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Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
105 terms share this root
Acanthocyte

A "spiny or thorny" appearing red blood "cell".

  • Acanthus (Greek) - Point, Thorn, Spine
  • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Abetalipoproteinemia leads to a decrease in lipids and a deformation of the RBC membrane
  • Sometimes referred to as 'spur cells' in reference to their resemblence to the star shaped spurs on the heals of cowboy boots
  • An individual affected by abetalipoproteinemia (also known as acanthocytosis) presents with thornshaped red blood cells.
  • Adult tcell lymphoma

    A "mass" of an immune cell line that lives in the "clear liquid" of the body, that primarily arises in adults, or those who have "grown to maturity".

    • Adolescere (Latin) - To Grow to Maturity
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Lympha (Latin) - Water, clear water, a goddess of water
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Commonly associated with EBV virus or HTL Virus
  • Agranulocytosis

    A "condition" in which the body does "not" produce immune "cells" that contain "grain" like inclusions that contain chemicals to fend off invaders.

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Granum (Latin) - Grain, seed
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Very high risk of infection due to immunosuppression
  • Classically associated with drugs such as antithyroid drugs (methimazole, propylthiouracil, etc.), clozapine, carbamazepine, and NSAIDs.
  • Med literally without production of granule containing cells
  • Anisocytosis

    A "condition" or disease in which there is "not" "equal or the same" size amongst a persons red "blood cells".

    • An (Greek) - Without, not
    • Isos (Greek) - Equal, the same
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Normal red cell distribution width is 11.614.6, beyond that implies that there is a pathology leading to abnormal sizes of cells either macro or micro in size.
  • Med literally without equal cells in reference to their size.
  • Anitschkow cells

    Enlarged macrophages found within Aschoff bodies, small granulomas associated with rheumatic heart disease.

    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Rheumatic Heart Disease
  • Also known as caterpillar cells due to the unique structure of their nuclei that look very similar to a caterpillar.
  • Antigenpresenting cell

    A type of "cell" that "shows or presents" "origins" of molecules from substances that act "against" the body to the immune system.

    • Anti (Greek) - Against, opposite, opposed to
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
    • Praesentare (Latin) - To place before
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Dendritic cells, Macrophages, B cells
  • Astrocyte

    A "Star"shaped "cell" of the brain.

    • Astro (Greek) - Star
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Glial cells that support neurons of the brain and spinal cord
  • They are the most abundant cell of the human brain
  • Functions include physical support, repair, potassium metabolism, removal of excess neurotransmitter, part of blood brain barrier
  • Contributes to glial scar
  • Marker: GFAP
  • Derived from neuroectoderm.
  • B cell

    A type of white blood cell in the antibody mediated immune system. Immature B cells are formed in the bone marrow.

    • Beta (Greek) - The me of the second letter of the Greek alphabet, Indicator of the second
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • B cells : recognize antigen, produce antibody, and maintain immunologic memory
  • Band cell

    A "cell" whose nucleus resembles a curved or coiled "strip".

    • Band (Old Norse) - The strip that ties or constrains
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • An increase count of band neutrophils is used to measure inflammation
  • Basal cell

    A "cell" that serves as the "foundation" for the epidermis.

    • Basal (Latin) - Foundation
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Stem cell site
  • Basal cell carcinoma

    "Cancer" of the "cells" that serve as the "foundation" for the epidermal layer of skin.

    • Basis (Greek) - A foundation upon which something rests
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Karkinos (Greek) - Cancer, crab
  • Locally invasive but does not metastasize
  • Pink pearly nodules with telangiectasis and central ulcer
  • Palisading nuclei
  • Most common skin cancer
  • Bite cell

    A type of red blood "cell" that is "split or cracked" giving it the appearance of having had a bite taken out of it.

    • Bite (Germanic) - To split, crack
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Abnormally shaped red blood cells that are missing one or more semicircular portions around the edge of the cell
  • Usually occurs due to phagocytic removal of precipitated hemoglobin (Heinz bodies) by splenic macrophages in glucose6phosphate deficiency
  • Seen in blood smear of glucose6phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.
  • Cellular immunity

    Specialized cells that allow the body to stay "free from disease."

    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Immunis (Latin) - Free, exempt
  • Phagocytes, cytotoxic T cells, cytokines, helper T cells, apoptosis, macrophages, natural killer cells, virusinfected cells
  • Hat doesn't involve antibodies, but involves the activation of phagocytes, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and cytokine release in response to an antigen
  • Cellulitis

    "Inflammation" of the "cells" of the skin.

    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Bacterial infection, usually due to Group A Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus, involving the skin, dermis, and subcutaneous fat resulting in a sharply demarcated and painful area.
  • Chondrocyte

    Mature "cells" that produce "cartilage".

    • Chondros (Greek) - Cartilage
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Maintains the cartilaginous matrix
  • Made up of collagen and proteoglycans.
  • Chondroblast is an immature cell that can give rise to chondrocytes and osteoblasts.
  • Chromaffin cells

    Cells produced in the adrenal glands that release hormones needed for the stress response. They are med for their "affinity" with chromium salts, which causes the hormones they produce to turn brown in "color."

