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Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
39 terms share this root
Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)

A "sharp" or quickly onset cancer of "white" cells from the "marrow or pith" of the bones. The sharp onset does not refer to the time of onset, but the time within the cell development, in this case, even more immature cells.

  • Acuere (Latin) - To Sharpen, sharply onset
  • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
  • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
  • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
  • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • MPO+
  • Auer rods
  • Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has t(15:17) translocation of retinoic acid receptor
  • Acute monocytic leukemia lacks MPO and affects the gums
  • Acute megakaryoblast leukemia lacks MPO and is associated with Down syndrome
  • Leukemia involving > 20% myeloid cells in the bone marrow
  • Rudolf Virchow described the WBC excess as leukemia, to mean white blood
  • Agenesis

    The process in which something is "not" formed or "born".

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
  • Kidney agenesis causes a potter sequence and is incompatible with life
  • Amelogenesis imperfecta

    Disorder where the "production" of "enamel" is "unfinished"

    • Amelo (English) - Emel
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
    • Imperfectus (Latin) - Unfinished
  • A rare inherited disorder, amelogenesis imperfecta is a disorder of defective enamel proteins it does not describe enamel defects caused by systemic conditions
  • AMELX, EM, and MMP20 are the genes defective in amelogenesis imperfecta
  • Amelogenesis imperfecta hypocalcified type

    Disorder where the "production" of "enamel" is "unfinished" this type of amelogenesis imperfecta is "under"crystalized, like "limestone" crystal

    • Amelo (English) - Emel
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
    • Imperfectus (Latin) - Unfinished
    • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
    • Calcis (Latin) - Lime
  • This type of amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) has enamel that has normal thickness but wears easily
  • Defect in crystallization of enamel
  • Amelogenesis imperfecta hypomaturation type

    Disorder where the "production" of "enamel" is "unfinished" this type of amelogenesis imperfecta is "under" "ripened", as the enamel is not properly matured

    • Amelo (English) - Emel
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
    • Imperfectus (Latin) - Unfinished
    • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
    • Maturus (Latin) - Timely, ripe
  • This type of amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) has enamel that has normal thickness but wears easily
  • Defect in maturation of enamel
  • Amelogenesis imperfecta hypoplastic type

    Disorder where the "production" of "enamel" is "unfinished" this type of amelogenesis imperfecta is "under" "formed", as in not enough enamel is formed

    • Amelo (English) - Emel
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
    • Imperfectus (Latin) - Unfinished
    • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
    • Plastin (Greek) - To mold
  • This type of amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) may have enamel that is smooth but thin, or normal thickness but pitted
  • Defect in amount of enamel
  • Anagen effluvium

    The "flowing out" off of the head of new "again" "produced" hair follicles.

    • Ana (Greek) - Again, on, upon
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
    • Effluvium (Latin) - A flowing out
  • A phenomenon seen in chemotherapy when a patient loses his or her hair
  • Androgen

    A hormone that "produces or originates" the development of a "man".

    • Andro (Greek) - Man, male
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
  • A steroid hormone
  • Development of male sex organs
  • Androgen literally means making man
  • Testosterone is the most well known androgen
  • Angiogenesis

    The process by which "blood vessels" are "born or produced".

    • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
  • Stimulated by a number of factors including but not limited to VEGF, FGF, and Ang1 and 2
  • Tumors utilize the process of angiogenesis in order to supply themselves with more blood.
  • Angiogenesis occurs in response to intense exercise. As the bodies demands for oxygen and blood increase with working out, the body adjusts by increasing blood vessel surface area to supply the various tissues with enough oxygen.
  • Antigenpresenting cell

    A type of "cell" that "shows or presents" "origins" of molecules from substances that act "against" the body to the immune system.

    • Anti (Greek) - Against, opposite, opposed to
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
    • Praesentare (Latin) - To place before
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Dendritic cells, Macrophages, B cells
  • Benign

    Any "well""born", nonmalignant condition that does not spread to other parts of the body.

    • Bene (Latin) - Well
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
  • Something that is benign is nonmalignant, or well or good. A benign tumor for example is a tumor that is not cancerous.
  • Cardiogenic shock

    "Violent attack" on the body in which the "origin" of the problem is the ventricles of the "heart"

    • Kardia (Greek) - Heart
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
    • Choc (Middle French) - Violent Attack
  • Low output heart failure with decreased cardiac output, decreased venous return and increased total peripheral resistance
  • Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure is increase
  • Vasoconstriction throughout the body producing a cold, clammy patient
  • Blood pressure can be restored with IV fluids
  • Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

    A cancer of the "blood," specifically "originating" from the "white" blood cell line in the bone "marrow," that slowly progresses over a period of "time."

