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Granum (Latin) - Grain, seed
15 terms share this root
Agranulocytosis

A "condition" in which the body does "not" produce immune "cells" that contain "grain" like inclusions that contain chemicals to fend off invaders.

  • A (Greek) - Not, Without
  • Granum (Latin) - Grain, seed
  • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Very high risk of infection due to immunosuppression
  • Classically associated with drugs such as antithyroid drugs (methimazole, propylthiouracil, etc.), clozapine, carbamazepine, and NSAIDs.
  • Med literally without production of granule containing cells
  • Birbeck granule

    Rod shaped, tennis racquet cytoplasmic organelles with a striated appearance seen in epidermal Langerhans cells

  • Characteristic of Langerhans cell histiocytosis
  • S100 and CD1a immunohistochemistry
  • Birbeck med after British scientist and electron microscopist Michael Stanley Clive Birbeck (1925–2005) who discovered these granules
  • Chromogranin A

    A small "grain"like and "colored" protein made by certain cells in the body that functions in helping cells to secrete substances and is also used as a marker for certain diseases.

    • Khroma (Greek) - Color, complexion character
    • Granum (Latin) - Grain, seed
  • Negative regulator of neuroendocrine function, precursor, neurons, endocrine cells
  • Its levels are elevated in pheochromocytoma and diabetes
  • It is used as an indicator for pancreas and prostate cancer and in carcinoid syndrome
  • In serves as a precursor to other and functions to neuroendocrine secretory protein located in vesicles in neurons and endocrine cells that is a precursor for several functional peptides that negatively regulate the neuroendocrine function of the releasing cell (autocrine) or nearby cells (paracrine).
  • Chromogranin A is a precursor for vasostatin, pancreastatin, catestatin, and pravastatin. These are all negative neuroendocrine regulators.
  • Echinococcus Granulosus

    A cestode (tapeworm) which can cause hydatid disease in humans (cysts in the liver, lung and brain). AKA hydatid worm, their body segments have a tough outer shell of tegument that resembles a "prickly berry".

    • Echinos (Greek) - Pickly Husk
    • Coccus (Latin) - Berry shaped, spherical
    • Granum (Latin) - Grain, seed
  • Echinococcus' main target (primary host) is the small intestine of dogs, and they use sheep as intermediate hosts. Humans are considered a dead end host.
  • Eosinophilic granuloma

    "Seed"like lesions on the skin composed of "dawn" colored cells.

    • Eos (Greek) - Dawn
    • Philein (Greek) - To love
    • Granum (Latin) - Grain, seed
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Benign form of Langerhans cell histiocytosis
  • May present as lytic bone lesions that could potentially cause bone pain and fracture
  • Presents in cats as skin diseases
  • Granulocyte

    A group of white blood "cells" that look like they contain "seeds," or granules, within their cytoplasm

    • Granum (Latin) - Grain, seed
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Granulocytes include neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
  • Granules contain different types of enzymes specific for each type
  • Granulocyte macrophage colonystimulating factor

    A cytokine secreted by immune cells to stimulate myeloid precursor differentiation into granulocytes and monocytes

    • Granum (Latin) - Grain, seed
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Colonia (Latin) - Settlement
    • Makros (Greek) - Large, large to scale
    • Phagein (Greek) - To eat, eater of
    • Stimulat (Latin) - Urged
    • Facere (Latin) - To do, To make
  • Treatment for aplastic anemia
  • Granuloma

    A "seed"like "mass" composed of macrophages.

    • Granum (Latin) - Grain, seed
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • An organized balllike collection of "epithelioid" macrophages that have elongated nuclei and appear similar to epithelial cells
  • Seen in tuberculosis, leprosy, histoplasmosis, and other infections
  • Occurs when the immune system attempts to walloff a foreign body that it can not eliminate
  • Similar to a jailcell containing a foreign body (prisoner) with the "epithelioid" macrophages acting as the jailcell bars
  • Granulomatosis with polyangiitis

    "Seed"like "inflammation" of "multiple" "blood vessels".

    • Granum (Latin) - Grain, seed
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
    • Polloi (Greek) - Many
    • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Affects the nasopharynx, lung, and kidneys
  • May be diagnosed by presence of PR3ANCA/cANCA
  • Triad of necrotizing vasculitis, necrotizing glomerulonephritis, and necrotizing granulomas in the lung
  • May present clinically with hemoptysis, hematuria, and saddlenose deformity
  • Originally known as Wegener's Granulomatosis, the me has been changed to granulomatosis with polyangiitis due to Wegener's Nazi past.
  • Granulomatous

    A term that means characterized by "seedlike" "masses".

    • Granum (Latin) - Grain, seed
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
    Granzymes

    Enzymes stored within small "seed"like structures in cells that destroy other cells.

    • Granum (Latin) - Grain, seed
    • Zume (Greek) - To leaven
  • Serine proteases that are released by cytotoxic T cells and initiate apoptosis in the target cell
  • These molecules were unofficially named Grs for years before scientists came up with the me granzymes.
  • Non caseating granuloma

    These granulomas are "seed"like "masses" without" a "cheese"like center.

    • Non (Latin) - Not
    • Caseus (Latin) - Cheese
    • Granum (Latin) - Grain, seed
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Crohn's disease
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Made of epitheloid histiocytes lacking central necrosis
  • Pyogenic granuloma

    A "granular" "tumor or mass" that "produces" "pus".

    • Puon (Greek) - Discharge from a sore, pus
    • Gene (French) - Something that produces
    • Granum (Latin) - Grain, seed
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Pregnancy tumor
  • Overgrowth of vascular tissue due to irradiation, trauma or hormones. Technically a capillary hemangioma so are prone to bleeding and occur in the gums, skin and sal septum.
  • First described in 1897 by French surgeons who med the growths 'botryomycosis hominis'
  • Stratum granulosum

    A "grain"appearing "layer" of skin (epidermis) containing keratinocytes

  • Layer of the skin (epidermis) that is above the stratum spinosum and it is composed of keratinocytes that have migrated up from the spinosum layer.
  • Cells contain keratohyalin granules
  • Sulfer granules

    A small "grain" like particle that resembles sulfur

  • Found in Actinomycosis bacterial infection
  • Filled with progeny bacteria
  • MEDYMOLOGY