."

    • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
    • Kalium (Latin) - Potassium
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • May cause U waves on ECG
  • Seen in 17 alpha hydroxylase deficiency (congenital adrenal hyperplasia), hyperaldosteronism (Conn syndrome), VIPoma, Bartter syndrome, Liddle syndrome, Type 1 Rel tubular acidosis
  • Hyponatremia

    "Less" "sodium" in the "blood."

    • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
    • Natrium (Latin) - Sodium
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Seen in legionella pneumophila infection, SIADH
  • Hypoproteinemia

    A metabolic condition characterized by "low" levels of "protein" in the "blood"

    • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
    • Proteios (Greek) - The first wuality
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • A result of nephrotic syndrome
  • Hypovolemia

    A state of "less" than normal "blood" plasma "size".

    • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
    • Volumen (Latin) - Roll, coil, wreath, size, volume
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Hypovolemic shock
  • Regulates antidiuretic hormone
  • Hypoxemia

    A metabolic condition characterized by "low" levels of "oxygen" in the "blood".

    • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
    • Oxys (Greek) - Sharp
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Hypoxic ischemic stroke
  • Respiratory alkalosis
  • Cyanosis
  • Causes of normal Aa gradient hypoxemia include high altitude, hypoventilation
  • Causes of increased Aa gradient hypoxemia include V/Q mismatch, diffusion limitation, right to left shunt
  • Hypoxemic

    Having "less" than normal "oxygen" in the "blood."

    • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
    • Oxys (Greek) - Sharp
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Pa O2 <60, SaO2<90%
  • Caused by decrease in FiO2 (high altitude
  • Decreased PAO2 (hypoventilation)
  • Decreased PaO2 (Normal Aa: high altitude or hypoventilation
  • Elevated Aa: V/Q mismatch, diffusion limitation, R> L shunt)
  • Decreased SaO2 (CO poisoning, MetHb)
  • Do not confused with hypoxia (decreased O2 to tissues, not necessarily too little O2 in blood)
  • Intrarenal azotemia

    Disease "within" the "kidney" that results in the accumulation of "nitrogenous" waste products in the "blood"

    • Intra (Latin) - On the inside, within
    • Renes (Latin) - Kidneys
    • Azote (French) - Nitrogen
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Caused by damage to the functioning kidney cells in conditions like acute tubular necrosis, glomerulonephritis, ischemia, or autoimmune processes
  • BUN:Cr <20:1 (usually 10:1)
  • Treatment is supportive and always includes avoiding nephrotoxic drugs
  • Intravascular hemolysis

    The "destruction" of red "blood" cells "within" the "vessels."

    • Intra (Latin) - On the inside, within
    • Vasculum (Latin) - A small vessel
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
    • Lysis (Greek) - Destruction, A loosening, setting free, releasing, dissolution
  • Associated with low haptoglobin levels
  • Haptoglobin binds free hemoglobin
  • Iron deficiency anemia

    A common anemia (low hemoglobin levels in the "blood") caused by a "failure" of the body to have enough "iron".

    • Iron (Old English) - The metal iron; an iron weapon
    • Deficere (Latin) - To Desert, Revolt, Fail
    • An (Greek) - Without, not
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Could be due to a problem with iron intake, iron absorption, or from loss of iron due to bleeding
  • Causes a microcytic, Hypochromic anemia
  • Most common type of anemia worldwide
  • Can sometimes be caused by parasitic infections.

  • Mnemonics
    These conditions make your red blood cells small really F. A. S. T.
    The Causes of Microcytic Anemia
    Fe (iron) deficiency anemia. Anemia of chronic Disease. Sideroblastic Anemia. Thalassemia
    Ischemia

    A restriction in "blood" supply to tissues, either due to blockage or excess vasodilation (blood is literally "kept from" the tissues). The shortage of blood causes a shortage of oxygen.

  • Ischemia is generally caused by problems with blood vessels, with resultant damage to or dysfunction of tissue.
  • Ischemic heart disease

    The disease is caused by plaque building up along the inner walls of the coronary arteries of the heart, which arrows the arteries and "holds back" "blood" flow to the heart resulting in necrosis of the cardiac epithelium.

