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Gaster (Greek) - Stomach, belly, eater, devourer
16 terms share this root
Atrophic gastritis

Chronic "inflammation" of the "stomach" that leads to destruction of the glandular tissue causing it to seem to be "without" "nourishment".

  • A (Greek) - Not, Without
  • Trophe (Greek) - Food, Nourishment
  • Gaster (Greek) - Stomach, belly, eater, devourer
  • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Decrease in gastric hydrochloric acid, pepsin and intrinsic factor
  • Causes a vitamin B12 deficiency leading to megaloblastic anemia
  • It can be caused by persistent infection with Helicobacter pylori (type B), or can be autoimmune (Type A). Those with the autoimmune version of atrophic gastritis are statistically more likely to develop gastric carcinoma, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and achlorhydria.
  • Digastric

    A small muscle located under the jaw made up of "two" "bellies".

    • Di (Greek) - Two, Double, Twice
    • Gaster (Greek) - Stomach, belly, eater, devourer
  • Lies below the body of the mandible and extends in a curved form from the mastoid process to the symphysis menti
  • Belongs to the suprahyoid muscles group
  • Responsible for elevation of the hyoid bone and if the hyoid is being held in place, it will depress the mandible.
  • Digastric fossa

    A "ditch" or groove on the mandible where the anterior belly of the digastric muscle attaches. The anterior belly is one of "two" "bellies", of the digastric muscle the other one is the posterior belly.

    • Di (Greek) - Two, Double, Twice
    • Gaster (Greek) - Stomach, belly, eater, devourer
    • Fossa (Latin) - Ditch, trench, cal
  • The digastric fossa is located on the interior surface of the mandible, near the chin.
  • Epigastric

    The central region "above" the "stomach."

    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Gaster (Greek) - Stomach, belly, eater, devourer
  • Pain in region associated with GERD, gastritis, pancreatitis, peptic ulcers, hiatal hernias, and gallstones
  • Gastrin

    A peptide hormone secreted by the "stomach".

    • Gaster (Greek) - Stomach, belly, eater, devourer
  • Secreted by G cells
  • Primarily stimulates histamine release from ECL cells to stimulate HCl secretion
  • Secondarily stimulates parietal cells to stimulate HCl secretion
  • From gastric > of the stomach
  • Gastrocnemius

    The muscle which forms the "belly" of the lower "leg" responsible for plantar flexion of the foot and flexion of the knee

    • Gaster (Greek) - Stomach, belly, eater, devourer
    • Kneme (Greek) - Leg
  • Innervated by tibial nerve
  • Common tendon with soleus muscle known as the calcaneal or Achilles tendon
  • This muscle got its me because of the bulging shape of the calf, making it resemble a bulging stomach.
  • Gastroenteritis

    "Inflammation" of the "stomach" and "intestines."

    • Gaster (Greek) - Stomach, belly, eater, devourer
    • Enteron (Greek) - Intestine, Small intestint, Piece of Gut, Bowel
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Involves stomach and small intestine
  • Presents with diarrhea, abdominal pain, and vomiting
  • Commonly caused by rotavirus in children globally
  • Commonly caused by norovirus in adults
  • Gastroparesis

    A "paralysis" of the "stomach".

    • Gaster (Greek) - Stomach, belly, eater, devourer
    • Para (Greek) - Along, side, beside, near, against, contrary to
    • Hienai (Greek) - Let go
  • Treat postoperatively with metoclopramide
  • Gastroschisis

    A congenital malformation in which a "separation" in the abdomen allows the "stomach" and other internal organs to protrude externally from the body.

    • Gaster (Greek) - Stomach, belly, eater, devourer
    • Schisis (Greek) - Separation, cleft
  • In gastroschisis, abdominal contents are not covered by peritoneum
  • This defect is due to failure of the lateral body folds to close during embryological development
  • Gastroschisis is a surgical emergency and occurs in about 1 in every 5,000 births
  • Gastrula

    The phase of embryogenesis in which there is an invagition of the cell ball giving it a "stomach" and producing the three different germ layers.

    • Gaster (Greek) - Stomach, belly, eater, devourer
    • Ula (Latin) - Little
  • Composed of the three germ layers: endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm
  • GERD

    A condition in which there is a "flow" of "stomach" acid back "again" into the "passage for food".

    • Gaster (Greek) - Stomach, belly, eater, devourer
    • Oisaphagos (Greek) - Gullet
    • Re (Latin) - Again, anew
    • Fluxus (Latin) - Flowing, loose, slack
    • Desaise (Old French) - Lack of Ease
  • Causes glandular metaplasia
  • Associated with Barrett's esophagus associated with adenocarcinoma
  • Treat with proton pump inhibitors, H2 receptor blockers, and antacids
  • Hypergastrinemia

    "Excess stomach" hormone, or gastrin, in the "blood.

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Gaster (Greek) - Stomach, belly, eater, devourer
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • May result from gastrinoma (ZollingerEllison syndrome) or chronic proton pump inhibitor use
  • May present with stomach ulcers
  • Literally "excess gastrin in blood."
  • Hypogastric

    Atomical position that corresponds to being "beneath" the "stomach"

    • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
    • Gaster (Greek) - Stomach, belly, eater, devourer
  • Also known as the suprapubic region
  • If the abdomen is divided vertically into three parts, then the top part is the epigastric region, the middle part is the umbilical region, and the bottom part is the hypogastric region
  • Hypogastric nerve

    A "cord" that runs "under" the "stomach"

    • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
    • Gaster (Greek) - Stomach, belly, eater, devourer
  • A term for the transition between the superior and inferior hypogastric plexuses. The hypogastric nerve enters the sympathetic chain at T10L2
  • The sympathetic nervous system component of emission in the male sexual response
  • Inferior hypogastric plexus

    A "network" of nerves located "under" the "under" the "belly".

    • Inferus (Latin) - Lower Down, Below
    • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
    • Gaster (Greek) - Stomach, belly, eater, devourer
    • Plexus (Latin) - Braid, network
  • A network of nerves located around the rectum in both males and females and also along the prostate (males) and vagi (females)
  • Superior hypogastric plexus

    The "higher" half of the "network" of nerves just "beneath" the "stomach".

    • Superior (Latin) - Higher, Above
    • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
    • Gaster (Greek) - Stomach, belly, eater, devourer
    • Plexus (Latin) - Braid, network
  • Located at the aortic bifurcation
  • Contain sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers
  • Lumbar splanchnic and pelvic splanchnic
  • MEDYMOLOGY