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A (Greek) - Not, Without
46 terms share this root
Abetalipoproteinemia

An autosomal recessive disorder that interferes with fat and fatsoluble vitamins from food due to a condition of being "without" the "Beta" apolipoproteins or molecules made of "fat" and "protein" in the "blood".

  • A (Greek) - Not, Without
  • Beta (Greek) - The me of the second letter of the Greek alphabet, Indicator of the second
  • Lipos (Greek) - Fat
  • Protein (English) - A compound composed of amino acids
  • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • It can be easily confused with familiar dysbetalipoproteinemia, patients will show fat soluble vitamin deficiencies (A, E, D, and K), many of the symptoms are attributable to vitamin E deficiencies, foul smelling fatty diarrhea, symptoms appear in the first few months of life and can manifest as failure to thrive, acanthocytosis, and progressive blindness due to retinol (vitamin A) deficiency
  • Abulia

    A patient "without" "will", unable to make decisions or act independently

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Boule (Greek) - The will
  • Though not quiet akinetic mutism, patients with abulia lack the will do anything. Symptoms include but are not limited to difficulty initiating purposeful movements, reduction in spontaneous speech, increased time to response, reduced social interactions, and reduced emotional responsiveness. It is associated with lesions to the frontal lobe. Especially seen in strokes causing diffuse damage to the right hemisphere
  • Achalasia

    A condition in which there is "not" a "relaxation" of a sphincter, usually the lower esophageal sphincter.

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Khalan (Greek) - Relax
  • Associated with difficulty swallowing, regurgitation, chest pain
  • Lack of inhibitory neurons
  • Bird's beak sign on barium swallow
  • Literally med without relaxation as the LES is able to relax and allow food to pass through into the stomach
  • Achondroplasia

    A condition in which there is "not" a proper "cartilage" "molding or formation" leading to short bones.

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Chondros (Greek) - Cartilage
    • Plasis (Greek) - Molding, Formation
  • More commonly known as "Dwarfism"
  • Leads to a defect in cartilage precursors to long bones, leading to them being shorter than normal
  • Caused by a sporadic or autosomal dominant mutation in FGFR3 gene
  • Intelligence, life span, and fertility are affected
  • Dachshund and corgis, two breeds of small, longer dogs are considered to be achondroplastic breeds of dogs, hence the short limbs despite normal body length
  • Adontia

    To be "without" a "tooth".

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Odous (Greek) - Tooth
    Agenesis

    The process in which something is "not" formed or "born".

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
  • Kidney agenesis causes a potter sequence and is incompatible with life
  • Agranulocytosis

    A "condition" in which the body does "not" produce immune "cells" that contain "grain" like inclusions that contain chemicals to fend off invaders.

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Granum (Latin) - Grain, seed
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Very high risk of infection due to immunosuppression
  • Classically associated with drugs such as antithyroid drugs (methimazole, propylthiouracil, etc.), clozapine, carbamazepine, and NSAIDs.
  • Med literally without production of granule containing cells
  • Agraphia

    When one is "not" able to "write".

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Grapheion (Greek) - Stylus
  • An indicator of damage to areas of the brain involved in producing or processing written language
  • Fine motor control remains intact
  • Verbal communication remains intact
  • Can cooccur with alexia (inability to understand written language)
  • Akinesia

    "Without" the ability to "move" voluntarily.

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Kinein (Greek) - Motion, to move
  • Common in severe Parkinson's disease because of a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the direct pathway of movement in the basal ganglia.
  • Med literally without movement
  • Alexia

    When one is "not" able to "speak".

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Lexis (Greek) - Speak
  • An indicator of damage to areas of the brain dedicated to understanding written language
  • Verbal communication remains intact
  • Can cooccur with agraphia (inability to produce written language)
  • Amastigote

    A form of the parasitic life cycle whose body is "without" a "whip", or flagella.

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Mastix (Greek) - Whip
  • Often a form in the natural life cycle of a parasite
  • Ex. Leishmania Donovani takes on an amastigote form when it infects the macrophages of its host.
  • Amelia

    Birth defect where one is born "without" a "limb".

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Melos (Greek) - Limb
  • Generally caused by events early in embryonic development that stop or retard the development of a limb. Certain pharmaceuticals carry the risk of birth defects, including Thalidomide.
  • Amenorrhea

    "Without" a "monthly" "flow", or lack of a period in a woman.

