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SKIN AND CONNECTIVE TISSUE
195 terms share this category
Acantholysis

The "destruction" of the "spines" or epidermal layer of the skin due to loss of cellcell connections.

  • Acanthus (Greek) - Point, Thorn, Spine
  • Lysis (Greek) - Destruction, A loosening, setting free, releasing, dissolution
  • Present in pemphigus vulgaris, but absent in bullous pemphigoid
  • A feature of herpes simplex virus skin infections
  • Acanthosis

    A process in which the skin becomes "spine" like and hardened.

    • Acanthus (Greek) - Point, Thorn, Spine
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • A type of epidermal hyperplasia, or pathologic thickening of the skin
  • Associated with acanthosis nigricans, seen in obese people
  • Present in Median Rhomboid Glossitis, Candidiasis
  • Acanthosis nigricans

    A process in which the skin becomes "spine" like, hardened, and "black" in color.

  • Associated with diabetes, obesity, and other endocrine problems
  • Possible indicatiion of underlying stomach or liver cancer
  • Achondroplasia

    A condition in which there is "not" a proper "cartilage" "molding or formation" leading to short bones.

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Chondros (Greek) - Cartilage
    • Plasis (Greek) - Molding, Formation
  • More commonly known as "Dwarfism"
  • Leads to a defect in cartilage precursors to long bones, leading to them being shorter than normal
  • Caused by a sporadic or autosomal dominant mutation in FGFR3 gene
  • Intelligence, life span, and fertility are affected
  • Dachshund and corgis, two breeds of small, longer dogs are considered to be achondroplastic breeds of dogs, hence the short limbs despite normal body length
  • Actinic cheilosis

    A lesion that occurs on the "lip" due to sun "rays"

  • A premalignant condition resulting in atrophy of the lower vermillion border, often due to sunlight exposure
  • May be dysplastic and may develop into squamous cell carcinoma
  • Actinic keratosis

    A condition by which large amount sun "rays" lead to scaly "horn" like patches of the skin.

    • Aktis (Greek) - Ray
    • Keras (Greek) - Horn
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Usually caused by sun damage
  • Hyperkeratosis
  • Adipose

    A specialized tissue for storing "fat."

  • White adipose tissue has the primary function of storing energy and is the primary source for the hormone leptin
  • Brown adipose tissue has the primary function of being burnt off to create body heat
  • Brown adipose tissue is brown because it has a higher number of ironcontaining mitochondria, which accounts for its brown color
  • Brown adipose tissue was identified by Swiss naturalist Conrad Gessner in 1551.
  • Afferent arteriole

    The "artery" that "carries" blood "to" a nephron.

    • Ad (Latin) - Near, At, To Add On
    • Ferre (Latin) - To bear, to carry
    • Arteria (Greek) - Windpipe, artery
  • Prostaglandins dilate the afferent arteriole to increase renal blood flow, which in turn leads to an increased GFR
  • NSAIDs vasoconstrictions the afferent arteriole by inhibiting the formation of prostaglandins
  • "Efferent" means being conducted away from something, and in this case, it is the arteriole conducting blood away from the glomerulus.
  • Albinism

    A condition in which a person is "white".

  • A congenital disorder characterized by a lack of pigment (melanin) in the skin, hair, and eyes causing the person to appear completely white.
  • Autosomal Recessive disease
  • A problem with the production of melanin
  • Defect in the enzyme Tyrosine
  • Many people affected by albinism are persecuted around the world. In Tanzania and Burundi, there has been a rise in albinorelated killings due to use of their body parts in potions created by witchdoctors.
  • AntiCCP

    Autoantibodies (antibodies directed against an individual’s own proteins) present in the majority of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    • More specific for Rheumatoid arthritis than Rheumatoid Factor
    • CCP is a citrullinated protein
    • AntidsDNA

      Antinuclear antibodies (autoantibodies that bind to contents of the cell nucleus) that target double stranded D.

      • Highly diagnostic of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
      • First evidence for antinuclear antibodies arose in 1948 when Hargraves, Richmond and Morton discovered the LE cell (neutrophil or macrophage that has phagocytized (engulfed) the detoured nuclear material of another cell)
      • AntiSmith

        AntiSmith (AntiSm) antibodies are a very specific marker for SLE.

        • 99% of individuals with antiSm antibodies have SLE, but only 20% of people with SLE have the antibodies.
        • Antismith antibodies were med for a young woman med Stephanie Smith who died due to complications from SLE at the young age of 22. The doctors treating her discovered the protein against the nucleus of her cells and med it after her.
        • Anticardiolipin

          Antibodies directed "against" the "fat" within the "heart", a part of the inner mitochondrial membrane.

          • Anti (Greek) - Against, opposite, opposed to
          • Kardia (Greek) - Heart
          • Lipos (Greek) - Fat
        • Found in several diseases, including syphilis, antiphospholipid syndrome, livedoid vasculitis, vertebrobasilar insufficiency, Behçet's syndrome, idiopathic spontaneous abortion, and systemic lupus erythematosus(SLE).
        • Antihistone

          Proteins that act "against" the proteins that "web" D together.

          • Anti (Greek) - Against, opposite, opposed to
          • Histos (Greek) - Tissue, web, warp
        • Found in more than 95% of patients with druginduced lupus erythematosus.
        • Antipyretic

          Substances that act "against" "fever" in order to reduce body temperature.

          • Anti (Greek) - Against, opposite, opposed to
          • Pyretos (Greek) - Fever, burning heat
        • Common antipyretics in the United States are ibuprofen and aspirin, which are used primarily as pain relievers. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are antipyretic, antiinflammatory, and pain relievers
        • Hippocrates, influenced by Egyptian medical doctrine, recommended the use of extracts of willow bark to alleviate the pain of childbirth and to reduce fever. Willow Bark contained salicylic acid
        • Aphonia

          To be "without" a "voice", or unable to speak.

          • A (Greek) - Not, Without
          • Phone (Greek) - Voice
        • Associated with recurrent laryngeal nerve injury
        • Arachidonic acid

          A polyunsaturated fatty acid present in the phospholipids of membranes of the body's cells, and is abundant in the brain, muscles, and liver.

          • Involved in cellular signaling as a lipid second messenger involved in the regulation of signaling enzymes, such as PLC and PKC and arachidonic acid is a key inflammatory intermediate and can also act as a vasodilator (via Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Thromboxane)
          • Through its conversion to active components such as the prostaglandin PGF2alpha and PGE2 after physical exercise, arachidonic acid is necessary for the repair and growth of skeletal muscle tissue
          • Areolar

            The "small empty space" around the nipple.

            • Areola (Latin) - Small empty space, garden
            • Areola (Latin) - Small open space
          • Referring to the pigmented area on the human breast around the nipple but can be used to describe other small circular areas around an inflamed area
          • Areolar changes are seen in Paget's disease of the breast
          • Arsenic

            A chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33. It got its med for its use in making "golden dyes".

          • Arsenic interferes with cellular longevity by allosteric inhibition of an essential metabolic enzyme pyruvate dehydrates (PDH) complex, which catalyzes the oxidation of pyruvate to acetylCoA by D+. With the enzyme inhibited, the energy system of the cell is disrupted (able to make ATP) resulting in a cellular apoptosis
          • Arsenic poisoning treatment: Dimercaprol.
          • Arsenic poisoning is implicated in the death of: pollen Bogart and Simon Bolivar,
          • Ataxia

            A condition in which one's motor movements are "without" "order" or coordination.

            • A (Greek) - Not, Without
            • Taxis (Greek) - Arrangement, order
          • Ataxia is broadly split into truncal and limb ataxia, depending on what part of the cerebellum is affected.
          • Baker cyst

            A "pouch" of synovial joint fluid med after English surgeon William Morrant Baker found behind the knee.