    • Khroma (Greek) - Color, complexion character
    • Affinis (Latin) - Related, Near the border
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Neuroendocrine cells, adrenal glands, epinephrine, norepinephrine, paracrine signals
  • The word 'Chromaffin' comes from a portmanteau of chromium and affinity. They are med as such because they can be visualized by staining with chromium salts. Chromium salts oxidize and polymerize catecholamines to form a brown color, most strongly in the cells secreting noradreline.
  • Clear cell adenocarcinoma

    A "cancer" of "glandular" tissue, composed of cells that look "clear" on the inside, that primarily affect female reproductive organs.

    • Clear (English) - A clean space
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Aden (Greek) - Gland
    • Karkinos (Greek) - Cancer, crab
  • CCA of the vagi, uterine clear cell carcinoma, clear cell ovarian carcinoma
  • Tumors composed of cells with clear cytoplasm that contain glycogen
  • In the vagi, CCA is linked to the drug diethylstilbestrol (DES)
  • In the ovary, CCA forms cystic tumors with polypoid (projection arising from flat mucosa) masses that protrude into the cyst
  • In the uterus, CCA is a rare form of endometrial cancer that arises from atrophic (degenerative) endometrium instead of endometrial hyperplasia (increase in number of cells).
  • DES used to be prescribed to pregnant women because it was mistakenly thought to prevent miscarriages and ensure a healthy pregnancy. However, research has shown that any woman exposed to DES in utero has an increased risk of clear cell carcinoma of the vagi.
  • Club (Clara) cells

    Cells that protect the small airways in the lungs and have a dome shape resembling a "short, thick stick" under the microscope.

    • Klubba (Old Norse) - Cudgel
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Aka Clara cells, aka bronchiolar exocrine cells, detoxification, respiratory bronchioles, respiratory stem cells
  • Have short microvilli and are found in the bronchioles of the lungs in the ciliated simple epithelium whose function is to protect the bronchiolar epithelium by secreting a variety of substances and act to detoxify harmful substances inhaled into the lungs
  • Act as stem cells and regenerate the bronchiolar epithelium
  • Club cells used to be called Clara cells, as they were discovered by Max Clara in 1937. However, Clara, an avid member of the Nazi party, used tissue taken from executed victims of the Third Reich for his research, including his discovery of Clara cells. Therefore, in May 2012, most respiratory journals concluded that the continued use of his me was equivalent to honoring him so they changed the me to Club cell, effective as of January 1, 2013.
  • Cytochrome

    A protein that functions as a "receptacle" for electrons, changing "color" as electrons generate energy.

    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Khroma (Greek) - Color, complexion character
  • Cytochrome a
  • Heme
  • Electron transport
  • Mitochondrial membrane proteins
  • ATP
  • A group of membranebound carrier molecules that participate in a stepwise transfer of electrons, ultimately leading to the generation of ATP. They contain a heme group and can be found as monomeric proteins or subunits of bigger enzyme complexes.
  • Cytokine

    A group of molecules signaling "cells" to "move" from one location to another.

    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Kinein (Greek) - Motion, to move
  • Inflammation
  • Cell signaling
  • Fighting infection
  • A group of small proteins that are involved in cell signaling. They include chemokines, interferons, interleukins, and others. They act through receptors and are important in fighting infections, and in mediating inflammation, trauma, and sepsis.
  • Cytomegalo virus

    A "large" "poisonous substance" infecting "cells" .

    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Megalo (Greek) - Great, large
    • Virus (Latin) - Poison, poisonous substance
  • Owleyed inclusion bodies
  • CMV retinitis
  • TORCH
  • DsD
  • Herpesviridae family
  • Ganciclovir
  • A double stranded D virus that is part of the Herpesviridae family and is characterized by owl eyed inclusion bodies under a microscope. It mainly affects pregnant and immunocompromised individuals. It is a member of the TORCH infections. CMV is treated with ganciclovir.

  • Mnemonics
    ToRCHeS
    Teratogens: placenta-crossing organisms
    Toxoplasma, Rubella, CMV, Herpes simplex, Herpes zoster (varicella), Hepatitis B,C,E, Syphilis
    TORCH infections burn the baby
    Infections that Cross the Placental Barrier
    Toxoplasma, Other (syphilis, varicella, parvovirus b19), Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, and Herpes
    Cytomegalovirus Inclusion Disease

    A “lack of ease” caused by a “poisonous substance” or virus producing lesions of “large” “cells” with “shut in” nuclei

    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Megalo (Greek) - Great, large
    • Virus (Latin) - Poison, poisonous substance
    • Includere (Latin) - Shut in
    • Desaise (Old French) - Lack of Ease
  • CMV can cause acute infections of the eye and brain, and may be passed from mother to fetus
  • Cytoskeleton

    A set of proteins giving the "cell" structure.

    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Skeletos (Greek) - Dried up
  • Cellular skeleton
  • Microfilaments
  • Microtubules
  • The cellular skeleton contained within the cytoplasm of a cell. It is made of three different protein filaments microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules.
  • Cytotoxic Tlymphocyte

    A type of T cell that "kills" other infected cells, and resides in "waterlike" lymphatic system (lymph is clear fluid), derived from the "thymus".

    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Toxikon (Greek) - Poison
    • Thumos (Greek) - Excrescence like a thyme bud, thymus gland
    • Lympha (Latin) - Water, clear water, a goddess of water
  • Killer Tcell
  • CD8+
  • Perforin
  • Granzymes
  • A subset of T lymphocytes that express CD8 receptors and directly kills infected cells via the release of perforin and granzymes.

