Term Successfully Added to Selected Deck
Unable to Add the term to selected Deck. Please try again later!
Arteria (Greek) - Windpipe, artery
25 terms share this root
Afferent arteriole

The "artery" that "carries" blood "to" a nephron.

  • Ad (Latin) - Near, At, To Add On
  • Ferre (Latin) - To bear, to carry
  • Arteria (Greek) - Windpipe, artery
  • Prostaglandins dilate the afferent arteriole to increase renal blood flow, which in turn leads to an increased GFR
  • NSAIDs vasoconstrictions the afferent arteriole by inhibiting the formation of prostaglandins
  • "Efferent" means being conducted away from something, and in this case, it is the arteriole conducting blood away from the glomerulus.
  • Arcuate artery

    An "artery or windpipe" that "bows or curves" around the border of the cortex and medulla of the kidney.

    • Arcus (Latin) - Bow (the weapon), a curve
    • Arteria (Greek) - Windpipe, artery
  • Rel circulation receives around 20% of the cardiac output. Branch off abdominal aorta at level of L1
  • Med after the fact that they are shaped in arcs due to the shape of the renal medulla
  • Arteriole

    Originally referred to as "windpipes" because they did not contain blood post mortem, the arterioles carry blood from the arteries to the capillary beds.

  • Composed of muscular walls (usually only one to two layers of smooth muscle) and are the primary site of vascular resistance. The greatest change in blood pressure and velocity of blood flow occurs at the transition of arterioles to capillaries.
  • Arteriolosclerosis: hardening of arteriole walls. This can be due to decreased elastic production from fibrinogen, associated with ageing, or hypertension or pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis
  • Arteriolosclerosis

    The "hardening" and growing of the "windpipes or arteries" within the body.

  • Two types: Hyaline arteriolosclerosis: due to long standing benign hypertension or diabetes which causes proteins to leak into vessel wall, seen as pink hyaline
  • Hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis: due to malignant hypertension which causes circular hyperplasia of smooth muscle
  • Described as onion skin appearance.
  • Artery

    Originally referred to as "windpipes" because they did not contain blood post mortem, they carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body.

  • Arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the tissues, except for pulmonary arteries, which carry blood to the lungs for oxygen
  • In ancient Greece, the arteries were thought to be air holders, responsible for the transport of air to the tissues and were connected to the trachea. They thought this because upon examining dead bodies, they found blood vessels to be emptied of blood.
  • Carotid artery

    A blood vessel found in the neck that delivers blood from the heart to the brain. It was believed that compression of these "arteries" would "stupefy" a patient, or cause unconsciousness. of these "arteries" would "stupefy" a patient, or cause unconsciousness.

    • Karoun (Greek) - Stupefy, To put to sleep
    • Arteria (Greek) - Windpipe, artery
  • Left and right common carotid arteries supply the neck and head. Common carotid arteries separate to become internal carotid artery which supplies the brain and external carotid artery which supplies other parts of the face including skin, scalp, meninges and skull
  • Arteries were regarded by the ancients as air ducts because the arteries do not contain blood after death
  • Medieval writers took them for the channels of the "vital spirits."
  • Ductus arteriosus

    An "artery" that bypasses the lungs, "leading" blood from the pulmonary artery to the aorta.

    • Ductus (Latin) - A Leading, Conducting, or Aqueduct
    • Arteria (Greek) - Windpipe, artery
  • The ductus arteriosus closes at birth and becomes the ligamentum arteriosum.
  • Efferent arteriole

    The "artery" that "carries" blood "out" of a nephron.

    • Ex (Latin) - Out of
    • Ferre (Latin) - To bear, to carry
    • Arteria (Greek) - Windpipe, artery
  • Angiotensin II causes more vasoconstriction at the efferent arteriole relative to the afferent arteriole to increase the GFR
  • ACE inhibitors, a drug often used to treat hypertension, prevents the vasoconstriction at the efferent arteriole, and thus prevents a mechanism of increasing GFR and is contraindicated in patients with kidney failure
  • "Afferent" means conducted toward something, and in this case, it is the arteriole conducting blood towards the glomerulus.
  • Endarteritis obliterans

    "Inflammation" of the innermost coat (intima) of an artery leading to the "obliteration" or growing of smaller vessels.

    • Endon (Greek) - Within, Inside, Interl
    • Arteria (Greek) - Windpipe, artery
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
    • Obliterare (Latin) - Cause to disappear, blot out, erase
  • Causes include allergic, nervous, endocrine or hormonal aspects. Typical in male heavy smokers between the age of 2035 years.
  • May also to be referred to as "Buerger's Disease"
  • Endarteritis obliterans

    "Inflammation" of the innermost coat (intima) of an artery leading to the "obliteration" or growing of smaller vessels.

    • Endon (Greek) - Within, Inside, Interl
    • Arteria (Greek) - Windpipe, artery
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
    • Obliterare (Latin) - Cause to disappear, blot out, erase
  • Causes include allergic, nervous, endocrine or hormonal aspects. Typical in male heavy smokers between the ages of 2035 years.
  • May also to be referred to as "Buerger's Disease"
  • Hyaline arteriolosclerosis

  • Associated with essential hypertension and diabetes mellitus
  • Hyoid artery

    Small "ushaped" "pipe" that transports blood in the neck

    • Hyoides (Greek) - Shaped like the letter u
    • Arteria (Greek) - Windpipe, artery
  • Derived from second branchial arch
  • Branch of the superior thyroid artery
  • Runs along the lower border of the hyoid bone beneath the thyrohyoid muscle
  • Hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis

    A "hardening" of the "arteries" causing them to be thick and "over" "formed".