            • Kustis (Greek) - Bladder, atomical pouch or sac
          • Usually arise from knee arthritis or cartilage tear. Baker's cysts can also be associated with Lyme disease
          • Med after the surgeon who first described it, William Morrant Baker
          • Also known as a popliteal cyst due to its location on the back posterior aspect of the knee.
          • Basal cell carcinoma

            "Cancer" of the "cells" that serve as the "foundation" for the epidermal layer of skin.

            • Basis (Greek) - A foundation upon which something rests
            • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
            • Karkinos (Greek) - Cancer, crab
          • Locally invasive but does not metastasize
          • Pink pearly nodules with telangiectasis and central ulcer
          • Palisading nuclei
          • Most common skin cancer
          • Birefrience under polarized light

            The optical property of a material having a refractive index that depends on the polarization and propagation direction of light.

            • Amyloid displays apple green birefringence when stained with Congo red
            • Gout shows negative birefringence, pseudogout shows weakly positive birefringence
            • Blister

              A "swelling" of the skin.

              • Blestre (Old French) - Swelling, Pimple
            • Vesicle is a fluid containing blister less than 5 mm
            • Bullae is a fluid containing blister more than 5 mm
            • A collection of fluid beneath the skin usually formed by rubbing, infection, burning or chemical exposure
            • Bouchard nodes

              Bony outgrowths on the proximal interphalangeal joints (middle joints of the fingers or toes) due to bone spurs and most commonly seen in patients with osteoarthritis

            • One of the differences between osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis
            • Bradycardia

              A "slow" "heart" rate.

            • It presents with symptoms of lightheadedness and dizziness, may result in syncope. Potential etiologies include bradyarrhythmias like heart block (varying degrees), vasovagal episodes, medication side effects, cholinergic toxicity, etc. Consider treating with atropine, epinephrine, norepinephrine.
            • Bronchoconstriction

              "Compression" of the airways in the "throat".

            • Growing of the bronchi and bronchioles due to contraction of the smooth muscle
            • Mediated by parasympathetic nervous system
            • Reversible in asthma
            • Bulla

              A large "bubble" of fluid.

            • A vesicle containing transparent or yellow fluid that is more than 5 millimeters in size.
            • Bullous pemphigoid

              Autoimmune disorder the causes "bubble" "like" blisters

              • Bulla (Latin) - Bubble
              • Pemphix (Greek) - Bubble
              • Eidos (Greek) - Form, Resemblance or Shape, Likeness
            • Blisters are in the space between the epidermis and dermis
            • Linear pattern on immunofluorescence
            • Oral mucosa is not involved
            • Tense bullae that do not rupture easily
            • Negative Nikolsky sign... IgG antibodies attack hemidesmosome, which attach cells to the extracellular matrix, in the basement membrane
            • Bursa

              A "wineskin" or fluid filled "sac" within joints.

              • Bursa - Wineskin sac, hide, leather
            • These fluid filled sacs help make movement at joints smoother and reduce boneonbone friction.
            • Calcinosis

              A "condition" where "chalk" like material deposits in soft tissue.

              • Calx (Greek) - Chalk, limestone
              • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
            • Part of CREST syndrome
            • Deposition of calcium in soft tissues
            • Dystrophic calcification occurs after any damage to soft tissue and has normal calcium levels
            • Metastatic calcification occurs when there are increased levels of calcium in the body
            • Causalgia

              A type of "hot" burning "pain" caused by nerve damage.

            • Also known as complex regional pain syndrome
            • Cellulitis

              "Inflammation" of the "cells" of the skin.

              • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
              • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
            • Bacterial infection, usually due to Group A Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus, involving the skin, dermis, and subcutaneous fat resulting in a sharply demarcated and painful area.
            • Chondrocyte

              Mature "cells" that produce "cartilage".

              • Chondros (Greek) - Cartilage
              • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
            • Maintains the cartilaginous matrix
            • Made up of collagen and proteoglycans.
            • Chondroblast is an immature cell that can give rise to chondrocytes and osteoblasts.
            • Chondrosarcoma

              A malignant "tumor" of "cartilage" cells that can occur in different parts of the skeleton.

              • Chondros (Greek) - Cartilage
              • Sarx (Latin) - Flesh, Meat
              • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
            • Cancer, tumor, cartilage, axial skeleton, hip bones, spine, rib cage, older people
            • Chondrosarcoma is the second most common type of bone cancer. Sarcoma refers to origin in mesenchymal tissue.
            • Coccidioidomycosis

              A flulike "condition" or "disease" caused by a type of "fungus" or "mushroom," that resembles small "berries" under a microscope. The bug got its me due to its ability to exist in "two" different "ways", saprophytic (obtaining nutrients) and parasitic.

              • Kokkos (Greek) - Berry
              • Di (Greek) - Two, Double, Twice
              • Hodos (Greek) - Way
              • Mykes (Greek) - Fungus, mushroom, anything shaped like a mushroom
              • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
            • Aka Valley Fever, aka California Fever, aka desert rheumatism, aka San Joaquin Valley Fever
            • Chronic lung infection
            • Disseminated infection
            • Spores of C. immitis are swept into air by disruption of soil (construction, farming, earthquake) and are inhaled by humans
            • Cause flu like symptoms, rash, muscle/joint pain, rare chronic lung infection and disseminated disease (especially in HIV positive patients)
            • C. immitis is reported as the 10th most commonly acquired infection in the laboratory with two documented deaths, thus laboratory staff require special precautions while handling it. Since this is the most virulent fungal pathogen, it should never be grown in culture except under very controlled conditions.
            • Codman triangle

              Med after radiologist Dr. Codman, Codman's triangle is seen on Xray when new bone (usually from a tumor) grows so fast that it lifts up the outer covering of bone (periosteum), creating a triangular like shape

            • Ossification, tumor, periosteum, osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma
            • The main causes for the Codman triangle are osteosarcoma (malignant bone cancer), Ewing's sarcoma (blue cell tumor in bone or soft tissue), eumycetoma (chronic granulomatous fungal disease), and a subperiosteal abscess (collection of pus underneath the periosteum).
            • Collarete scale

              A circular skin lesion with a ring or "collar," within which keratin is detached.

            • Skin, ring of scale, loosened keratin, pityriasis rosea
            • Inflammatory skin lesions (peripherally attached and centrally detached) with a ring of scale (loosened keratin) around the border and attached to normal surrounding skin, seen commonly in pityriasis rosea.
            • Collarette scale is seen in pityriasis rosea, subsiding lesions of furuncles, miliaria, erythema nodosum, and other skin conditions.
            • Condyloma acuminatum

              A genital wart characterized by a "knob"like shape with "sharp borders"

            • Aka genital wart, aka venereal wart, aka al wart, aka anogenital wart, skintoskin contact, HPV, Gardasil vaccine
            • Sexually transmitted disease spread through skintoskin contact caused by subtypes (6 and 11) of the human papillomavirus (HPV) that consist of warts varying in size that can be external or internal, usually without other symptoms.
            • Approved in 2008 by the FDA, the Gardasil vaccine covers subtypes 6, 11, 16 and 18 and is the recommended option for prevention of genital warts as well as cervical and other cancers in adolescents before becoming sexually active.
            • Corynebacterium diphtheriae

              "Club"shaped "small stuff" whose pathology includes the formation of a "leather"like pseudomembrane in the throat.