  • Mnemonics
    Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas
    The concentrations of the various immune cell types
    Neutrophils (the most), Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Erythrocytes, Basophils (least)
    Cytotoxicdependent hypersensitivity

    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Toxikon (Greek) - Poison
    • Dependant (Middle English) - Hanging Down
    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Sensitivus (Medieval Latin) - Capable of sensation
  • Cytotoxic hypersensitivity
  • IgG
  • Ab against cell
  • Antibodies directed against cell surface antigens leading to destruction via complement activation or ADCC. IgG mediated. Examples include blood transfusions and autoimmune hemolytic anemia.
  • Cytotrophoblast

    A "germ" "cell" of the placenta that "consumes" nutrients from blood for fetus.

    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Trophe (Greek) - Food, Nourishment
    • Blastos (Greek) - Germ, sprout, bud or budding, immature
  • Inner layer
  • Trophoblast
  • The inner layer of the trophoblast in an embryonic placenta that gives rise to the syncytiotrophoblast that make up the outer layer.
  • Dendritic cell

    An immune cell med for its multiple "branches" that capture pathogens for further processing.

    • Dendron (Greek) - Tree
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Immune system
  • Tcells
  • Antigen presenting cells (APCs)
  • An antigen presenting cell that plays a role in the immune system and whose function is to present antigens to Tcells.
  • Diffuse large bcell lymphoma

    A "wide" or big "mass" of "B" cells that inhabit the "clear water" of the body.

    • Diffuse (Latin) - To Pour Out or Away
    • Large (Old French) - Broad, wide; generous, bounteous
    • Beta (Greek) - The me of the second letter of the Greek alphabet, Indicator of the second
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Lympha (Latin) - Water, clear water, a goddess of water
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • A cancer of B cells, a type of white blood cell responsible for producing antibodies
  • Characterized by lymphocytes with round nuclei and fine chromatin
  • The cells are basophilic and lymphoblastic.
  • Diffuse large Bcell lymphoma it is the most common type of nonHodgkin lymphoma among adults
  • Elliptocyte

    A red blood "cell" that "falls short" of forming into a normal round cell and instead is oval shaped or elongated.

    • Ellipsis (Latin) - A Falling Short, Defecit
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Red blood cell
  • Oval
  • Elongated
  • Ovalocyte
  • Ependymal cells

    "Cells" that line the "upper" portion of the body in the head and spinal cord.

    • Ependyma (Greek) - An Upper Garment
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Produce cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
  • Erythrocyte

    "Red" blood "cell."

    • Eruthros (Latin) - Red
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Anuclear biconcave diskshaped cells
  • Contain hemoglobin for oxygen transport
  • 1/4 of cells in the human body are erythrocytes

  • Mnemonics
    Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas
    The concentrations of the various immune cell types
    Neutrophils (the most), Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Erythrocytes, Basophils (least)
    Erythrocyte sedimentation rate

    The rate at which "red" blood "cells" "sink" or "settle" in an hour.

    • Eruthros (Latin) - Red
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Sedimentum (Latin) - A setting, sinking down
    • Rata (Latin) - Fixed, settled
  • Nonspecific marker of inflammation
  • Notably increased in temporal arteritis, multiple myeloma, and a number of autoimmune diseases
  • Called Biercki's Reaction in Poland and FW test in the UK after various claims of the test's invention
  • Erythrocytosis

    "Condition" of increased "red" blood "cell" mass.

    • Eruthros (Latin) - Red
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Seen in absolute polycythemia and EPO abuse
  • Essential thrombocytosis

    A condition in which there is an excessive production of "clotting" "cells"

    • Essentia (Latin) - Essence
    • Thrombos (Greek) - Clump of blood, clot of blood
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Chronic myeloproliferative disorder with sustained megakaryocyte proliferation, excess platelets, splenomegaly, and thrombotic or hemorrhagic episodes
  • First described in 1934
  • Foam cells

    Macrophage 'cells' containing phagocytized oxidized lipids, causing a "frothy" appearance, after blood vessel endothelial damage from atherosclerosis

    • Fam (Old English) - Foam, saliva froth
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    Follicular cells

    "Little bag" of "cells" within the thyroid that create and secrete T3 and T4

    • Folliculus (Latin) - Little bag
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Malignancy may lead to follicular carcinoma
  • Giant cell tumor (of bone)

    A benign tumor usually located around the knee

    • Gigas (Greek) - Giant
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Tumere (Latin) - To swell
  • Contains multinucleated giant cells
  • Usually seen in the epiphysis of long bones
  • Soap bubble appearance on Xray
  • Locally aggressive but otherwise benign
  • Granulocyte

    A group of white blood "cells" that look like they contain "seeds," or granules, within their cytoplasm

    • Granum (Latin) - Grain, seed
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Granulocytes include neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
  • Granules contain different types of enzymes specific for each type
  • Granulocyte macrophage colonystimulating factor

    A cytokine secreted by immune cells to stimulate myeloid precursor differentiation into granulocytes and monocytes

    • Granum (Latin) - Grain, seed
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Colonia (Latin) - Settlement
    • Makros (Greek) - Large, large to scale
    • Phagein (Greek) - To eat, eater of
    • Stimulat (Latin) - Urged
    • Facere (Latin) - To do, To make
  • Treatment for aplastic anemia
  • Hairy cell leukemia

    A condition in which the "white" "cells" in the "blood" become "hairy" appearing due to cytoplasmic projections.