    • Iskhein (Greek) - Keep back, to hold
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
    • Heorte (Old English) - Heart, breast, soul, spirit, will, courage
    • Desaise (Old French) - Lack of Ease
  • This is the most common type of "heart" disease and cause of heart attacks
  • Greater than 90% stenosis will result in transmural (full wall) necrosis
  • Ketonemia

    The presence of "ketones "in the "blood"

    Leukemia

    A group of cancers of the "white" "blood" cells

    Macroangiopathic anemia

    To be "without" "blood" due to damaged RBCs in systemic circulation due to "large" amounts of force in small "vessels".

    • Makros (Greek) - Large, large to scale
    • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
    • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
    • An (Greek) - Without, not
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Mechanical heart valves, calcified or stenotic heart valves, schistocyte (helmet cells)
  • Megaloblastic anemia

    Type of anemias in which "budding cells" are "larger" than normal due to impaired D synthesis leading to being "without" proper "blood" composition.

    • Megalo (Greek) - Great, large
    • Blastos (Greek) - Germ, sprout, bud or budding, immature
    • An (Greek) - Without, not
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • B12 or folate deficiency
  • Methemoglobin

    "Ball" of "blood" that has oxidized form of hemoglobin "in the midsts of" reduced affinity for O2 but increased affinity for cyanide.

    • Meta (English) - Beyond, in the midst of
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
    • Globus (Latin) - Sphere, globe
  • Involved in cyanide poisoning
  • To treat cyanide poisoning, using nitrites to induce methemoglobin, which will bind up cyanide, then give thiosulfate to bind cyanide, which will form thiocyanate (renally excreted), and give Vit E or methylene blue to reduce methemoglobin
  • Methylmalonic acidemia

    A condition in which there is a build up of methylmalonic "acid" accumulates in the "blood".

  • May be due to deficiency in vitamin B12
  • May be due to inherited autosomal recessive defects in the pathway that converts methylmalonylCoA to succinyl CoA
  • Microangiopathic anemia

    "Abnormal" "small" red "blood" cell "suffering" damage when passing through obstructed or arrowed vessel lumina, prosthetic heart valves, or aortic stenosis.

    • Mikros (Greek) - Small, little, petty, trivial, slight
    • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
    • Pathic (Greek) - Suffering, remaining passive
    • An (Greek) - Without, not
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Involves schistocyte, hemolysis
  • Microcytic Anemia

    A condition of being "without" proper "blood" because the "cells" are too "small".

    • Mikros (Greek) - Small, little, petty, trivial, slight
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • An (Greek) - Without, not
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Commonly seen in iron deficiency anemia
  • A lack of iron leads to cells dividing more to saturate red blood cells with iron to store oxygen, causing them to be smaller than normal
  • Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

    The presence of "sphere" shaped proteins containing "blood" in the "urine" that is "sudden onset" at "night"

  • Rare hereditary disorder with complement induced intravascular hemolysis due to CD55 and CD59 receptor deficiencies
  • MarchiafavaMicheli syndrome, me is a misnomer presented with hemoglobinuria in the morning because of increased acidity when sleeping which leads to increased activation of the complement system
  • Pernicious anemia

    A condition of being "without" "blood" due to "destruction" of the lining of the stomach that produces intrinsic factor.

  • A megaloblastic anemia caused by a lack of intrinsic factor secretion by gastric parietal cells, leading to a vitamin B12 deficiency.
  • The original treatment was large amounts of liver juice

  • MedyQuestion
    • A patient with known rheumatoid arthritis goes to see his primary care physician complaining of easy fatigue, despite his treatment for the last 3 months. On physical exam, the patient has notable palore of the conjunctiva and skin. A cbc performed demonstrates a hgb of 10.5, wbc of 6,700. Differential demonstrates an MCV of 110. Antibodies against what are causing this patient’s symptoms?