            • Exotoxin inhibits protein synthesis via ADPribosylation, causes pseudomembranous pharyngitis, lymphadenopathy, myocarditis, and arrhythmias. Use the Elek test for toxin.
            • Craniosynostosis

              A "condition" in which the sutures of the "head" of a baby prematurely close, leading to an early joining "together" of the "bones" of the skull.

              • Kranion (Greek) - Head, Skull
              • Syn (Greek) - With, together
              • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
              • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
            • This is a problem observed in neonates and requires urgent surgical evaluation, as suture laxity is required in infancy to accommodate rapidly increasing head circumference.
            • Crepitus

              A "rattling" or crackling beneath the skin caused by popping air bubbles.

            • An indication that air has gotten somewhere it does not belong in the body
            • Also can be caused by worn out cartilage in the joint space
            • CREST syndrome

              Is a multisystem connective tissue disorder characterized by several main features. The acronym CREST stands for Calcinosis (thickening of skin with calcific nodules), Rayud's phenomenon (exaggerated vasoconstriction of small arteries in stress or cold), Esophageal dysmotility, Sclerodactyly (thickening of skin of fingers), and Telangiectasia(dilated capillaries).

              • Syn (Greek) - With, together
              • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
            • Aka limited scleroderma, connective tissue disorder, Rayud's, sclerodactyly
            • Crust

              A "shell" of hardened exudate at the site of an infection.

            • Dry skin coating, exudate
            • Refers to an outer layer or coating as a result of drying of plasma or exudate such as pus or blood on the skin.
            • Cyclooxygenase

              An "enzyme" that "produces" a "circular" oxygencontaining chemical compound.

              • Kuklos (Greek) - Circle
              • Oxys (Greek) - Sharp
              • Gene (French) - Something that produces
              • Ase (English) - Used to form the me of enzymes
            • Aka COX enzyme, COX1, COX2, NSAIDS, aspirin, antiinflammatory, prostaglandins
            • An enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of arachidonic acid from cell membranes to prostaglandins
            • Two isoforms exist COX 1 and COX 2
            • Enzyme inactivated by aspirin and other NSAIDS
            • Dermatitis

              "Inflammation" of the "skin".

              • Derma (Greek) - Skin
              • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
            • Skin inflammation
            • Dermatitis herpetiformis

              An "inflammatory" condition of skin in which rash resembles "herpes" infection.

              • Derma (Greek) - Skin
              • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
              • Herpes (Laitn) - Creeping, Spreading
              • Forma (Latin) - Form
            • Blistering of the skin
            • Itchy and papulovesicular eruptions
            • Celiac disease
            • A chronic blistering of the skin containing fluid. Dermatitis herpetiformis is characterized by itchy, papulovesicular eruptions located on extensor surfaces and is commonly associated with celiac disease.
            • Dermatitis herpetiformis was discovered by Louis Duhring!
            • Dermatomyositis

              An "inflammatory" condition in which "skin" and "muscle" are effected.

              • Derma (Greek) - Skin
              • Mus (Greek) - Muscle, mouse
              • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
            • Muscle and skin inflammation
            • A connective tissue disorder that leads to inflammation of the skin and muscles. It presents as dysphagia, fevers, and proximal muscle weakness with vasculitis.
            • Dermis

              "Skin".

            • The connective tissue layer between the epidermis and lower subcutaneous structures.
            • Desmoglein

              A protein that functions like a "glue," "bonding" cells together.

              • Desmos (Greek) - Bond, Chain, Fastening
              • Glia (Greek) - Glue
            • Cell to cell connections
            • Adhesion
            • Cadherins
            • Desmosomes
            • Cadherins that are important for the formation of desmosomes, Desmosomes help connect cells to one another.
            • Diarrhea

              A "flow" of stool "through" body.

              • Dia (Greek) - Through, completely
              • Rhein (Greek) - Flow
            • Diarrhea is usually bloody, watery, or fatty
            • Causes may include Celiac disease, Crohn's disease, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, bacterial infections, and problems with bile production
            • Treatments include oral rehydration and loperamide
            • Diphyllobothrium latum

              A tapeworm found in freshwater fish that inhabits the GI system and commonly causes B12 deficiency.

              • Di (Greek) - Two, Double, Twice
              • Phyllon (Greek) - Leaf
              • Bothrium (Greek) - Pit
              • Latum (Latin) - Broad, wide; generous, bounteous
            • A tapeworm under the diphyllobothrium genus that causes Diphyllobothriasis in humans through the consumption of raw or undercooked fish
            • It is also known as the broad or fish tapeworm
            • It can lead to Vit B12 deficiency.
            • Historically, this was referred to as the Jewish Woman's tapeworm because of their use of many freshwater fish in making homemade gefilte fish, that would lead to infection of whoever ate it.
            • Ebstein anomaly

              A congenital heart defect in which the tricuspid valve allows back flow of blood from the right ventricle to the right atrium.

            • Heart defect
            • Blood
            • Tricuspid valve
            • Right atrium
            • Right ventricle
            • Described by German physician Wilhelm Ebstein in 1866, describing a patient with a tricuspid valve anomaly with right atrial dilation and a patent foramen ovale.
            • Ectopic pregnancy

              The implantation of the fetus at a location that is "out" of "place", i.e. not in the uterus.

              • Ek (Greek) - Out
              • Topos (Greek) - Place
              • Praegnans (English) - With child, before birth
            • Commonly occurs in the fallopian tubes. Can lead to bleeding, pain, and lifethreatening complications.
            • Enanthem

              The "eruption" of a rash "within" the body on the mucous membranes.

              • En (Greek) - Within
              • Anthema (Greek) - Eruption
            • Seen in smallpox, measles, and chickenpox
            • Koplik spots in Measles
            • Endocarditis

              "Inflammation" of the "internal" layer of the "heart".

              • Endon (Greek) - Within, Inside, Interl
              • Kardia (Greek) - Heart
              • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
            • Commonly caused by bacterial and viral infections
            • Associated with Roth Spots

            • Mnemonics
              FROM JANE
              Endocarditis Criteria
              Fever, Roth Spots, Osler Nodes, Murmur, Janeway Lesions, Anemia, Nail Hemmorhages, Emboli
              Ependymoma

              "Tumor" of the cells that line the "upper storeroom" within the head and spinal cord.

              • Ependyma (Greek) - An Upper Garment
              • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
            • Common in the fourth ventricle
            • Histologically organized as perivascular rosettes
            • Eustachian tube

              The tube that connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx

            • Common location of otitis media due to nasopharyngeal bacteria's ability to backtrack into the ear
            • Med after the atomist Bartolomeo Eustachian
            • Exanthem

              The "eruption" of a rash "out of" or throughout the body.

              • Ex (Latin) - Out of
              • Anthema (Greek) - Eruption
            • Usually seen over the bodies of children
            • Can be caused by a variety of insults including bug bits, toxins, and infections
            • Classically caused by mumps, chickenpox, and the rhinovirus
            • Seen in fifth's disease caused by parvovirus B19
            • Excretion

              Process in which waste material is "discharged" by an organism.

            • People in kidney failure cannot use a variety of drugs due to the inability to secrete those drugs.
            • Exophytic

              Growth "outside" and beyond original surface epithelium in animals and "plants."

            • May be precursor to malignancy
            • Extravascular hemolysis

              The "destruction" of red "blood" cells "outside" of the "blood vessels".

              • Extra (Latin) - Outside
              • Vasculum (Latin) - A small vessel
              • Haima (Greek) - Blood
              • Lysis (Greek) - Destruction, A loosening, setting free, releasing, dissolution
            • Usually occurs in the spleen, liver, and bone marrow by macrophages
            • Immune mediated hemolytic anemia
            • Pyruvate kinase deficiency
            • Disseminated intravascular coagulation
            • Glucose6phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency
            • Fibromuscular cap

              A "head" on an atherosclerotic plaque composed of "muscle" and "small filaments".