    • Haer (Old English) - Hair, a hair
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • TRAP+
  • Hairlike projections
  • OSU School of Medicine helped characterize this disease and termed it hairy due to its appearance under a microscope.
  • Helper Tlymphocyte

    Subtype of T "cells" that live within the "clear water" of the body, that "support" the stimulation of antibody class switching in B cells and activating cytotoxic T cells. They are produced by the "thymus gland".

    • Helpan (Old English) - To support
    • Thumos (Greek) - Excrescence like a thyme bud, thymus gland
    • Lympha (Latin) - Water, clear water, a goddess of water
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Th1 helper Tcells activate macrophages
  • Th1 cells secrete IL2 and IFNgamma
  • Th2 helper Tcells recruit eosinophils for parasite defense and promote IgE Bcell production
  • Th2 cells secrete IL4, IL5, IL10, IL13

  • Mnemonics
    Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas
    The concentrations of the various immune cell types
    Neutrophils (the most), Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Erythrocytes, Basophils (least)
    Hepatocellular carcinoma

    "Liver cell cancer."

    • Hepatos (Greek) - Liver
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Karkinos (Greek) - Cancer, crab
  • Most common primary type of malignant liver cancer in adults
  • Associated with HBV, HCV, Wilson's disease, hemochromatosis, alpha1AT deficiency, alcoholic cirrhosis, and aflatoxin from Aspergillus
  • Symptoms include elevated alphafetoprotein levels, jaundice, increased liver size, ascites, polycythemia, and hypoglycemia.
  • Hereditary spherocytosis

    "Inherited disease" of "balllike" red blood "cells."

    • Hereditatem (Latin) - Heirship, inheritance, condition of being an heir
    • Sphaira (Greek) - Globe, ball, playing ball, terrestrial globe
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Defect in RBC membrane skeleton proteins spectrin and ankyrin
  • Small round RBCs with no central pallor
  • Positive osmotic fragility test
  • Symptoms include splenomegaly and aplastic crisis
  • Increased MCHC and increased RDW
  • Experimental gene therapy treatment has worked in mice, but not humans.
  • HHV5 Cytomegalovirus

    A common virus that is asymptomatic in nearly 90% of patients.

    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Megalo (Greek) - Great, large
    • Virus (Latin) - Poison, poisonous substance
  • CMV is the most common opportunistic viral pathogen in AIDS. CMV mononucleosis is clinically similar to infectious mononucleosis, but is heterophilnegative. Can cross the placenta to cause congenital CMV infection. Infection is followed by latency in salivary glands, endothelium, macrophages and lymphocytes. Reactivation is linked to reduced host resistance.
  • Spread by saliva, sexual transmission and transplacental transmission.
  • Histiocyte

    A "tissue" "cell" part of the innate immune system that phagocytize foreign bodies.

    • Histos (Greek) - Tissue, web, warp
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Macrophages and dendritic cells are types of histiocytes
  • These types of cells are overproduced in a condition called Langerhans Histiocytosis (macrophages of the skin).
  • Immune thrombocytopenia

    A syndrome in which a decreased number of circulating platelets (thrombocytopenia) manifests as a bleeding tendency, easy bruising (purpura), or extravasation of blood from capillaries into skin and mucous membranes (petechiae)

    • Immunis (Latin) - Free, exempt
    • Thrombos (Greek) - Clump of blood, clot of blood
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Penia (Latin) - Deficiency, a lack
  • May be triggered by viral illness
  • Labs show increased megakaryocytes on bone marrow biopsy
  • Decreased platelet count and increased bleeding time
  • Defective antiGpIIb/IIIa antibodies lead to splenic macrophage consumption of platelet/antibody complex
  • Koilocyte

    Ballooned epithelial cell due to cytoplasmic vacuolization, with nuclear pyknosis, seen in viral infections.

    • Koilos (Greek) - Hollow
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    Koilocytosis

    The cellular changes in a squamous epithelial cell, which occur as a result of infection of the cell by human papillomavirus.

    • Koilos (Greek) - Hollow
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Changes to the cell include nuclear enlargement, irregularity in the nuclear membrane, and a perinuclear halo.
  • Langerhans cell

    These cells are antigenpresenting immune cells of the skin and mucosa.

    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • These cells contain large granules called Birbeck granules
  • They are present in all layers of the epidermis, but are most prominent in the stratum spinosum.
  • Langerhans med after Paul Langerhans
  • Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    A rare disease involving clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells (histiocyte), abnormal cells deriving from bone marrow and capable of migrating from skin to lymph nodes.

    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Histos (Greek) - Tissue, web, warp
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Symptoms of this disease range from isolated bone lesions to multisystem disease
  • Contains Birbeck granules
  • Langerhans med after German physician and atomist Paul Langerhans
  • Large cell carcinoma

    This is an undifferentiated malignant neoplasm originating from epithelial cells in the lung.

    • Large (Old French) - Broad, wide; generous, bounteous
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Karkinos (Greek) - Cancer, crab
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • This neoplasm is different from small cell carcinoma because of larger size of the aplastic cells, a higher cytoplasmictonuclear size ratio, and a lack of saltandpepper chromatin.
  • Leukocyte

    A "white" blood "cell."

    • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    Leukocyte extravasation

    "Outward" movement of "white" blood "cells" from the "vessels."

    • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Externus (Latin) - Outward, Outside
    • Vas (Latin) - Vessel
  • IL8, LTB4, C5a are all chemotactic signals that trigger this process
  • Leukocytoclastic Angiitis

    A condition in which the "white" blood "cells" "break" up blood "vessels", leading to "inflammation."

    • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Klastos (Greek) - Broken
    • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Smallvessel vasculitis
  • Presents as palpable purpura
  • Leukocytoclastic vasculitis

    "Inflammation" of small blood "vessels" due to "broken" down "white" blood cells

    • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Klastos (Greek) - Broken
    • Vasculum (Latin) - A small vessel
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Characterized by palpable purpura
  • The most common vasculitis seen in clinical practice
  • May be secondary to medications, underlying infection, collagenvascular disorders, or malignancy but approximately half of them are idiopathic
  • Leukocytoclastic vasculitis

    "Inflammation" of small blood "vessels" due to "broken" down "white" blood cells

    • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Klastos (Greek) - Broken
    • Vasculum (Latin) - A small vessel
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Characterized by palpable purpura
  • The most common vasculitis seen in clinical practice
  • May be secondary to medications, underlying infection, collagenvascular disorders, or malignancy but approximately half of them are idiopathic
  • Leukocytosis

    A "condition" in which there is a rise in "white" "cells" in the blood.

    • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • More commonly known as a 'white count"
  • Precipitated often times by infection or malignancy
  • Listeria Monocytogenes

    A "single" "cell" which is the "origin" of a condition med for Joseph Lister.

    • Listeria (English) - Joseph Lister
    • Monos (Greek) - Single, alone
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
  • Betahemolytic, tumbling motility, actin rockets, unpasteurized milk and cheese, only Grampositive with LPS, neonatal meningitis, treat with ampicillin

  • Medytoons
    Lymphocyte

    A "Clear water" "cell" med for living primarily within the "clear water" system of the body, mely B and T cells.

    • Lympha (Latin) - Water, clear water, a goddess of water
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Count commonly increased in viral infections, chronic intracellular bacterial infections, protozoal infections, leukemia, and lymphoma
  • Count commonly decreased in recent infection (e.g. common cold), HIV infection (primarily T cells),corticosteroid use, malnutrition, lupus, and sarcoidosis.

  • Mnemonics
    Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas!
    % Concentrations of the Types of White Blood Cells
    Neutrophils (65%). Lymphocytes (25%). Monocytes (6%). Eosinophils (3%). Basophils (1%)
    Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas
    The concentrations of the various immune cell types
    Neutrophils (the most), Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Erythrocytes, Basophils (least)
    Lymphocytic

    Having to do with "cells" found in the "clear" fluid within the body.

    • Lympha (Latin) - Water, clear water, a goddess of water
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Lymphocytic predominance in serum indicates viral infection or leukemia (CLL or ALL)
  • Lymphocytic predominance in CSF points to viral meningitis
  • Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus

    "Poisonous substance" that causes an "inflammation" of the "membranes" surrounding the brain and spinal cord; a diagnostic marker is an increased amount of "cells" found in the "clear" part of the blood

    • Lympha (Latin) - Water, clear water, a goddess of water
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Khorion (Greek) - Membrane enclosing the fetus, afterbirth
    • Meninx (Greek) - Membrane
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Rodentborne viral infectious disease caused by Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV)
  • LCMV is a spherical, enveloped negative strand R virus, member of Arenaviridae
  • This condition presents as aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, or meningoencephalitis
  • It is transmitted to humans by inhaling aerosolized particles of feces, urine, or saliva of the house mouse (Mus musculus) or by ingesting contaminated food
  • Macroovalocyte

    "Large" "egg shaped" red blood "cells".

    • Makros (Greek) - Large, large to scale
    • Ovalis (Latin) - Eggshaped
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency, folate deficiency
  • Mantle cell lymphoma

    A rare subtype of Bcell lymphoma. Appears as "loose" "chamber" of "water".

    • Mantle (Old English) - Loose, sleeveless cloak
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Lympha (Latin) - Water, clear water, a goddess of water
  • CD5 positive, t(11:14) that results in overexpression of cyclin D1
  • Mast cell

    Granulocyte that mediates allergic reaction by binding the Fc portion of IgE to its membrane. Looks like a "fat" "chamber".

    • Mast (Germaic) - Fattening, feeding
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Type 1 hypersensitivity, cromolyn sodium prevents release of granules of histamine and heparin
  • Originally med a feeding cell or fed cell due to the granules within in that gave the impression of the cell being fed
  • Mastoid air cells

    A network of "breast shaped" sinus cavities in the temporal bone that communicate with the middle ear.

    • Mastos (Greek) - Breast
    • Air (Old French) - Atmosphere, breeze, weather
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Derived from the first branchial pouch
  • Megakaryocyte

    "Large" "nutshaped" cell in bone marrow that gives rise to platelets.

    • Megas (Greek) - Great, large, vast
    • Karyon (Greek) - Kernel, nut
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    Mesangial cells

    Support "vessel" "cells" in "middle" of kidney that hold the glomerular capillaries in place.

    • Mesos (Greek) - Middle, in the middle, in between
    • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
  • During glomerulonephritis, crescent formation can force the glomerulus and mesangium to the periphery. These crescents are composed of fibrin and macrophages.
  • Microcytic

    Category of anemias "in matter of" including "cells" that are "small".