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Men (Greek) - Month
    • Rhein (Greek) - Flow
  • Commonly seen in anorexic patients due to decreased caloric intake and excess exercise resulting in hormone dysregulation in the pituitary
  • It can be caused my many medical illnesses but usually an alteration in hormones is the main cause
  • Literally called Without a monthly flow
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    A condition in which the "muscle" becomes "without" "nourishment" and atrophied leading to stiffening or "hardening" of the body. med for the "sides" because the weakness begins in your limbs before moving more central.

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Mus (Greek) - Muscle, mouse
    • Trophe (Greek) - Food, Nourishment
    • Latus (Latin) - The side
    • Skleroun (Greek) - To Harden
  • An upper and lower motor neuron disease in which the person ultimately loses the ability to control their muscles leading to atrophy, paralysis, and ultimate death
  • Differentiated from multiple sclerosis by the fact that there is no loss of sensation
  • Characterized by spasticity, muscle weakness, dysphagia and problems breathing
  • Most common cause of death is respiratory failure due to ability to contract the diaphragm or pneumonia.
  • Known more commonly as Lou Gehrig's Disease because of its history of debilitating and ultimately leading to the death of hall of fame baseball player Lou Gehrig.
  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    A neurodegenerative condition infecting neural tracts that run down the "side" of the spinal cord and causing them to "harden"; this leaves the "muscles" that the nerves innervate "without" "nourishment".

  • Also known as Lou Gehrig's disease
  • Usually starts at the limbs
  • Treat with riluzole
  • Anucleate

    A cell "without" a "kernel" or nucleus.

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Nucleus (Latin) - Kernel
  • Red blood cells lack a nucleus
  • Aphonia

    To be "without" a "voice", or unable to speak.

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Phone (Greek) - Voice
  • Associated with recurrent laryngeal nerve injury
  • Aplasia

    "Not" having "formation" of an organ.

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Plasis (Greek) - Molding, Formation
  • Pulmonary hypoplasia in potters sequence due to the inability to develop the lungs
  • Aplasia cutis congenita

    To be "without" the "formation" of "skin" in a localized or widespread area at birth.

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Plasis (Greek) - Molding, Formation
    • Cutis (Latin) - Skin
    • Con (Latin) - With, Together
    • Genus (Latin) - Birth, family, tion
  • Mechanisms include genetic factors, teratogens (e.g., methimazole, carbimazole, misoprostol, valproic acid), compromised vasculature to the skin, and trauma.
  • Aplastic Anemia

    To be "without" "blood" due to the bone marrow "not" "forming" new cells.

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Plassein (Greek) - To mold or form
    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Causes pancytopenia, a decrease in white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets
  • Commonly caused by parvo virus B19 in sickle cell patients
  • Idiosyncratic aplastic anemia is a potential adverse effect of chloramphenicol use and may be allergic in origin
  • Aplastic crisis

    To be "without" "blood" due to the bone marrow "not" "forming" new cells. Acute in onset and can lead to death, commonly seen in sickle cell patients.

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Plassein (Greek) - To mold or form
    • Krisis (Greek) - Decision
  • May be a result of viral Parvovirus B19 infection, which invades and destroys red blood cell precursors and halts the red cell production
  • If infection occurs in individuals with sickle cell anemia or spherocytosis, that will lead to incorporation of 2 anemiainduced mechanisms: decrease red cell production and hemolysis. The result is a severe anemia (aplastic crisis) which may require blood transfusion
  • Asphyxia

    In modern use, it means to choke. A misnomer today in that originally meant to be"without" a "pulse" because individuals who weren't breathing were originally thought to not have blood flow.

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Sphuxis (Greek) - Pulse
  • A decreased amount of oxygen delivery to the brain as a result of a change in breathing in patterns
  • Can cause both coma and death in individuals
  • Asplenia

    To be "without" a "milt or spleen".

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Splen (Greek) - The milt, spleen
  • Spleen is necessary for host immune defense
  • Asplenic patients have decreased IgM, decreased complement activation and decreased C3b opsonization therefore increase susceptibility to encapsulated organisms
  • Autosplenectomy in sickle cell patients due to vasoocclusive infarcts
  • Milt was a synonym for meld, in the context of the organ that grind up or weakens things that pass through it.
  • Asterixis

    A motor disorder in which the hand is "not" able to keep a "fixed position" when extended and as a result, flaps up and down.