              • Fibra (Latin) - A fiber, filament, entrail
              • Mus (Greek) - Muscle, mouse
              • Caput (Latin) - Head
            • Stabilizes established atherosclerotic plaques
            • Damage may cause rupture and thrombosis
            • Fovea

              Literally, a "pit" or depression in something.

              • Fovea (Latin) - Small pit
            • Usually used to describe the fovea centralis, the part of the eye in which there is a large concentration of rods and cones
            • Sometimes used to describe a part of the head of the femur in which there is a central depression
            • Gestational hypertension

              A condition in which a woman "bearing" a child develops "excessive" blood pressure that "stretches" the vessel walls

              • Gerere (Latin) - To bear, carry
              • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
              • Tenein (Greek) - To stretch, strain
            • Usually diagnosed around the 20th week of gestation
            • May progress to preeclampsia, eclampsia, and/or HELLP Syndrome.
            • It is thought that humans have evolved a more deeply implanted uterus in order to achieve better oxygen transport between the mother and fetus, which allows for faster blood perfusion back into the mother.
            • Glucagon

              Metabolic hormone released by the alpha cells of the pancreas involved in "bringing" "sweet wine" or sugar, into the blood.

              • Glykys (Greek) - Sweet, sweet wine
              • Agon (Greek) - Leading, Bringing
            • Stimulates gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis, lipolysis, ketogenesis
            • Acts via a cAMP pathway
            • Glucose

              A simple sugar Named as being a part of "sweet wine", metabolized by cells in order to produce energy.

              • Glykys (Greek) - Sweet, sweet wine
            • Glucose + glucose = maltose
            • Glucose + fructose= sucrose
            • Glucose + galactose = lactose
            • Goodpasture syndrome

              An autoimmune disease in which antibodies attack the basement membranes of both the kidneys and the lungs

              • Presents as crescentic glomerulonephritis and interstitial lung disease
              • Symptoms include hemoptysis and hematuria
              • First discovered by Ernest Goodpasture of Vanderbilt University.
              • Gottron papules

                Named for the German dermatologist Gottron, they are erythematous "swellings" found on the finger joints.

                • Gottron (German) - German Dermatologist
                • Papula (Latin) - Pimple, swelling, pustule
              • Pathognomonic for dermatomyositis
              • Hairy cell leukemia

                A condition in which the "white" "cells" in the "blood" become "hairy" appearing due to cytoplasmic projections.

                • Haer (Old English) - Hair, a hair
                • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
                • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
                • Haima (Greek) - Blood
              • TRAP+
              • Hairlike projections
              • OSU School of Medicine helped characterize this disease and termed it hairy due to its appearance under a microscope.
              • Hartnup disease

                Deficiency in neutral amino acid transporters in proximal renal tubular cells and enterocytes, leading to amino acid deficiency

                • Increased urine tryptophan levels
                • Presents with pellagralike symptoms due to tryptophan deficiency
                • Named for the Hartnup family of England.
                • Helicobacter Pylori

                  A "spiraled" shaped "small thing" or bacteria named because it "wards" the "gate" between the stomach and small intestine.

                  • Helix (Greek) - Spiral, coil
                  • Bakteria (Greek) - Staff, cane, Small stuff
                  • Pule (Latin) - Gate
                  • Ouros (Greek) - Warder
                • Gram negative
                • Causes duodenal and gastric ulcers
                • Oxidase+
                • Catalase+
                • Urease+
                • Treat with triple or quadruple therapy
                • Two scientists proved that most stomach ulcers were caused by H. pylori and not by spicy foods or stress, as previously thought.

                • Mnemonics
                  PUNCH
                  Urease Positive Organisms
                  Proteus, Ureaplasma, Nocardia, Cryptococccus, H. Pylori
                  Hemiballismus

                  "Jumping about" with only "half" the body.

                • Associated with lesion in the contralateral subthalamic nucleus
                • Hemiballismus was originally tested in monkeys by creating lesions in their subthalamic nuclei.
                • Histrionic

                  Personality disorder in which patients are "actors" characterized by excessive emotionality and excitability, as well as increased attention seeking and sexually provocative actions.

                • Emotional
                • Excitable
                • Attention seeking
                • Sexually provocative
                • Histrionic disorders can be traced back to hysteria originally found by Sigmund Freud.
                • Hyperkalemia

                  "Excess potassium" in "blood."

                  • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
                  • Kalium (Latin) - Potassium
                  • Haima (Greek) - Blood
                • Associated with certain drugs (digitalis, K+ sparing diuretics, ACE inhibitors), hyperosmolarity, insulin deficiency, cell lysis, acidosis, betaadrenergic antagonists, renal failure
                • May present with arrhythmias or muscle weakness
                • Wide QRS and peaked T waves on ECG
                • Literally "excess potassium in blood."
                • Hypertrophy

                  Growth of tissues due to “excess” “nourishment” of cells

                  • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
                  • Trophe (Greek) - Food, Nourishment
                • Seen in congenital pyloric stenosis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, peptic ulcer disease (hypertrophy of Brunner glands), Menetrier disease (gastric hypertrophy), Gardener syndrome (congenital hypertrophy of retinal pigment epithelium), weight training (hypertrophy of muscle), asthma (hypertrophy of smooth muscle)
                • Immunosuppressant

                  Molecules or organisms that "press down" the system that keeps the body "exempt from disease".

                • Immunosuppressant drugs are a class of drugs that suppress or reduce the strength of the body’s immune system
                • Intima

                  The "innermost" tunica (layer) of an artery or vein. It is comprised of a singular layer of endothelial cells.

                • The intima is in direct contact with the flowing blood, and is supported by an internal elastic lamina.
                • Kayser fleischer ring

                  Dark rings that appear to encircle the iris of the eye. They are due to copper deposition in the cornea due which is seen with Wilson's disease, a liver pathology.

                  • Med after Bernard Kayser and Bruno Fleischer
                  • Keratin pearls

                    A keratinized structure found in regions where abnormal squamous cells form concentric layers (that actually look like "pearls". Keratin comes from a word that means "horn" because the protein is abundant in the horns of animals.

                  • This disease occurs in children under five years of age. It affects many organ systems, mainly those including the blood vessels, skin, mucous membranes, and lymph nodes.
                  • Klebsiella Pneumoniae

                    Gramnegative, nonmotile, encapsulated, lactosefermenting, facultative aerobic, rodshaped bacterium. Is a cause of "pneumonia" among other pathologies.

                  • It is the most common cause of aspiration pneumonia in alcoholics
                  • It is found in the normal flora of the mouth, skin, and intestines and can cause destructive changes to human lungs if aspirated.
                  • Klebsiella med for German bacteriologist Edwin Klebs
                  • Lactoferrin

                    A glycoprotein that is present in various secretory fluids, such as "milk," saliva, tears, and sal secretions. This molecule contains "iron,"

                  • Lactoferrin is also present in secondary granules of PMN and is secreted by some acinar cells
                  • This molecule is an important part of the immune system as it has antimicrobial activity and is part of the innate defense system
                  • This is the molecule that provides immunity for infants when breastfed.
                  • Lamberteaton syndrome

                    A rare autoimmune disorder that is characterized by muscle weakness of the limbs.