    • Mikros (Greek) - Small, little, petty, trivial, slight
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Ic (Latin) - In manner of
  • Microcytic cells have a mean corpuscular volume (MCV) of less than 80 fL
  • Iron deficiency(GI bleeding), anemia of chronic disease, sideroblastic anemia(lead poisoning, INH), and thalassemia (Mediterranean people) are all common causes of microcytic anemia
  • Microcytic Anemia

    A condition of being "without" proper "blood" because the "cells" are too "small".

    • Mikros (Greek) - Small, little, petty, trivial, slight
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • An (Greek) - Without, not
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Commonly seen in iron deficiency anemia
  • A lack of iron leads to cells dividing more to saturate red blood cells with iron to store oxygen, causing them to be smaller than normal
  • Monocyte

    "One" "cell" in the blood stream that later become macrophages in tissues.

    • Monos (Greek) - Single, alone
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Kidneyshaped nucleus, extensive frostedglass cytoplasm

  • Mnemonics
    Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas!
    % Concentrations of the Types of White Blood Cells
    Neutrophils (65%). Lymphocytes (25%). Monocytes (6%). Eosinophils (3%). Basophils (1%)
    Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas
    The concentrations of the various immune cell types
    Neutrophils (the most), Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Erythrocytes, Basophils (least)
    Natural killer cell

    "natural" "cell" used to "kill" pathogens.

    • Naturalis (Latin) - By birth, according to ture
    • Cwellan (Old English) - To Kill
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Some viruses will down regulate MHC1 to avoid immune detection, NK cells defend the body by finding and destroying these infected cells
  • Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma

    "Birthmarks" which are "cancerous" "masses" from the "foundation" layer of "cells"

    • Naevus (Latin) - Birthmark related to tus, birth
    • Basal (Latin) - Foundation
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Karkinos (Greek) - Cancer, crab
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Aka Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS)
  • An inherited autosomal dominant medical condition involving defects within multiple body systems
  • Most common finding is multiple Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumors, seen in 75% of patients
  • There are usually multiple lesions found in the mandible
  • Occur at a young age (19 yrs. average).
  • People with this syndrome are particularly prone to developing a common and usually nonlifethreatening form of nonmelanoma skin cancers.
  • Nevomelanocytic nevi

    A "dark" colored "birth mark"

    • Naevus (Latin) - Birthmark related to tus, birth
    • Melas (Greek) - Dark, black, murky
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Benign proliferation of melanocytes
  • Brown to black in color
  • Very common
  • Almost all adults have at least one, usually more
  • May be congenital or acquired (usually at puberty)
  • These are those dark colored birthmarks you may have noticed on your body
  • Normocytic

    "Normal" sized "cells"

    • Normalis (Late Latin) - In conformity with rule, normal
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Normocytic anemia is anemia associated with normally sized RBC but a lack in their number
  • MCV of 80100
  • Hemolytic anemia
  • Aplastic anemia
  • Anemia of chronic disease
  • Oligodendrocytes

    "Treelike" "cells" which produces myelin for axons of the CNS. Each oligodendrocyte has a "few" extensions that myelitis an average of 17 axons.

    • Oligos (Greek) - Few, scanty, small, little
    • Dendron (Greek) - Tree
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Damaged in Multiple sclerosis
  • Fried egg nucleus
  • Analogous to Schwann cells in the PNS
  • Pancytopenia

    A "lack" of "all" of the mature "cells" in the blood, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

    • Pan (Greek) - All, every
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Penia (Latin) - Deficiency, a lack
  • Anemia
  • Leukopenia
  • Thrombocytopenia
  • Parafollicular (C) cells

    "Near" a "pouchlike cavity" in the thyroid

    • Para (Greek) - Along, side, beside, near, against, contrary to
    • Folliculus (Latin) - Little bag
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Neuroendocrine cells of the thyroid that secrete calcitonin
  • Aka Ccells
  • Phagocyte

    A cell that "eats" extracellular material.

    • Phagein (Greek) - To eat, eater of
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • A cell which is capable of engulfing/ingesting other molecules/cells.
  • Neutrophils, macrophages, monocytes, dendritic cells, and mast cells are phagocytes and are involved in the immune response
  • Antigen presenting cells phagocytose in order to present antigen to the immune system.
  • Phagocytosis

    The process by which a "cell" "eats" extracellular material.

    • Phagein (Greek) - To eat, eater of
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • The process by which phagocytes engulf cells, foreign bodies, bacteria, etc.
  • Opsonins facilitate phagocytosis
  • Entamoeba histolytica phagocytizes red blood cells.
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma

    A brain "mass, tumor" derived from astrocytes ("star" shaped glial cell in CNS)

    • Pilus (Latin) - Hair
    • Astro (Greek) - Star
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • A childhood cystic neoplasm
  • Often in the cerebellum
  • Composed of bipolar cells with "hair like" GFAPpositive processes
  • Associated with Rosenthal fibers, which can be seen under microscopy
  • Plasma cell

    A mature Bcell whose primary function is generation of antibodies. "Stores" information to "mold, shape" antibodies.