  • Onion skin appearance on histology
  • Associated with severe chronic hypertension
  • Interlobar artery

    Arteries that arise from the renal artery and ascends "between" renal lobes from the pelvis across the medulla toward the cortex.

    • Inter (Latin) - Among, between, betwixt, in the midst of
    • Lobus (Latin) - Hull, husk, pod, small lobe
    • Arteria (Greek) - Windpipe, artery
    Lateral cricoarytenoid

    This muscle extend from the lateral cricoid cartilage to the muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage. The muscle is shaped like a "ring" and works in the area of the "windpipe."

    • Latus (Latin) - The side
    • Krikos (Greek) - Ring, circle
    • Arteria (Greek) - Windpipe, artery
    • Eidos (Greek) - Form, Resemblance or Shape, Likeness
  • These muscles adduct the vocal cords and thereby close the rima glottidis, protecting the airway.
  • Ligamentum arteriosum

    An vestigial "band" connecting the pulmonary "artery" and aorta

  • Patent ductus arteriosus, left recurrent laryngeal runs posterior to the ligamentum arteriosum
  • Maxillary artery

    Branch of the external carotid "artery" that supplies the "upper jaw".

  • Derived from the first aortic arch
  • Monckeberg arteriosclerosis

    A "hardening" of the "arteries".

  • Pipestem arteries
  • Calcification in the media of the arteries, especially radial or ulnar
  • Intima not involved so no obstruction to blood flow
  • Obliterative endarteritis of the vasa vasorum

    "Inflammation" of "vessels of the vessels" supplying the largest "arteries" of the body. These arteries "within" these larger vessels become "inflamed" and are "blotted out" and occluded by disease.

    • Obliterare (Latin) - Cause to disappear, blot out, erase
    • Endon (Greek) - Within, Inside, Interl
    • Arteria (Greek) - Windpipe, artery
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
    • Vasa vasorum (Latin) - Vessels of the vessels
  • Associated with tertiary syphilis
  • Syphilitic aortitis
  • Long standing, untreated syphilis in an older patient
  • Patent ductus arteriosus

    A "duct" that remains "lying open" between the pulmonary "artery" and the aorta.

    • Patent (Latin) - Lying open
    • Ductus (Latin) - A Leading, Conducting, or Aqueduct
    • Arteria (Greek) - Windpipe, artery
  • Persistence of the blood vessel between the pulmonary artery and proximal descending aorta
  • Close with indomethacin, keep open with prostaglandins (PGE2)
  • Polyarteritis Nodosa

    An autoimmune "inflammation" of "many" "arteries" leading to micro aneurysms that cause small "knots" along the chest.

    • Polloi (Greek) - Many
    • Arteria (Greek) - Windpipe, artery
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
    • Nodosus (Latin) - Tied into many knots, full of knots
  • Polyarteritis nodosa is a type III hypersensitivity disorder characterized by transmural inflammation, fibrinoid necrosis and aneurysm formation in medium sized vessels
  • Characteristically see "rosary bead" like nodules on the front of the chest
  • PAN is usually seen in young adults and is associated with Hepatitis B and presents with malaise, fever, rash, abdominal pain
  • Corticosteroids are the cornerstones of treatment
  • Known for sparing of pulmonary vasculature
  • Stapedial artery

    A small "artery" which supplies the stapedius, a small muscle in the ear attached to the neck of the stapes.

    • Stapedius (Latin) - Denoting the muscle attached to the neck of the stapes
    • Arteria (Greek) - Windpipe, artery
  • The artery that enters into the ear and is responsible for supplying the stapedial muscle
  • Branch of the posterior auricular artery
  • Derived from the second aortic arch
  • Takayasu arteritis

    "Inflammation" of large "arteries", mainly the aorta and its branches.

    • Arteria (Greek) - Windpipe, artery
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Commonly associated with Rayud's phenomenon
  • Pulseless disease
  • Large vessel vasculitis with intimal fibrosis
  • Affects the aorta and associated branches
  • It was med after Dr. Mikito Takayasu.
  • Temporal arteritis

    "Inflammation" of large "arteries", commonly including the "temporal" artery and others nearby.

    • Temporalis (Latin) - Of a time, but for a time, pertaining to the temples.
    • Arteria (Greek) - Windpipe, artery
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Also known as giant cell arteritis
  • Commonly involves the ophthalmic artery and can lead to blindness
  • Diagnosed via palpation of the temporal arteries and/or biopsy of vessel
  • It is med giant cell arteritis because these were the cells described on biopsy of involved inflammatory cells. It is also called temporal arteritis because the temporal artery is commonly involved.
  • Truncus arteriosus

    An embryonic heart structure that aorta the main "artery" from the left ventricle and pulmonary "trunk."

    • Truncus (Latin) - Trunk of a tree, trunk of the body
    • Arteria (Greek) - Windpipe, artery
  • Persistent truncus arteriosus is a congenital defect caused by failure of septation of the truncus arteriosus
  • Associated with VSD
  • Causes early cyanosis in the child
  • MEDYMOLOGY