    USMLE Step 1

    Polycythemia

    Increased/"many" red "blood" "cell" mass/hematocrit

  • A cause of polycythemia is the condition polycythemia vera
  • Polycythemia vera

    "True" abnormal rise (too "many") in number of "blood" "cells" (primarily Red Blood Cells) due to bone marrow dysfunction

    • Polloi (Greek) - Many
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
    • Verus (Latin) - True
  • Polycythemia vera is caused by a JAK2 gene mutation that causes elevated hematocrit (>55%) and episodic blood clots in the extremities, leading to severe, burning pain and redbluish discoloration
  • Classically presents as intense itching after a hot shower.
  • Postrenal azotemia

    Disease process after or "beyond" the "kidney" that results in the accumulation of "nitrogenous" waste products in the "blood"

    • Post (Latin) - Behind, afterward
    • Renes (Latin) - Kidneys
    • Azote (French) - Nitrogen
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Caused by backup of urine into the kidney resulting in increased pressure in conditions like enlarged prostate or kidney stones
  • BUN:Cr >20:1
  • Bladder catheters may be inserted into the urinary tract to help
  • Prerenal azotemia

    Disease process "before" the "kidney" that results in the accumulation of "nitrogenous" waste products in the "blood"

    • Prae (Latin) - Before in time or place
    • Renes (Latin) - Kidneys
    • Azote (French) - Nitrogen
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Caused by decreased blood flow to the kidneys in conditions like massive blood loss, heart failure, or renal artery obstruction
  • BUN:Cr > 20:1
  • Potentially reversible if blood flow is restored
  • Schistosoma hematobium

    Parasite that "specifically lives" in the "blood" networks around the bladder. It looks like it has a "divided" "body" under a microscope.

    • Schistos (Greek) - Divided, deparated
    • Soma (Greek) - Body
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
    • Bium (New Latin) - Organism having specific mode of life
  • Major agent of Schistosomiasis found mostly in the Middle East and Africa. Causes hematuria and fibrosis of the bladder
  • This results from adults populating the venous plexuses of the bladder releasing eggs into the wall of the bladder.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma
  • Hematuria
  • Praziquantel
  • Schistosomiasis was first described by Theodor Biharz in 1851 while working at the KasrelAini hospital in Cairo. He discovered the trematode during a postmortem examination.
  • Sickle cell anemia

    A condition of having low red blood cells or hemoglobin, resulting in "crescent"shaped or "sickle"shaped red blood cells

    • Secare (Latin) - To cut
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • An (Greek) - Without, not
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Hereditary blood disorder caused by a point mutation in the betaglobin chain of hemoglobin and characterized by sickling of deoxygenated red blood cells.
  • Mutation is a point mutation of valine(nonpolar) for glutamic acid(polar)
  • Vasoocclusive crisis is the basis for many manifestations of sickle cell disease such as dactylitis, avascular necrosis of the hip, acute chest syndrome, and autosplenectomy
  • A point mutation that replaces glutamic acid for valine, leading to anemia and vasoocclusive disease. Sickle cell anemia leads to crescent shaped RBCs (sickled), crew cut skull on xray, and can confer resistance to malaria in heterozygotes. Complications include aplastic crisis, autosplenectomy, salmonella infection, renal papillary necrosis, and painful hand swelling.

  • MedyQuestion
    • A 6 year old boy is brought into the hospital by his mother because of acute onset left sided abdominal and flank pain, associated with vomiting. The patient on exam is found to be in the fetal position in pain, tachycardic to 110 and hypotensive to the 70s. On CBC with smear, the patient is found to have a hemoglobin of 7, from his baseline of 9, and sickled red cells can be appreciated on the peripheral smear. What is causing the patient’s current problem?

    USMLE Step 1

    Sideroblastic anemia

    A condition of being "without" "blood" because "budding" cells contain "constellations" of iron, preventing it from being used in red blood cells.