    • Khronikos (Greek) - Of time, concerning time
    • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
    • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Aka chronic granulocytic leukemia, granulocytes, leukemia, Philadelphia chromosome
  • Characterized by unregulated growth of mostly myeloid cells (neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils) in the bone marrow and their accumulation in the blood
  • 90% of CML cases are due to the characteristic chromosomal translocation, the Philadelphia chromosome (translocation between chromosome 9 and chromosome 22).
  • Collagen

    A protein whose "origin" and function is to act as the "glue" of the body, holding muscles, organs, etc. in place.

    • Kolla (Greek) - Glue
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
  • Connective tissue, skin, tendons, ligaments, cartilage, bone, blood vessels, IV discs, teeth, gut
  • The word collagen comes from Greek for producing glue because the compound was originally used in the process of boiling the skin and sinews (band of connective tissue connecting muscle to bones) of horses and other animals to obtain glue.
  • Collagenase

    An "enzyme" used to break down the "glue" like protein, collagen

    • Kolla (Greek) - Glue
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
    • Ase (English) - Used to form the me of enzymes
  • Enzyme, peptide bonds, muscle cells, Clostridium, gas gangrene, bacteria, immune response
  • Collagenase assist in destroying extracellular structures in the pathogenesis of bacteria like Clostridium. It is considered a virulence factor and facilitates the spread of gas gangrene. However, collagenase is being considered as a drug for the treatment of Peyronie's disease (growth of fibrous plaques in the soft tissue of the penis).
  • Cryptogenic

    When a disease is "produced by" a "hidden" or unknown source.

    • Kryptos (Greek) - Hidden
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
  • Usually not common on the boards as the point is to diagnose the patient in question stems
  • Only ever applicable if its in the me of the disease being diagnosed because the pathology isn't fully understood
  • Dyshormonogenic goiter

    The "bad" production of thyroid "hormones" leading to hypothyroidism with a "goiter" (a swelling of the thyroid gland).

    • Dys (Greek) - Bad, Ill, Abnormal, Evil
    • Horman (Greek) - Urge, impell
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
    • Gutter (Latin) - Throat
  • Goiter
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Thyroid hormone
  • Embryogenesis

    The "origin" of the development of the embryo or "fetus".

    • Embruon (Greek) - Fetus
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
  • Embryo
  • Development
  • Differentiation
  • Zygote
  • Sperm
  • Egg
  • Fertilization
  • Endogenous stains

    A "discolored" spot or area on a tooth contrasting with the rest of the tooth color that is "intrinsic" in "origin."

    • Endon (Greek) - Within, Inside, Interl
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
    • Disteynen (Middle english) - To discolor or stain
  • Endogenous stains are always intrinsic. Stains that cannot be scaled or polished off are intrinsic.
  • Endogenous=Intrinsic, Stains seen in odontogenesis imperfecta are intrinsic stains.
  • Estrogen

    Group of primary female sex steroid hormones that lead to the "birth" or creation of "frenzied" individuals.

    • Oestrus (Latin) - Frenzy
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
  • Used as part of oral contraceptives and estrogen replacement therapy
  • Increases risk of thrombosis (MI, stroke)
  • When used without progesterone, increases risk of endometrial cancer
  • DES is a synthetic form of estrogen used from 1940 until 1971 when it was discovered to be ineffective and cause clear cell adenocarcinoma to children that were exposed to the drug inutero
  • Exogenous

    Something "produced" separately "out of" the body.

    • Ex (Latin) - Out of
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
  • Exogenous insulin lacks Cpeptide
  • Exogenous testosterone as anabolic steroids
  • Exogenous thyroxine for hypothyroidism
  • Fibrinogen

    Blood clotting protein converted to fibrin by thrombin

    • Fibra (Latin) - A fiber, filament, entrail
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
  • Can form platelet bridges by binding to GPIIb/IIIa
  • Also known as Factor I
  • Glycogen

    A large polysaccharide "produced" from multiple units of "sweet wine" or sugar.

    • Glykys (Greek) - Sweet, sweet wine
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
  • Used as a storage form of glucose in animals
  • Mainly found in liver and muscle cells
  • May undergo glycogenolysis to maintain serum glucose
  • Glycogen was discovered by Claude Bernard through experiments that revealed a liver that could form sugar.
  • Iatrogenic

    Relating to an illness that has the "physician" or medical exam/treatment as the "origin or source".

    • Iatros (Greek) - Healer, physician
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
  • Caused by medical errors, negligence, and drug interactions
  • Esophageal perforation caused by upper endoscopy
  • UTI infections from indwelling catheters
  • Ketogenesis

    The process by which "ketone" bodies are "produced" as a result of fatty acid breakdown.

    • Ketone (French) - Acetone
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
  • Commonly seen in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
  • Lactate dehydrogenase

    An "enzyme" that is found extensively in body tissues, such as blood cells and heart muscle. It "removes" "hydride" from lactate which forms pyruvate.

    • Lac (Latin) - Milk
    • De (Latin) - Away, Off, Down
    • Hydro (Greek) - Water
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
    • Ase (English) - Used to form the me of enzymes
  • A dehydrogenase is an enzyme that transfers a hydride from one molecule to another. Lactate dehydrogenase catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to lactate and back, as it converts DH to D+ and back
  • Because it is released during tissue damage, it is a marker of common injuries and disease.
  • Listeria Monocytogenes

    A "single" "cell" which is the "origin" of a condition med for Joseph Lister.

