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Glossa (Greek) - Tongue
12 terms share this root

An anamoly of the mouth in which the "tongue" has a bend in the front of it causing it to look like a bent "elbow".

  • Ankyloglossia is known colloquially as "tonguetied"
  • Caused by a short frenulum that causes the tip of the tongue to attach to the floor of the mouth more anteriorly than normal
  • It is often asymptomatic and difficult to diagnose, however can cause speech difficulties, poor oral hygiene, and trouble with swallowing foods
  • Epiglottitis

    Acute inflammation of the tissue "above" the windpipe and behind the "tongue."

    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Glossa (Greek) - Tongue
  • Commonly associated with H. influenza Type B
  • Commonly presents as enlarged cherryred epiglottis and arytenoids
  • Thumb print sign on lateral xray
  • George Washington may died of complications from epiglottitis in 1799.
  • Genioglossus

    A muscle under the "chin" that depresses and protrudes the "tongue"

  • Innervated by the hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)
  • Fanshaped muscle under the chin
  • Damage to the hypoglossal nerve causes deviation of the tongue towards the side of the lesion
  • The me of the muscle is derived straight from the latin root as the me literally means chintongue muscle.
  • Glossitis

    "Inflammation" of the "tongue"

    • Glossa (Greek) - Tongue
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Characterized as strawberry tongue in scarlet fever
  • Associated with irondeficiency anemia, niacin and folate deficiencies, and infection
  • Glossopharyngeal

    Area referring to the "tongue" and "throat"

    Glossopharyngeal nerve

    The 9th cranial nerve that innervates the "tongue" and "throat/ windpipe"

    • Glossa (Greek) - Tongue
    • Pharynx (Greek) - Throat, windpipe
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Taste and touch sensation from the posterior 1/3 of the tongue
  • Salivation of the parotids
  • Monitors carotid body and sinus
  • Motor innervation to the stylopharyngeus
  • Hyoglossus

    "Ushaped" that muscle that flattens, retracts and depresses the "tongue"

    • Hyoides (Greek) - Shaped like the letter u
    • Glossa (Greek) - Tongue
  • Innervated by the hyoglossal nerve (cranial nerve XII)
  • Blood supply from the lingual artery, which is derived from the external carotid artery
  • Hypoglossal nerve

    The "cord" that runs "under" the "tongue"

    • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
    • Glossa (Greek) - Tongue
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Cranial nerve XII
  • Innervates extrinsic muscles of the tongue
  • Palatoglossus

    Muscle of the "tongue" that aids in the initiation of swallowing It originates in the "roof of the mouth" and attaches to the posterior "tongue."

    • Palatum (Greek) - Roof of the mouth, of the Palace
    • Glossa (Greek) - Tongue
  • Lifts posterior tongue and closes the oropharyngeal isthmus
  • Prevents saliva from going into the oropharynx
  • Styloglossus

    A muscle that lifts up the sides of the "tongue" like a "pillar" during swallowing and helps retract the tongue.

  • Muscle that lifts up the sides of the tongue during swallowing and helps to retract the tongue.
  • Innervated by CN XII
  • Thyroglossal duct

    A an embryological connection between the "oblong shield" shaped organ's initial position at the posterior "tongue" and it's fil position in the neck.

  • This structure normally involutes
  • Located completely in the midline
  • Persistence of the thyroglossal duct leads to the formation of a thyroglossal duct cyst
  • Thyroglossal duct cysts typically moves up upon protrusion of the tongue
  • Thyroglossal Duct Cyst

    A "sac" formed due to a developmental abnormality where the canal "leading" to the "thyroid's" fil position, away from the "tongue" (glossus), persists.

  • During normal development, the thyroid migrates inferiorly away from the tongue through a tract (thyroglossal duct) connecting the tongue and the fil location of the thyroid. If the duct is not properly obliterated, a cyst can develop.
  • Most common congenital neck cyst