    • Plasm (Greek) - Mold, shape
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Have a friedegg appearance
  • Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell cancer
  • Plasma cell gingivitis

    An "inflammation" of the "gums". Histologically, "chambers" that appear "molded" is seen

    • Plassein (Greek) - To mold or form
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Gingiva (Latin) - Gums
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Appear as generalized erythema (redness) and edema (swelling) of the attached gingiva, occasionally accompanied by cheilitis (lip swelling) or glossitis (tongue swelling)
  • Caused by hypersensitivity to antigens, like toothpaste, chewing gum, mints, etc.
  • Pneumocytes

    "Cells" lining the alveoli of the "lungs"

    • Pneumon (Greek) - Lung
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Type 1 pneumocytes are the majority of the cells and are involved in gas exchange
  • Type 2 pneumocytes secrete surfactant and replicate to replace damaged cells in the lungs
  • Literally means cells of the lungs
  • Podocyte

    A type of "cell" that has "foot"like processes, makes up the epithelial layer of the glomerular filtration barrier.

    • Podos (Greek) - Foot
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Podocytes are involved in the filtration barrier of the kidney
  • Poikilocytosis

    A "condition" in which the red blood "cells" of a smear have "varied" shapes.

    • Poikilos (Greek) - Varied
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Can be seen in various conditions, including vitamin deficiencies
  • Polycythemia vera

    "True" abnormal rise (too "many") in number of "blood" "cells" (primarily Red Blood Cells) due to bone marrow dysfunction

    • Polloi (Greek) - Many
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
    • Verus (Latin) - True
  • Polycythemia vera is caused by a JAK2 gene mutation that causes elevated hematocrit (>55%) and episodic blood clots in the extremities, leading to severe, burning pain and redbluish discoloration
  • Classically presents as intense itching after a hot shower.
  • Regulatory Tcell

    Immune cells that "direct" and suppress the activation of the immune system; mechanism not fully understood

    • Regulare (Latin) - To direct
    • Thumos (Greek) - Excrescence like a thyme bud, thymus gland
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Auto immune disease, CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+
  • Discovered in 1995 by Japanese scientist Shimon Sakaguchi. Foxp3 anomalies found in autoimmune disease.
  • Renal oncocytoma

    A "morbid growth or tumor" of the kidney.

    • Renes (Latin) - Kidneys
    • Onkos (Greek) - Mass, Bulk
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Made of oncocytes, which is an eosinophillike cell
  • Tumor cells often have abnormal amounts of mitochondria
  • Reticulocyte

    Immature "little" red blood "cells".

    • Reticulum (Latin) - Littlle net, network like structure
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    Schistocyte

    Red blood "cells" that have been "divided" or fragmented

    • Schistos (Greek) - Divided, deparated
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Referred to as helmet cells
  • They are fragmented parts of red blood cells often seen patients with hemolytic anemia
  • Hemolytic anemia (and HUS)
  • RBC damage from mechanical artificial heart valves
  • Microangiopathic diseases (DIC TTP)
  • Calcified aortic valves
  • Sertoli cells

    Male nongerm cells that form the bloodtestis barrier and is responsible for synthesis of sperm, med eponymously

    • Sertoli - Med for Italian physiologist Enrico Sertoli
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Sperm synthesis
  • Inhibin secretion
  • Synthesizes androgen binding proteins
  • Bloodtestis barrier formed by tight junctions which protects spermatogonia from autoimmune attack
  • ABP
  • Also known as nurse cells because they help develop and feed forming sperm
  • Sickle cell anemia

    A condition of having low red blood cells or hemoglobin, resulting in "crescent"shaped or "sickle"shaped red blood cells

    • Secare (Latin) - To cut
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • An (Greek) - Without, not
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Hereditary blood disorder caused by a point mutation in the betaglobin chain of hemoglobin and characterized by sickling of deoxygenated red blood cells.
  • Mutation is a point mutation of valine(nonpolar) for glutamic acid(polar)
  • Vasoocclusive crisis is the basis for many manifestations of sickle cell disease such as dactylitis, avascular necrosis of the hip, acute chest syndrome, and autosplenectomy
  • A point mutation that replaces glutamic acid for valine, leading to anemia and vasoocclusive disease. Sickle cell anemia leads to crescent shaped RBCs (sickled), crew cut skull on xray, and can confer resistance to malaria in heterozygotes. Complications include aplastic crisis, autosplenectomy, salmonella infection, renal papillary necrosis, and painful hand swelling.

  • MedyQuestion
    • A 6 year old boy is brought into the hospital by his mother because of acute onset left sided abdominal and flank pain, associated with vomiting. The patient on exam is found to be in the fetal position in pain, tachycardic to 110 and hypotensive to the 70s. On CBC with smear, the patient is found to have a hemoglobin of 7, from his baseline of 9, and sickled red cells can be appreciated on the peripheral smear. What is causing the patient’s current problem?

    USMLE Step 1

    Small cell carcinoma

    A highly malignant "cancer" of "fine" "cells" within the lung tissue.

    • Smael (Old English) - Thin, slender, rrow; fine
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Karkinos (Greek) - Cancer, crab
  • A highly malignant carcinoma of very primitive cells that most commonly arises in the lungs
  • Has paraneoplastic syndromes that secrete ACTH, ADH, or antibodies against presynaptic Ca2+ channels (LambertEaton syndrome)
  • Also known as oat cell carcinoma
  • Spherocyte

    A "ball"shaped red blood "cell"

    • Sphero (Greek) - Globe, ball
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • A spherical shaped RBCs, often the result of hereditary spherocytosis or autoimmune hemolysis
  • Spherical RBCs
  • Hereditary spherocytosis
  • Spherocytosis

    A "defect" in red blood "cells", leading to a "ball" shape

    • Sphaira (Greek) - Globe, ball, playing ball, terrestrial globe
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • A defect in RBC membrane skeleton proteins (ankyrin, spectrin) that leads to small, round RBCs with no central pallor
  • Ankyrin and spectrin defect
  • Small round RBCs
  • RBC membrane defect
  • Leads to increased MCHC, increased RCDW, and increased RBC removal by the spleen.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma

    A "cancer" of "scaly" "cells".