                    • It is the result of an autoimmune reaction in which antibodies are formed against presynaptic voltagegated calcium channels in the neuromuscular junction
                    • Associated with small cell carcinoma of the lung (paraneoplastic)
                    • Leukoplakia

                      A "white" "plate" or patch found on the mucous membrane of the oral cavity

                    • EBV is associated with oral leukoplakia
                    • Occurs more commonly in smokers
                    • Etiology is believed to be from chronic irritation, although exact cause is unknown
                    • Cannot be scraped off
                    • Libido

                      A person's "lust"

                      Libmansacks endocarditis

                      "Inflammation" "inside" the "heart."

                      • Endon (Greek) - Within, Inside, Interl
                      • Kardia (Greek) - Heart
                      • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
                    • Lupus, vegetation, mitral valve
                    • Med after Emanuel Libman and Benjamin Sacks
                    • Lipoteichoic Acid

                      A "wall" made of "fat."

                    • A fat component found within the cell walls of gram negative bacteria
                    • Lithotripsy

                      A procedure in which "stones", usually of the kidney, are "rubbed" via different methods in order to break them up.

                    • Lithotripsy utilizes sound waves to break stones apart, most often kidney stones
                    • Lithotripsy can also be used to treat stones in the gallbladder or liver
                    • Lithotripsy quickly replaced surgery as treatment of choice for kidney stones after its introduction because it is a noninvasive procedure
                    • The first generation lithotriptor was originally used to test supersonic aircraft parts.
                    • Macula densa

                      A "dense" "spot" of cells in the wall of the distal convoluted tubule of the nephron that senses changes in the sodium chloride concentration in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle.

                    • It may cause vasodilation in the afferent arteriole or increase renin release from the juxtaglomerular cells to adjust the sodium chloride concentration.
                    • McArdle's disease

                      Type V glycogen storage disease. Patient is "not at ease".

                      • Results in increased glycogen in muscle that cannot be broken down due to deficiency in skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylase
                      • Presents with painful muscle cramps, myoglobinuria, and electrolyte abnormalities, particularly associated with exercise
                      • Meissner's plexus

                        Part of enteric nervous system "network" in muscularis externa responsible for peristalsis

                        • Plexus (Latin) - Braid, network
                      • Auerbach's plexus
                      • Melanocyte

                        Melanin producing "cells" in epidermis that gives skin "dark" color.

                        • Melas (Greek) - Dark, black, murky
                      • Melanin, s100+

                      • Mnemonics
                        For melanoma, just remember your ABCDEs!
                        The characteristics of melanoma
                        Asymmetrical shape, Borders that are irregular, Color (more than one), Diameter more than 6mm, Evolution as the lesion gets bigger

                        MedyQuestion
                        • A 37 year old african american woman presents to her primary care physician for increasing loss of skin color on her left forearm. The patient said that it originally started as a spot on her left arm 2 years ago, and progressively began to spread. The lesion is painless, non-erythematous and non itchy. The patient’s blood work at this time is unremarkable and she has no other complaints. Destruction of which types of cells are responsible for the patient’s condition?

                        USMLE Step 1

                        Melanocytic nevus

                        "Dark" "birth mark" that is benign.

                        • Melas (Greek) - Dark, black, murky
                        • Naevus (Latin) - Birthmark related to tus, birth
                      • Mole
                      • Intradermal nevi are papular, junctional nevi are flat macules
                      • Referred to as a beauty mark in 1950s and 1960s
                      • Melanoma

                        "Dark" skin tumor "growth", highly malignant.

                        • Melas (Greek) - Dark, black, murky
                        • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
                      • S100+
                      • Increased risk for fairskinned persons
                      • Depth correlates with metastasis
                      • ABCDEs asymmetry, border irregularity, color variation, diameter > 6mm, Evolution
                      • BRAF kinase mutation, vemurafenib is treatment

                      • Mnemonics
                        The ABCDEs of Melanoma
                        Moles: signs of trouble
                        Asymmetry, Border irregular, Colour irregular, Diameter usually > 0.5 cm, Elevation irregular
                        For melanoma, just remember your ABCDEs!
                        The characteristics of melanoma
                        Asymmetrical shape, Borders that are irregular, Color (more than one), Diameter more than 6mm, Evolution as the lesion gets bigger
                        Membranous nephropathy

                        "Disease" of the basement "membrane" of the "kidney".

                      • LM capillary and GBM thickening
                      • EM spike and dome with subepithelial deposits
                      • IF granular
                      • Associated with SLE
                      • Morula

                        A "mulberry" appearing group of cells formed during embryonic development.

                      • A very early stage of embryonic development
                      • Develops from the 2cell stage, and gives rise to the blastocyst.
                      • Multiparity

                        Having "many" "equal" pregnancies.

                        • Multus (Latin) - Much, many
                        • Par (Latin) - Equal
                        Musculus uvulae

                        "Muscular" portion of the "little" "grape" shaped uvula that is a conic projection from the soft palate in the posterior part of the mouth.

                        • Musculus (Latin) - Little mouse [the shape and movement of some muscles were thought to resemble mice]
                        • Uva (Latin) - A grape
                        • Ula (Latin) - Little
                      • Innervated by CN X
                      • Triggers emetic reflex
                      • Myopia

                        "Nearsightedness" which is the inability to see far away objects clearly, can improve with age due to subsequent presbyopia. From an inability to properly "close" the pupils.

                        • Myops (Greek) - Nearsighted
                      • Older person who suddenly finds they no longer need glasses for distance vision
                      • Necrosis

                        Cell "death" as a result of external injury. Unregulated and does not require ATP, unlike apoptosis.

                        • Nekros (Greek) - Dead body, Corpse, Death
                      • Coagulative
                      • Liquefactive
                      • Caseous
                      • Fatty
                      • Fibrinoid
                      • Gangrenous
                      • Look for an unplanned cell death, such as following loss of blood supply to an organ. Apoptosis is a structured process, such as that which occurs when the fingers separate in utero
                      • Neutropenia

                        A condition in which there is a "deficiency" of immune cells that are "neither male nor female", med for their lack of staining by either basic or acidic solutions.

                        • Neutro (Latin) - Neither masculine or feminine
                        • Penia (Latin) - Deficiency, a lack
                      • Immunodeficiency
                      • Aplastic anemia
                      • Increased risk of infection
                      • Ossicle

                        Three "bones" in the middle ear that transmit sound to the cochlea.

                        • Os (Latin) - Bone
                      • Tiny bones
                      • Malleus, incus, stapes
                      • Among the smallest bones in the body
                      • Osteitis fibrosa cystia

                        Skeletal disorder "pertaining to a disease" caused by hyperparathyroidism resulting in "bones" with too much "fiber" and fibrous tissue

                        • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
                        • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
                        • Fibra (Latin) - A fiber, filament, entrail
                        • Kustis (Greek) - Bladder, atomical pouch or sac
                      • Von Recklinghausen disease
                      • Neurofibromatosis type 1
                      • Osteoblastic metastasis

                        The spread of cancer to "bone" "beyond" its originally cancerous organ possibly leading to "budding" of new "bone" in "places" causing bone restructuring.

                        • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
                        • Blastos (Greek) - Germ, sprout, bud or budding, immature
                        • Meta (English) - Beyond, in the midst of
                        • Histanai (Greek) - To place, cause to stand, to stop
                      • Prostate cancer
                      • Osteoma

                        Benign "tumor" of the "bone".

                        • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
                        • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
                      • Most commonly on the face
                      • Part of Gardner's syndrome
                      • Osteomalacia

                        A "calming" or softening of the "bone" due to defective bone mineralization.

                      • Known as rickets in children and is usually due to a lack of sunshine and Vitamin D intake
                      • Osteomyelitis

                        Infection causing "inflammation" of the "bone" and "bone marrow".

