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Epi (English) - Above, Upon
33 terms share this root
Epiblast

A cell type that "sprouts" from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst and lies "above" the hypoblast.

  • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
  • Blastos (Greek) - Germ, sprout, bud or budding, immature
  • Undergoes gastrulation to form the three germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm)
  • Literally med above the bud because it lies above the hypoblast.
  • Epicanthal

    "Above" the "rim" of the eye.

  • Distinctive variations in appearance may suggest Downs or Criduchat syndrome.
  • Epicondyle

    In anatomy, the round "knuckle" appearing structures at the end of long bones.

    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Kondulos (Greek) - Knuckle, knob
  • Specifically references the medial and lateral condyles of the humerus and femur
  • The articular surface of these 2 long bones
  • Epidermolysis bullosa

    Group of genetic diseases involving blisters between the "dermis" and "epidermis"

    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Derma (Greek) - Skin
    • Lysis (Greek) - Destruction, A loosening, setting free, releasing, dissolution
    • Bulla (Latin) - Bubble
    Epididymis

    A tightlycoiled tube "upon" the "testicle" that connects the efferent duct of the testicle to the vas deferens.

    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Didumos (Greek) - Testicle
  • Site of sperm storage and maturation
  • Epidural hematoma

    A "mass" of "blood" accumulating "above" the "hard" surface of the skull.

    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Durus (Latin) - Hard
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Associated with temporal bone fracture and tear of the middle meningeal artery
  • Lens shape on CT scan
  • Lucid interval immediately after trauma that leads to unconsciousness

  • MedyQuestion
    • A 62 year old man is brought into the emergency room after being struck in the head with blackjack during a robbery. The patient was found unconscious by paramedics. In the van, the patient regained consciousness, able to recall the assault. During your interview of the patient, he begins to become somnolent, and then become unresponsive. A rapid response is called and patient is rushes to CT. Rupture of the which artery lead to this patient’s condition?

    USMLE Step 1

    • A 62 year old man is brought into the emergency room after being struck in the head with blackjack during a robbery. The patient was found unconscious by paramedics. In the van, the patient regained consciousness, able to recall the assault. During your interview of the patient, he begins to become somnolent, and then become unresponsive. A rapid response is called and patient is rushes to CT. What classic sign would you expect to see on imaging?

    USMLE Step 1

    Epigastric

    The central region "above" the "stomach."

    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Gaster (Greek) - Stomach, belly, eater, devourer
  • Pain in region associated with GERD, gastritis, pancreatitis, peptic ulcers, hiatal hernias, and gallstones
  • Epiglottitis

    Acute inflammation of the tissue "above" the windpipe and behind the "tongue."

    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Glossa (Greek) - Tongue
  • Commonly associated with H. influenza Type B
  • Commonly presents as enlarged cherryred epiglottis and arytenoids
  • Thumb print sign on lateral xray
  • George Washington may died of complications from epiglottitis in 1799.
  • Epinephrine

    Catecholamine that acts as both a hormone and a neurotransmitter produced "around or near" the "kidneys".

    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
  • Secreted by adrenal gland medulla and sympathetic nerve fibers
  • Treats aphylaxis, open angle glaucoma, and hypotension
  • Stimulates glycogenolysis
  • Inhibits glycogenesis
  • Epineurium

    Connective "tissue" that is "above" and surrounds multiple "nerve" fascicles and blood vessels.

    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Neuro (Greek) - Nerve, sinew, tendon
    • Ium (Greek) - Structure, tissue
  • An epineurial repair is a common surgical procedure to repair a lacerated nerve
  • Epiphyseal plates

    A plate of hyaline cartilage found in the metaphysis of the ends of long bones

    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Phusis (Greek) - Growth, movement
  • Site of endochondral ossification in growing long bones
  • Also known as the growth plate
  • Fracture of the epiphyseal plate can lead to shortened limbs to disruption in proper bone elongation
  • Epiphysis

    The end of the bone "above" the "growth" plate.

    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Phusis (Greek) - Growth, movement
  • The tip of long bones
  • TellTale site of GiantCell tumors of bones
  • Most common site of osteomyelitis in adults
  • Epiphysis

    The rounded end "above" a long bone which is separated from the main portion of the bone by cartilage during periods of longitudinal "growth",

    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Phusis (Greek) - Growth, movement
  • Avascular necrosis most commonly effects the epiphysis of bones
  • Episcleritis

    "Inflammation" of the layer of tissue that lies "upon" the "hard" white part of the eyeball.

    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Skleroun (Greek) - To Harden
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Causes redness and irritation of the sclera
  • Generally benign and selflimiting.
  • Epispadias

    A congenital "gouge" in which the urethra ends in an opening "above" the dorsum of the penis.

    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Spado (Latin) - A tear or gouge
  • Associated with bladder exstrophy
  • First reported in Byzantine Emperor Heraclius (610641 AD)
  • Epistaxis

    Hemorrhage in or "above" the nose that causes blood to "drip."