    • Sidus (Latin) - Constellation
    • Blastos (Greek) - Germ, sprout, bud or budding, immature
    • An (Greek) - Without, not
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • A defect in the enzyme aminolevulinic acid synthase, leading to decreased heme synthesis. Characterized by ringed sideroblasts and increased iron and ferritin levels. Treated with pyridoxine.
  • Defective ALA synthase
  • Ringed sideroblasts
  • Pyridoxine treatment

  • Mnemonics
    These conditions make your red blood cells small really F. A. S. T.
    The Causes of Microcytic Anemia
    Fe (iron) deficiency anemia. Anemia of chronic Disease. Sideroblastic Anemia. Thalassemia
    Subdural hematoma

    A "mass" of "blood" "under" the "hard" layer of the meninges

    • Sub (Latin) - Under, below, beneath, at the foot of
    • Durus (Latin) - Hard
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Hemorrhage that occurs under the dura of the brain, usually secondary to traumatic brain injury.
  • Crescent shaped hematoma on CT scan
  • Shaken baby syndrome
  • Common in elderly due to brain shrinkage
  • Usually caused by stretching of the bridging veins in the subdural space due to increased intracranial pressure.
  • Thalassemia

    Hereditary "blood" disorders where the body produces structurally abnormal hemoglobin, med after being seen in people who lived near the Mediterranean "sea".

  • Alpha thalassemias are associated with Asian or African descent
  • Beta thalassemias are associated with Mediterranean descent
  • Result in microcytic anemias

  • Mnemonics
    These conditions make your red blood cells small really F. A. S. T.
    The Causes of Microcytic Anemia
    Fe (iron) deficiency anemia. Anemia of chronic Disease. Sideroblastic Anemia. Thalassemia
    Uremia

    Excessive amounts of "urea" in the "blood."

  • Uremia is the U of the MUDPILES mnemonic, and is therefore a cause of increased anion gap metabolic acidosis
  • In 1851, E.T. Frerich described clinical uremic syndrome and suggested that a toxicity was the mechanism of it cause. It was in 1856 that J. Picard developed a sensitive method to reproducibly measure blood urea. He was able to detect a 40% decrease of urea concentration between the renal artery and the renal vein. This work solidified the fact that renal failure coincided with an increase in blood urea. It was J. Picard with E.T. Frerich's work that made the term uremia popular
  • Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia

    A "large" "globe" of white "blood" cells.

    • Makros (Greek) - Large, large to scale
    • Globus (Latin) - Sphere, globe
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Slow growing tumor of B cells what produce large amounts of IgM. Due to the increase in B cells there is a decrease in production of other cell types in the bone marrow leading to anemia
  • Characterized by high levels IgM in the blood
  • The me of the disease comes literally from the fact that there is excess amounts of IgM in the blood
  • Xlinked (Bruton) agammaglobulinemia

    "Without" "immunoglobulins" in the "blood."

    • X - Chromosome med by Hermann Henking in 1890 from x (signifying the unknown) due to some baffling properties he had observed
    • Gelenk (Greek) - Joint
    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Gamma (Greek) - The me of the third letter of the Greek alphabet; signifies gamma globulin
    • Globus (Latin) - Sphere, globe
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • X linked disease. Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase enzyme problem
  • Because of the lack of immunoglobulin, patients are extremely prone to bacterial infections
  • Common infections are caused by encapsulated bacteria
  • The doctor who described the condition noticed it in children that were unable to develop an immunity to infections
  • Mesenteric Ischemia

    A condition in which "blood" is "held back" or blocked from entering the "middle" of the "gut or bowel".

    • Mesos (Greek) - Middle, in the middle, in between
    • Enteron (Greek) - Intestine, Small intestint, Piece of Gut, Bowel
    • Iskhein (Greek) - Keep back, to hold
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Presents as extreme abdominal pain that is disproportionate to the patient's physical exam. (i.e. palpating their abdomen does not illicit more pain).
  • Often times associated with patient's with Afib, as clots formed in the heart can travel to the blood supply of the intestines
  • This is a surgical emergency, and these patients need to go to the OR for bowel resection or risk death

  • MedyQuestion
    • A 64 year old man with medical history significant for hypertension controlled on hydrochlorothiazide, atrial fibrillation after an MI in 2005, and diabetes type II who presented to the emergency room for abdominal pain. He says the pain is ten out of ten, does not radiate and does not localize anywhere. On physical exam he is lying in the left lateral decubitus position holding his stomach. He has a temperature of 101F, and is tachycardic to 111. Bowel sounds are normal. Palpation of the abdomen reveals no increased tenderness. What is the most likely diagnosis in this patient?

    USMLE Step 1

    MEDYMOLOGY