    • Squama (Latin) - Scale, scaly
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Karkinos (Greek) - Cancer, crab
  • Pathognomonic location of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin is the lower half of the face or bottom lip
  • T cell

    "Cells" of the immune system, lymphocytes, that mature in the thymus and are involved in cellmediated immunity. They "shield" our body from infection and other disease processes.

    • Thureos (Greek) - Oblong shield
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Severe combined immunodeficiency
  • Surface has CD 3, CD 28 and TCR
  • In the thymus T cells undergo positive and negative selection
  • Types include helper T cells (Th1 and Th2), cytotoxic T cells, regulatory T cells, and natural killer cells
  • Target cell

    Abnormal red blood "cells" that have a "shield" or bulls eye like appearance.

    • Targa (Olde English) - Light shield
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Associated with a higher than normal membrane: cytoplasm ratio
  • Iron deficiency anemia
  • Teardrop cell

    "Teardrop" shaped red blood cells occurring in individuals with myelofibrosis or extramedullary hematopoiesis.

    • Tear (Olde English) - Tear, drop, nectar
    • Dropa (Old English) - A Drop of Liquid
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Associated with myelofibrosis and extramedullary erythropoiesis
  • Thrombocyte

    Another term for platelets, the first "cells" that start the coagulation cascade to form a "blood clot".

    • Thrombos (Greek) - Clump of blood, clot of blood
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Low amounts of thrombocytes is known as thrombocytopenia
  • Qualitative or quantitative platelet dysfunction will lead to an increased bleeding time.
  • Thrombocytopenia

    "Deficiency" of platelets, the first "cells" that start the coagulation cascade to form a "blood clot".

    • Thrombos (Greek) - Clump of blood, clot of blood
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Penia (Latin) - Deficiency, a lack
  • Manifests physically as petechiae or purpura
  • Prothrombin is also known as factor II
  • Prothrombin is produced in the liver and liver failure may result in low levels of prothrombin
  • Prothrombin is a vitamin K dependent factor
  • A prothrombin gene mutation is associated with an increased production of prothrombin and an increase in venous clots.
  • Thrombocytopenic purpura

    Reddish/"purple" skin lesions that do not blanch with pressure secondary to a deficiency of platelets, the first "cells" that start the coagulation cascade to form a "blood clot".

    • Thrombos (Greek) - Clump of blood, clot of blood
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Penia (Latin) - Deficiency, a lack
    • Porphura (Greek) - Purple
  • A common physical finding for thrombocytopenia is purpura (e.g. ITP can present with purpura)
  • Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

    Disorder of "blood clotting" that presents with "low" levels of "cells" that "clot", leading to "purple" skin lesions (bruises).

    • Thrombos (Greek) - Clump of blood, clot of blood
    • Thrombos (Greek) - Clump of blood, clot of blood
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Penia (Latin) - Deficiency, a lack
    • Purpura (Latin) - To become purple
  • ADAMTS 13 is a protein that degrades vWF. Inhibition or deficiency of this protein leads to decreased vWF degradation which eventually leads to platelet over activation
  • The microangiopathic hemolytic anemia is due to the platelet clot formation the clots shear the RBCs and destroy them
  • Schistocytes present on smear
  • Can treat with steroids
  • Fever, kidney problems, neurological problems, and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia.
  • ADAMTS 13 was described in 2001.

  • Mnemonics
    FAT RN's treat patients with TTP!
    Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP) Symptoms
    Fever, Anemia, Thrombocytopenia, Renal Dysfunction, and Neruological Disorders

    Medytoons

    MedyQuestion
    • A 24 year old man with no significant medical history is brought to the emergency room by his mother with complaints of a 2 day history of fever and rash. The patient appears confused at this time and is oriented only to person, but not to time or place. He has a temperature of 103.1, heart rate of 82, and blood pressure of 127/91. On examination you recognize a small petichiae covering his body that are non blanching, non pruritic and non painful. Blood work is performed and the patient is found to have a HgB of 8.5 and WBC of 11. A chemistry screen demonstrates no electrolyte abnormalities, with a BUN of 20 and creatinine of 1.6. Dysfunction in the degradation of what is the most likely cause of this patient's condition?

    USMLE Step I

    Transitional cell carcinoma

    A malignant "cancer" of the epithelial "cells" that go "across" the bladder, lining its interior.

  • Most common cancer of the urinary tract system
  • Hematuria without casts (casts indicate a renal origin)
  • Exposure to aniline dyes, smoking, phenacetin, cyclophosphamide (metabolizes into acrolein), radiation
  • WarthinFinkeldey Cells

    Cells first described by Warthin and Finkeldey.

    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Multinucleated giant cells, found in hyperplastic lymph nodes, spleen and other lymphoid tissues they are pathognomonic for measles
  • MEDYMOLOGY