                        • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
                        • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
                        • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
                      • S. aureus is most common cause
                      • Salmonella most common cause in sickle cell patients
                      • Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a common cause in sexually active individuals
                      • Osteonecrosis

                        A "disease" resulting in the "bone" becoming a "dead body."

                        • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
                        • Necro (Greek) - Dead Body
                        • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
                      • Avascular necrosis, especially of the hip and scaphoid bones, are forms of osteonecrosis
                      • Osteopetrosis

                        A "disease" in which the "bone" becomes very dense and "stony".

                      • Stone bone
                      • Visible as dense bone on xray
                      • Cause of malfunctioning osteoclasts, which are monocyte derived cells, thus can be treated with a stem cell transplant
                      • Osteophytes

                        "Bony" projections that form along joint margins like leaves off a "plant."

                      • Bone spurs
                      • Heberden's and Bouchard's nodes
                      • Occurs in osteoarthritis
                      • Osteoporosis

                        Progressive "bone" "disease" with decreased bone mass and density leading to "pores" in the bone.

                        • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
                        • Poros (Greek) - Pore, passage
                        • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
                      • White, old, women
                      • Decreased estrogen is a risk factor
                      • Osteosclerosis

                        A condition in which the "bone" "hardens" abnormally.

                      • Diagnosed through Xray
                      • Associated with a number of diseases including osteopetrosis, and Paget's Disease of the Bone
                      • Palatopharyngeus

                        Small muscle of the "roof of the mouth" that helps food travel from the back of the mouth towards the "gulley" of the esophagus.

                      • Helps to prevent bolus of food from entering nasopharynx
                      • Functions to lift part of pharynx over bolus of food to help it travel downward
                      • Pancytopenia

                        A "lack" of "all" of the mature "cells" in the blood, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

                        • Pan (Greek) - All, every
                        • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
                        • Penia (Latin) - Deficiency, a lack
                      • Anemia
                      • Leukopenia
                      • Thrombocytopenia
                      • Papillary muscle

                        "Nipple" shaped muscles of the heart that contract and pull on the chordae tendineae to prevent prolapse of the heart valves.

                        • Papilla (Latin) - Nipple
                        • Mus (Greek) - Muscle, mouse
                      • Rupture or malfunction of papillary muscles allows blood to travel backwards through the heart valves (regurgitation),
                      • Papillomavirus

                        A "poisonous substance" that is capable of infecting humans that cause "nipple"like wart lesions.

                        • Papilla (Latin) - Nipple
                        • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
                        • Virus (Latin) - Poison, poisonous substance
                        Parainfluenza Virus

                        A "poisonous substance" that is "similar" to the "influenza" virus.

                        • Para (Greek) - Along, side, beside, near, against, contrary to
                        • Influentia (Latin) - Influence
                        • Virus (Latin) - Poison, poisonous substance
                      • Singlestranded R virus belonging to the family of paramyxovirus family
                      • Principle cause of croup, or laryngotracheobronchitis
                      • Paraphimosis

                        A condition in which the foreskin of the penis is trapped "beside" or behind the glans of the penis and cannot return to its "muzzled" position over the head.

                        • Para (Greek) - Along, side, beside, near, against, contrary to
                        • Phimos (Greek) - Muzzle
                      • This condition is a urologic emergency. If the foreskin cannot be manually retracted, then a dorsal slit or circumcision may be necessary to prevent lack of blood flow.
                      • Parenteral

                        Administered into the body in ways that are "against" the methods used to introduce substances via the "intestines"

                        • Para (Greek) - Along, side, beside, near, against, contrary to
                        • Enteron (Greek) - Intestine, Small intestint, Piece of Gut, Bowel
                      • Intravenous or intramuscular
                      • Patau syndrome

                        "Genetic disease" caused by trisomy of chromosome 13, leading to a group of "similar traits."

                        • Genetic disease caused by trisomy of chromosome 13
                        • Microcephaly, holoprosencephaly, microphthalmia, polydactyly, cyclopia, dextrocardia
                        • Pectus carinatum

                          A deformity of the chest where the "breast" plate is protruded and shaped the "keel of a ship".

                          • Pectus (Latin) - Breast
                          • Carniatus (Latin) - Referring to the keel, or underside of a ship
                        • Commonly referred to as 'Pigeon Chest'
                        • Can be an isolated event, or caused by Edwards (trisomy 18), Downs (trisomy 21), Marfan Syndrome, Osteogenesis Imperfecta, Homocystinuria, and others.
                        • Pelvis

                          The "basin" of the body.

                          • Pelvis (Latin) - Basin or bucket
                        • Atomical location between the abdomen and thighs
                        • Pelvic floor muscles
                        • Contains reproductive organs
                        • Lumbosacral plexus
                        • Pemphigus vulgaris

                          "Common" "bubbles".

                        • Autoimmune skin disorder with IgG against desmoglein, which is a component of desmosomes
                        • Positive Nikolsky sign
                        • Flaccid intraepidermal bullae
                        • Acantholysis
                        • Reticular immunofluorescence pattern
                        • Pericarditis

                          "Inflammation" "around" the "heart tissue."

                          • Peri (Greek) - Around, about, beyond
                          • Kardia (Greek) - Heart
                          • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
                        • Inflammation/irritation of the pericardial sac
                        • Fibrinous 13 days postMI
                        • Dressler's syndrome several weeks after MI
                        • Presents with friction rub on auscultation

                        • MedyQuestion
                          • A 47 year old woman with recent history of upper respiratory infection for a week, comes to the emergency room complaining of chest pain. She describes the pain in the middle of her chest, constant, non-radiating and has been going on for the last day. She said that the pain gets worse when she takes deep breathes, but improves when she leans forward. She is afebrile at this time, with a heart rate of 112bpm, and blood pressure of 135/95. An ECG is ordered, demonstrating ST segment elevations in all leads. What is the most likely diagnosis in this patient?

                          USMLE Step 1

                          Petechiae

                          A “spot” or “freckle” resulting from a broken blood vessels

                        • Differentiated from purpura by its size
                        • Petechiae are by definition smaller than 3mm
                        • Petechial rash is characteristic of Neisseria meningitidis infection
                        • Petechial rash on the chest is found in fat embolization
                        • May be a sign of thrombocytopenia(DIC, etc.)
                        • Associated with vasculitis
                        • Pituitary apoplexy

                          Hemorrhage (blood moving "away from" intravascular space) into the pituitary gland (which "excretes" endocrine hormones)

                        • Is a cause of hypopituitarism
                        • Often associated with pituitary tumors
                        • Associated with a sudden headache
                        • Plantaris

                          A thin muscle in the posterior leg compartment used for plantar flexion of the "sole of the foot".

                          • Planta (Latin) - Sole of the foot
                        • Can be used by surgeons for grafting purposes
                        • It is absent in 710% of the population.
                        • Plasmodium Vivax

                          A "mold""like" protozoan responsible for malaria infection that can "live" in the liver years after the symptoms have cleared.

                          • Plasm (Greek) - Mold, shape
                          • Odes (Greek) - Like
                          • Vivo (Latin) - To live
                        • Associated with 48hour fever cycles
                        • Can form dormant hypnozoites in the liver
                        • Polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (Torsades de pointes)

                          A type of ventricular "swift, rapid" "heart" beat distinguished by "many" different "forms/shapes" (morphology) for each heart beat. Of significance, 'torsades de pointes' is a specific type of PVT, unique in its presence of prolonged resting QT intervals.

                        • Torsades de Pointes is a type of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, Long QT syndrome predisposes to Torsades de Pointes
                        • Can be drug induced (sotalol, amiodarone)
                        • Polymyalgia rheumatica

                          "To feel pain" in "many" "muscles," caused by inflammation. Many associated symptoms such as fatigue, anemia, feeling of illness and fever. Many causes and poorly understood pathophysiology.