    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Stazein (Greek) - To let fall in drops
  • Also known as a nosebleed
  • Epitelial atrophy

    "Upper" Layers of skin degenerate

    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Thele (Greek) - Nipple, teat
    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Trophe (Greek) - Food, Nourishment
    Epithelial dysplasia

    “Abnormal” “molding” of the “above” surface layer of tissue

    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Thele (Greek) - Nipple, teat
    • Dys (Greek) - Bad, Ill, Abnormal, Evil
    • Plasis (Greek) - Molding, Formation
  • A histological description of epithelial cells that are abnormal in appearance, especially in proliferation and differentiation
  • May be clinically described by leukoplakia or erythroplakia
  • Epithelial hyperkeratosis

    A “condition” in which “excess” material that also makes up animal “horns” in is made in the “above” surface layer of tissue

    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Thele (Greek) - Nipple, teat
    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Keras (Greek) - Horn
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Thickening of the stratum corneum layer with an increased production of keratin that can be benign or due to friction
  • Benign frictional hyperkeratosis
  • Epithelial hyperplasia

    An “excess” “formation” of the “above” surface layer of tissue

    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Thele (Greek) - Nipple, teat
    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Plasis (Greek) - Molding, Formation
  • A thickening of the epithelium due to an increased formation of epithelial cells
  • Epithelial necrosis

    A “condition” in which there is “death” in the “above” surface layer of tissue

    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Thele (Greek) - Nipple, teat
    • Necro (Greek) - Dead Body
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Death of epithelial cells that may be due to infection of hypoxia
  • Epithelium

    Tissue that lines "above" and surrounds body cavities and surfaces.

    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Thele (Greek) - Nipple, teat
  • Cells undergo a high turnover rate, leading to them being affected greatly by chemotherapy drugs due to their work on cell lines that procreate extensively (like cancer).
  • Epulis

    A benign tumor "on" the "gum"

    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Oulon (Greek) - Gum
  • Three forms exist: fibromatous, ossifying and acanthomatous
  • Describes only the location of the mass
  • Mucoepidermoid

    Most common malignant tumor of "slime" producing gland. "Abnormal" growth in the "skin's" "upper" layers.

    • Mucus (Latin) - Slime, mold, snot
    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Derma (Greek) - Skin
    • Eidos (Greek) - Form, Resemblance or Shape, Likeness
  • Presents as a painful mass because of facial nerve involvement
  • Norepinephrine

    Neurotransmitter released from poststyptic sympathetic fibers. It is synthesized in the adrenal glands "above" the "kidney."

    • Nor (Early English) - From Norwalk, Ohio where an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred from which the virus was isolated
    • Nor (English) - Normal
    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
    • Ine (Latin) - Resembling in ture
  • Fightorflight response
  • Released from adrenal medulla
  • Made from dopamine
  • Olfactory epithelium

    Specialized cells found "upon" the superior sal cavity responsible for "smell."

    • Olfacere (Latin) - To smell
    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Thele (Greek) - Nipple, teat
  • Derived from surface ectoderm
  • Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia

    An "excess" "formation" of growth "upon" the epithelium that appears as a "fake" "tumor"

    • Pseudein (Greek) - To deceive, cheat by lies, fake
    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Thele (Greek) - Nipple, teat
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Plasis (Greek) - Molding, Formation
  • A benign nonspecific reactive hyperplasia of stratified mucocutaneous epithelium
  • Observed in chronic inflammatory dermatoses and over some dermal neoplasms and nevi
  • Microscopically, resembles welldifferentiated squamous cell carcinoma
  • Psuedoepitheliomatous hyperplasia

    "Overformation" (hyperplasia) of epithelial cells, which "deceptively" resembles squamous cell carcinoma

    • Pseudein (Greek) - To deceive, cheat by lies, fake
    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Thele (Greek) - Nipple, teat
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Plasis (Greek) - Molding, Formation
  • This type of hyperplasia results from chronic inflammation and resembles squamous cell carcinoma on histology however, there is no cellular dysplasia
  • Staphylococcus Epidermidis

    A "spherical, berryshaped" bacteria that resides "upon" the "skin", and commonly causes hospitalacquired infections from catheters and prosthetics

    • Staphyle (Greek) - Cluster, bunch of grapes
    • Coccus (Latin) - Berry shaped, spherical
    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Derma (Greek) - Skin
  • Gram positive, catalasepositive bacteria that is sensitive to novobiocin. It forms biofilms and commonly causes hospital acquired infections from catheters and prosthetics.
  • Novobiocin sensitive
  • Biofilms
  • Resistant to many antibacterial agents
  • Subepithelial deposits

    Substances "put down" "below" the tissue that sits "on top" of organs,

    • Sub (Latin) - Under, below, beneath, at the foot of
    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Thele (Greek) - Nipple, teat
  • Deposits found under the epithelial, often in reference to deposits in the glomerulus found in nephritic syndromes like poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis and nephrotic syndromes like membranous nephropathy
  • Visualized on electron microscopy
  • 'spike and dome' appearance
  • Membranous nephropathy
  • Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
  • Sulcular epithelium

    A “trench” that forms around teeth made of the “above” surface layer of tissue

    • Sulcus (Latin) - Furrow, trench, ditch, wrinkle
    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Thele (Greek) - Nipple, teat
  • Nonkeratinized tissue that forms the epithelial layer of the gingival sulcus surrounding each tooth
  • Teratoid/Dermoid/Epidermoid Cyst

    A "sac" formed of cells from the "upper layer of skin" (epidermoid), "skin" (dermoid), or is a "monster" of all three germ layers (teratoid)

    • Terato (Greek) - Marvel, monster
    • Derma (Greek) - Skin
    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Derma (Greek) - Skin
    • Kustis (Greek) - Bladder, atomical pouch or sac
  • Congenital dermoid cysts can be epidermoid, dermoid, or teratoid, based on the specific histology. Epidermoid cysts are lined by stratified squamous epithelium. Dermoid cysts have the addition of skin appendages in the cystic wall (e.g. hair follicles, sebaceous glands). Teratoid cysts contain cells from all three germ layers.
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    • Cyclo (Greek) - Wheel, Circular
    • Iasis (Greek) - Pathological or morbid condition
    • Schmieren (German) - Smear, a mark or stain left by spreading
    • Oxys (Greek) - Sharp
    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Prae (Latin) - Before in time or place
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  • MEDYMOLOGY