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Sterixis (Greek) - Fixed position
  • This occurs secondary to hepatic encephalopathy due to high levels ammonia in the brain from liver damage
  • The sign is elicited when the patient upper palm and fingers and pushed backwards towards the wrist and let go, leading to a flapping motion of the hand
  • Late stage sign of excess ammonia in the blood
  • Astigmatism

    A condition in which a person's vision is "not" on "point".

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Stigma (Greek) - A point, spot, puncture
  • It is a type of refractive error of the eye causing blurred vision, squinting, eye strain, fatigue and headaches
  • Ataxia

    A condition in which one's motor movements are "without" "order" or coordination.

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Taxis (Greek) - Arrangement, order
  • Ataxia is broadly split into truncal and limb ataxia, depending on what part of the cerebellum is affected.
  • Ataxiatelangiectasia

    An inherited condition in which a person becomes "without" an "ordered" or balanced gait, and develops small "dilations" at "the end" of "blood vessels" within the skin.

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Taxis (Greek) - Arrangement, order
    • Telos (Greek) - The end
    • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
    • Ektasis (Greek) - A Stretching Out, Extension, Dilation
  • Presentation: triad f cerebellar defects, spider angiomas, IgA deficiency (repeated sinopulmonary infections)
  • Weak immune system leads to predisposition to infection and increased risk of cancer due to defective D repair system
  • Atonic

    When a muscle is "without" "tension or pressure".

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Tonos (Greek) - Stretched, Tension, Pressure
  • High yield examples include atonic seizure, bladder atony, gastrointestinal atony,
  • Atopic

    The process in which there is an "out" of "place" reaction.

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Topos (Greek) - Place
  • Characterized by excessive IgE mediated reaction
  • Examples of atopic reactions: rhinitis, hay fever, eczema hives, asthma
  • Atresia

    A condition in which an orifice in the body it "without" "perforation".

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Tresis (Greek) - Perforation
  • Esophageal atresia affects the alimentary tract causing the esophagus to end before connecting normally to the stomach
  • Intestinal atresia malformation of the intestine, usually resulting from a vascular accident in utero
  • Tricuspid atresia a form of congenital heart disease whereby there is a complete absence of the tricuspid valve. Therefore, there is an absence of right atrioventricular connection.
  • Atrophic gastritis

    Chronic "inflammation" of the "stomach" that leads to destruction of the glandular tissue causing it to seem to be "without" "nourishment".

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Trophe (Greek) - Food, Nourishment
    • Gaster (Greek) - Stomach, belly, eater, devourer
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Decrease in gastric hydrochloric acid, pepsin and intrinsic factor
  • Causes a vitamin B12 deficiency leading to megaloblastic anemia
  • It can be caused by persistent infection with Helicobacter pylori (type B), or can be autoimmune (Type A). Those with the autoimmune version of atrophic gastritis are statistically more likely to develop gastric carcinoma, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and achlorhydria.
  • Atrophy

    "Without" "food or nourishment".

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Trophe (Greek) - Food, Nourishment
  • Pathologic reasons include: decreased physical workload, loss of innervation, decreased blood supply, adequate nutrition, absent endocrine stimulation, aging, pressure
  • Atypical pneumonia

    "Inflammation of the lungs" caused by organisms that are "not" "characteristic" for causing the disease.

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Typikos (Greek) - Impression, characteristic
    • Pneumonia (Greek) - Inflammation of the lungs
  • Often caused by: Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Chlamydia psittaci, Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, Legionella pneumophila
  • Symptoms are less severe, high fever, headache, a dry irritating cough, than normal pneumonia
  • Diffuse interstitial infiltrates on chest xray
  • Azygos vein

    A unilateral vein which is "without" a partner to "join together" with.

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Zygotos (Greek) - Yolked together, Joint
    • Vena (Latin) - A blood vessel
  • Drains blood from the posterior thorax into the superior ve cava
  • Can provide collateral circulation into the right atrium should the inferior ve cava become blocked.
  • Azygous vein

    A major vessel of the body that is "without" a symmetrical or "yolked"/ partnered vessel on the other side of the body.