                          • Polloi (Greek) - Many
                          • My (Greek) - Muscle
                          • Algein (Greek) - To feel pain
                          • Rheum (Greek) - Discharge from the body, flux; a stream, current, flood, a flowing
                        • Associated with temporal arteritis
                        • Treat with oral corticosteroid
                        • Association with HLA DR4
                        • Proximal phalanges

                          The "nearest" bones of the fingers or toes med because of their resemblance to the Greek "line of battle".

                          Pseudohermaphroditism

                          A "false" having of two sets of genitals.

                          • Pseudein (Greek) - To deceive, cheat by lies, fake
                          • Hermaphroditos (Greek) - Person partaking to the attributes of both sexes
                        • Person born with one set of internal sex organs indicative of one gender with external genitalia of the other gender
                        • Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome
                        • The term hermaphrodites comes from the son of Hermes and Aphrodite who loved a nymph so much that he wished for them to be joined into one being and as such joined genitals.
                        • Psoas minor

                          The "smaller" muscle of the "loin region".

                          • Psoa (Greek) - Loin region
                          • Meion (Greek) - To lessen, lesser
                        • Not always present muscle that is located anterior to the psoas major and helps flex the vertebral column
                        • Psoriasis

                          A skin condition that causes one to "itch".

                        • Common, chronic, autoimmune skin disorder that causes scaly plaques, especially on the extensor surfaces .Characterized by abnormal growth of epidermal layer of skin
                        • Psoriatic Arthritis
                        • Topical Corticosteroid treatment
                        • Pterygopalatine ganglion

                          A "swelling" of nerves located in a cavity formed by the "wing"shaped bones and the bones forming the "roof of the mouth" of the skull

                          • Pteryx (Greek) - Wing
                          • Palatum (Greek) - Roof of the mouth, of the Palace
                          • Ganglion (Greek) - A tumor, swelling
                        • Parasympathetic ganglion largely innervated by the greater petrosal nerve, a branch of the facial nerve. Among other things, it regulates blood flow to the sal mucosa
                        • Pus

                          "discharge from a sore" or "pus".

                          • Puon (Greek) - Discharge from a sore, pus
                        • Abscess (enclosed pus), Staph Infection
                        • Reaction formation

                          Anxietyproducing impulses are masked by exaggeration of opposing impulses

                          • React (Medieval Latin) - Done again
                          • Forma (Latin) - Form
                        • Stockholm Syndrome is a type of reaction formation.
                        • Defense mechanism described by Freud.
                        • Rectal tenesmus

                          The feeling of "tension" within the "straight" part of the colon that feels like the person needs to pass stool.

                          • Rectus (Latin) - Straight
                          • Tenein (Greek) - To stretch, strain
                        • Rectal tenesmus is associated with many conditions, included inflammatory bowel diseases, diverticular disease, colorectal cancer, prolapsed hemorrhoids, kidney stones, ischemic colitis, celiac disease as well as some infections (cytomegalovirus, amebiasis, shigellosis)
                        • Rheumatic fever

                          A fever, or "heat", caused by S. pyogenes, and may cause joint inflammation and damage to the heart valves.

                          • Rheum (Greek) - Discharge from the body, flux; a stream, current, flood, a flowing
                          • Fovere (Latin) - To warm, heat
                        • Caused by body crossreactivity to the M protein of the bacteria
                        • The major criteria are polyarthritis, carditis, subcutaneous nodules, erythema marginatum, and Sydenham chorea
                        • The minor criteria are fever, arthralgia, raised ESR or CRP, leukocytosis, heart block

                        • Medytoons
                          Rheumatoid arthiritis

                          An autoimmune condition that affects the "joints", reducing their ability to move or "flow" past one another.

                          • Rheum (Greek) - Discharge from the body, flux; a stream, current, flood, a flowing
                          • Eidos (Greek) - Form, Resemblance or Shape, Likeness
                          • Arthron (Greek) - Pertaining to the Joint
                        • Type III and IV hypersensitivity
                        • Bouchard nodules
                        • More common in females
                        • Morning stiffness that gets better throughout the day
                        • HLADR4
                        • Rhinorrhea

                          A "flowing" or running "nose".

                        • Rhinorrhea occurs when the amount of mucus production exceeds its processing in the sal cavity, causing blocked air flow (sal stuffiness)
                        • Mucus can build up in the eustachian tube, leading to an ear infection, or in the sinus cavities which may result in sinusitis
                        • Causes of rhinorrhea include cold temperature, the common cold, infection, allergies, lacrimation, cystic fibrosis, cocaine abuse, withdrawal from opioids.
                        • Rhizopus

                          A fungus that "roots" itself in place with "foot"like projections. They infect fruits, breads, and in some cases can be fatal to humans.

                        • Seen as black eschar within the nose
                        • Commonly seen in diabetics and immunocompromised patients
                        • Saponification

                          The process of "making" "soap".

                        • Occurs in fat necrosis/pancreatitis where fatty acids are released. When they are released, calcium can bind to the fatty acids and form soap, which can be seen grossly and microscopically.
                        • Sciatic nerve

                          Longest and widest nerve or "cord" in the body, originating in the hip, that supplies muscular and sensory function to the lower limb

                        • Straight leg raise test
                        • Spinal disk herniation
                        • Sclerodatyly

                          A thickening or "hardness" of the "fingers"

                        • Thickening and tightness of the fingers or toes that is associated with scleroderma and mixed connective tissue disease, and autoimmune disorders.
                        • CREST Calcinosis, Rayud's phenomenon, Esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly, telangiectasia
                        • Scleroderma
                        • Scrotum

                          The bag of "skin" and muscles that contains the testicles in mammals

                          • Scrotum (Latin) - Scrotum, a skin, a hide
                        • Skin and muscle folds extension of the perineum. The muscle folds consist of the cremaster muscle and the dartos muscle. It is separated by the scrotal septum.
                        • Splitting

                          A psychological ego defense where a person is seen as "split" into either an allgood or allbad category.

                        • Associated with Borderline Personality Disorder
                        • Also known as allornothing thinking
                        • Steatorrhea

                          A "fatty" "flow" or stool.

                        • Steatorrhea can be caused by lack of bile acids (due to liver disease, cholecystectomy, hyperlipidemia drugs), defective pancreatic enzymes (due to pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, etc.), defective mucosal cells as well as certain medicines that block fat absorption (Orlistat)
                        • Steroid

                          Organic compound with a characteristic "stiff" fourringed structure that includes molecules such as cholesterol, glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, androgens, and vitamin D, similar to sterols

                          • Steros (Greek) - Solid, stiff
                          • Oides (Greek) - From, like
                        • Fatsoluble molecules that diffuse across the cell membranes and act on transcription factors
                        • Cholesterol derivative, cytosolic or nuclear receptor

                        • MedyQuestion
                          • A 21 year old man with no medical history presents to his primary care physician for his yearly checkup. The patient is 5 ft 7 inches and weighs 200 lbs. His BMI calculated at this admission is 31.3. He has an abundance of muscle mass, with excessive acne over the shoulders bilaterally. The patient reports that he is a college football player with hopes of making it to the NFL. What condition would you be most likely to suspect on physical exam of the genitals?