    • Listeria (English) - Joseph Lister
    • Monos (Greek) - Single, alone
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
  • Betahemolytic, tumbling motility, actin rockets, unpasteurized milk and cheese, only Grampositive with LPS, neonatal meningitis, treat with ampicillin

  • Medytoons
    Nephrogenesis

    Growth and development "originating" from the "kidneys", the lack of which causes oligohydramnios and poor lung development.

    • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
  • Potter's sequence
  • Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

    Massive production of dilute urine and "prudent" thirst "originating" from "kidneys" that can "not" respond to ADH that "goes through" them.

    • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
    • Diabainein (Greek) - Go Through
    • In (Unknown) - To carry off by evacuation
    • Sapidus (Latin) - Taste or flavor
  • Lithium side effect
  • Polyuria and polydipsia that does not respond to desmopressin
  • Oogenesis

    The "origin" and process of formation of female "eggs" in the ovaries.

    • Ovum (Latin) - Egg
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
  • Frozen in metaphase II until fertilization
  • Orexigen

    A drug that "produces" an "appetite".

    • Orexis (Greek) - Appetite
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
  • Orexin, or hypocretin, is decreased in narcolepsy.
  • Organogenesis

    The process by which the internal organs were initially "produced" and "organized."

    • Organizare (Latin) - To organize
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
  • Folds, splits and condensation
  • Osteogenesis imperfecta

    Congenital disease whose "source" is a genetic mutation of collagen causing malformation of bones, which seem brittle and "unfinished."

  • Brittle bone disease
  • Blue sclera
  • Collagen mutation
  • Pathogenassociated molecular pattern

    Small molecules that are associated with pathogens recognized by our immune system due to their dissimilarity to self

    • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
    • Associare (Latin) - To join
    • Molecula (Latin) - A molecule
    • Patron (Middle English) - Something serving as a model
  • Molecules associated with pathogens that are recognized by the immune system
  • Tolllikereceptor4
  • Renal agenesis

    To be "without" the formation of "kidneys" from the "origin or source"

    • Renes (Latin) - Kidneys
    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
  • RET gene. Potter sequence (pulmonary hypoplasia, absent urine output, widely separated eyes with low set ears)
  • Due to the failure of ureteric buds to form during embryogenesis
  • Bilateral renal agenesis is incompatible with life
  • Oligohydramnios is a common complication during pregnancy
  • Potter sequence was described in 1946 by pediatric pathologist Edith Potter, and linked shortly thereafter to renal agenesis.
  • Streptococcus Pyogenes

    The bacteria Streptococcus pyogenes looks like a "chain" of small "round berrylike" cells, and is responsible for a number of infections which "produce" "pus".

    • Strepto (Greek) - Twisted
    • Coccus (Latin) - Berry shaped, spherical
    • Pyon (Greek) - Pus
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
  • Betahemolytic gram positive cocci that commonly causes pharyngitis (strep throat), skin infections (cellulitis) and toxic shocklike skin infections. Post infection sequelae infections include glomerulonephritis and scarlet fever.
  • Bacitracin sensitive, antibodies to M proteins cause rheumatic fever, ASO titers detect strep throat infection
  • Group A Strep

  • Mnemonics
    NIPPLES
    Streptococcus Pyogenes
    Necrotising fasciitis, Impetigo, Pharyngitis, Pneumonia, Lymphangitis, Erysipelas and cellulitis, Scarlet fever/ Streptococcal TSS
    Superantigen

    A substance that causes "excess" "production" of an "antibody a substance that "neutralizes" poisons

    • Super (Latin) - In excess, above, Beyond
    • Anti (Greek) - Against, opposite, opposed to
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
  • Antigens produced by bacteria that result in an overwhelming T cell response, resulting in massive cytokine release and immune response. These superantigens cause activation of a greater than normal amount of T cells by binding MHC II resulting in conditions such as toxic shock syndrome and rheumatic fever.
  • Toxic shock syndrome
  • Rheumatic fever
  • Syngeneic graft

    A tissue graft from the "same" "genetic" makeup as the individual that is being grafted, either from the patient themselves or an identical twin.

    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
    • Grapheion (Greek) - Stylus
  • Syngeneic grafts are also known as isografts
  • Syngenic means relative in Greek, which correlates to its meaning as a graft from an identical twin
  • Teratogen

    A teratogen is a substance that causes "monstrous" congenital abnormalities.

    • Terato (Greek) - Marvel, monster
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
  • Lithium
  • Isotretinoin
  • Tetracycline
  • Warfarin
  • Anticonvulsants
  • Teratology is latin translates to the study of marvel, monster. It was a term used to describe the study of anything abnormal or marvelous but soon was used to define the study of biological deformities.
  • MEDYMOLOGY