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Zygotos (Greek) - Yolked together, Joint
  • The azygous vein is an unpaired structure there is only one on the right side
  • Drains into the superior ve cava
  • Can provide an alternate connection from the IVC to the SVC
  • Complete adontia

    A person born "without" "teeth"

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Odous (Greek) - Tooth
  • Rare genetic disorder characterized by the congenital absence of all primary & permanent teeth
  • Often associated with syndromes like ectodermal dysplasia
  • Epitelial atrophy

    "Upper" Layers of skin degenerate

    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Thele (Greek) - Nipple, teat
    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Trophe (Greek) - Food, Nourishment
    Renal agenesis

    To be "without" the formation of "kidneys" from the "origin or source"

    • Renes (Latin) - Kidneys
    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
  • RET gene. Potter sequence (pulmonary hypoplasia, absent urine output, widely separated eyes with low set ears)
  • Due to the failure of ureteric buds to form during embryogenesis
  • Bilateral renal agenesis is incompatible with life
  • Oligohydramnios is a common complication during pregnancy
  • Potter sequence was described in 1946 by pediatric pathologist Edith Potter, and linked shortly thereafter to renal agenesis.
  • Streptococcus Agalactiae

    The bacteria Streptococcus agalactiae looks like a "chain" small "round berrylike" cells and causes a variety of infections, particularly in newborns (such as septicemia and meningitis). In cows, it infects the udders, causing them to be "without" "milk" production.

    • Strepto (Greek) - Twisted
    • Coccus (Latin) - Berry shaped, spherical
    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Gala (Greek) - Milk
  • Betahemolytic gram positive cocci that is a part of normal GI flora and commonly causes infection in neonates while they travel through the vaginal cal.
  • Causes neonatal infection that manifests as sepsis or meningitis
  • Transfer of bacteria from mother during birth
  • Group B Strep
  • First described just prior to WWII when it was found to infect cows and cause utteritis. As a result, those cows couldn’t produce milk.
  • Thymic aplasia

    A "lack" of "oblong shield"like gland and parathyroid "formation".

    • Thumos (Greek) - Excrescence like a thyme bud, thymus gland
    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Plasis (Greek) - Molding, Formation
  • Commonly referred to as DiGeorge Syndrome
  • Developmental failure of the 3rd and 4th pharyngeal pouches
  • Results in decreased T cells, decreased PTH (which leads to decreased Ca levels)
  • Associated with an absent thymic shadow
  • Recurrent viral and fungal infections
  • Deletion of 22q11
  • Transient aplastic crisis

    A "crossing" or starting and soon ending condition in which the bone marrow does "not" "mold or form" new blood cells.

  • Parvovirus B19 is one of the most common causes of transient aplastic crisis
  • Transient aplastic crisis is especially dangerous in populations with hemolytic anemias, such as sickle cell disease
  • Truncal ataxia

    A condition where a person cannot move with "order." Causing incoordination.

    • Truncus (Latin) - Trunk of a tree, trunk of the body
    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Taxis (Greek) - Arrangement, order
  • A type of ataxia that causes widebased, unsteady gait. Caused by damage to the vermis or midline of the cerebellum
  • Also called the drunken sailor gait
  • Xlinked (Bruton) agammaglobulinemia

    "Without" "immunoglobulins" in the "blood."

    • X - Chromosome med by Hermann Henking in 1890 from x (signifying the unknown) due to some baffling properties he had observed
    • Gelenk (Greek) - Joint
    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Gamma (Greek) - The me of the third letter of the Greek alphabet; signifies gamma globulin
    • Globus (Latin) - Sphere, globe
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • X linked disease. Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase enzyme problem
  • Because of the lack of immunoglobulin, patients are extremely prone to bacterial infections
  • Common infections are caused by encapsulated bacteria
  • The doctor who described the condition noticed it in children that were unable to develop an immunity to infections
  • Achlorhydria

    A condition in which there is "no" "green" "water" or acid, in the stomach.

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Khloros (Greek) - Green
    • Hydro (Greek) - Water
  • A lack of hydrochloric secretions in the stomach
  • This condition can result in a number of issues including malabsorption due to lack of gastric acid, anemia and infections
  • Often times associated with H. Pylori
  • Alogia

    A general "lack" of additional, unprompted "speech"

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
  • Can refer to poverty of speech. This is commonly seen in patients suffering from schizophrenia, and is considered a negative symptom. Can also refer to complete lack of speech, as in profound mental retardation or advanced dementia.
  • Akathisia

    "without" "sitting," aka a sensation of restlessness where you have an inability to sit still

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Kathisis (Greek) - Sitting
  • Often as a side effect of 1st generation antipsychotics that block dopamine causing excess of cholinergic activity (Extrapyramidal Side effects = EPS)
  • Associated with the sensation of twitching of muscles.
  • Often in legs. People may fidget, rock back and forth, pace, or just feel uneasy.
  • MEDYMOLOGY