                          USMLE Step 1

                          Stratum corneum

                          The "horny" outer "layer" of the skin, mostly comprising dead skin cells

                        • The upper most (outer) layer of the skin (epidermis) that is composed of mostly dead cells that shed to the surface through the process of desquamation.
                        • These cells act to protect skin from infection
                        • Desquamation of epithelial cells
                        • Stratum granulosum

                          A "grain"appearing "layer" of skin (epidermis) containing keratinocytes

                        • Layer of the skin (epidermis) that is above the stratum spinosum and it is composed of keratinocytes that have migrated up from the spinosum layer.
                        • Cells contain keratohyalin granules
                        • Subcostalis

                          Muscles which originate "below" the "ribs", and also insert into "ribs" "below" them

                          • Sub (Latin) - Under, below, beneath, at the foot of
                          • Costa (Latin) - A Rib
                        • Muscles that originate from the inner surface of the ribs and insert on the inner surfaces of ribs below them
                        • Part of the innermost intercostal muscle group.
                        • Contribute to the intercostal muscle group
                        • Syngeneic graft

                          A tissue graft from the "same" "genetic" makeup as the individual that is being grafted, either from the patient themselves or an identical twin.

                          • Syn (Greek) - With, together
                          • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
                          • Grapheion (Greek) - Stylus
                        • Syngeneic grafts are also known as isografts
                        • Syngenic means relative in Greek, which correlates to its meaning as a graft from an identical twin
                        • Syringomyelia

                          A "tube"like cystic cavity involving the spinal cord.

                        • Associated with Chiari 1 malformation
                        • Usually affects the anterior white commissure
                        • Loss of pain and temperature sensation bilaterally
                        • Tachycardia

                          A "rapid" or fast "heart" rate.

                        • Tachycardia is defined as a heart rate over 100 beats per minute
                        • Tachycardia can be physiologic (e.g. transient anxiety, exercise) or pathologic, seen in certain cardiac arrhythmias (e.g. atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, ventricular tachycardia)
                        • Teardrop cell

                          "Teardrop" shaped red blood cells occurring in individuals with myelofibrosis or extramedullary hematopoiesis.

                          • Tear (Olde English) - Tear, drop, nectar
                          • Dropa (Old English) - A Drop of Liquid
                          • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
                        • Associated with myelofibrosis and extramedullary erythropoiesis
                        • Temporoparietalis

                          A thin muscle overlying the "temporal" and "parietal" lobe areas of the skull involved in wrinkling the forehead, raising the ears, and opening the eyes.

                          • Temporalis (Latin) - Of a time, but for a time, pertaining to the temples.
                          • Paries (Latin) - A wall
                        • Lies over the temporal and parietal areas
                        • Thenar

                          An area on the "palm of the hand" located below the thumb.

                          • Thenar (Greek) - Palm of the hand; Sole of the foot
                        • The thenar eminence is composed of the opponens pollicis, abductor pollicis brevis, flexor pollicis brevis muscles and function to oppose, abduct and flex the thumb
                        • Innervated by the median nerve
                        • Median nerve lesions can lead to atrophy of the thenar eminence and loss of the opposable thumb, resulting in "ape hand"
                        • Thenar muscles are affected in Klumpke palsy, an injury of the lower trunk of the brachial plexus
                        • Damage to the recurrent median nerve can be cause dysfunction of the muscles within the thenar eminence oftem times leading to multimillion dollar lawsuits, hence the name, the multimillion dollar nerve
                        • Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

                          Disorder of "blood clotting" that presents with "low" levels of "cells" that "clot", leading to "purple" skin lesions (bruises).

                          • Thrombos (Greek) - Clump of blood, clot of blood
                          • Thrombos (Greek) - Clump of blood, clot of blood
                          • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
                          • Penia (Latin) - Deficiency, a lack
                          • Purpura (Latin) - To become purple
                        • ADAMTS 13 is a protein that degrades vWF. Inhibition or deficiency of this protein leads to decreased vWF degradation which eventually leads to platelet over activation
                        • The microangiopathic hemolytic anemia is due to the platelet clot formation the clots shear the RBCs and destroy them
                        • Schistocytes present on smear
                        • Can treat with steroids
                        • Fever, kidney problems, neurological problems, and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia.
                        • ADAMTS 13 was described in 2001.

                        • Mnemonics
                          FAT RN's treat patients with TTP!
                          Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP) Symptoms
                          Fever, Anemia, Thrombocytopenia, Renal Dysfunction, and Neruological Disorders

                          Medytoons

                          MedyQuestion
                          • A 24 year old man with no significant medical history is brought to the emergency room by his mother with complaints of a 2 day history of fever and rash. The patient appears confused at this time and is oriented only to person, but not to time or place. He has a temperature of 103.1, heart rate of 82, and blood pressure of 127/91. On examination you recognize a small petichiae covering his body that are non blanching, non pruritic and non painful. Blood work is performed and the patient is found to have a HgB of 8.5 and WBC of 11. A chemistry screen demonstrates no electrolyte abnormalities, with a BUN of 20 and creatinine of 1.6. Dysfunction in the degradation of what is the most likely cause of this patient's condition?

                          USMLE Step I

                          Thymic aplasia

                          A "lack" of "oblong shield"like gland and parathyroid "formation".

                          • Thumos (Greek) - Excrescence like a thyme bud, thymus gland
                          • A (Greek) - Not, Without
                          • Plasis (Greek) - Molding, Formation
                        • Commonly referred to as DiGeorge Syndrome
                        • Developmental failure of the 3rd and 4th pharyngeal pouches
                        • Results in decreased T cells, decreased PTH (which leads to decreased Ca levels)
                        • Associated with an absent thymic shadow
                        • Recurrent viral and fungal infections
                        • Deletion of 22q11
                        • Tinea Versicolor

                          A fungal "ringworm" infection causing a "change" in skin color, with it either being hyper or hypopigmented.

                        • Caused by Malassezia furfur
                        • Microscopically, the fungus looks like spaghetti and meatballs
                        • Tonsil

                          Lymphoid "goiters" present in the mouth.

                        • Clinical priority with enlarged or inflamed tonsils compromise the airway.
                        • Toxoplasma Gondii

                          The "poison" parasite med for the animal from which it was cultured.

                        • One of the TORCHES infections for congenital infections the classic triad is chorioretinitis, hydrocephalus, and intracranial calcifications
                        • Commonly seen in HIV patients
                        • Transmitted by cat feces
                        • Ring enhancing lesions of the brain.
                        • In 1908 Charles Nicolle and Louis Manceaux discovered a protozoan organism in the tissues of a hamsterlike rodent known as the gundi. They med it Toxoplasma gondii, a reference to its morphology Toxon (Greek) arc or bow and Plasmon (Greek) anything shaped or molded.

                        • Mnemonics
                          ToRCHeS
                          Teratogens: placenta-crossing organisms
                          Toxoplasma, Rubella, CMV, Herpes simplex, Herpes zoster (varicella), Hepatitis B,C,E, Syphilis
                          TORCH infections burn the baby
                          Infections that Cross the Placental Barrier
                          Toxoplasma, Other (syphilis, varicella, parvovirus b19), Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, and Herpes
                          Trabeculae carneae

                          The "fleshy" "beams" or ridges that line the inner surfaces of the left and right ventricles.

                        • These muscles help keep the atrioventricular valves from bulging into the atria during systole
                        • Triceps

                          The muscle on the back of the arm that has "three" "heads".

                        • The triceps are responsible for extension at the elbow joint, which results in straightening of the arm
                        • The three heads are the medial, lateral and long
                        • The triceps reflex travels through the C7 nerve root
                        • Innervated by the radial nerve
                        • Urachus

                          The urachus is a fibrous remnant of the allantois. Obliteration is important for normal formation of "urinary tract."

                        • Failure of the urachus to obliterate is associated with patent urachus, urachal cysts, and vesicourachal diverticulitis
                        • Urogenital sinus

                          A "bending" embryonic structure that gives rise to "genitals" and bladder, which stores "urine."

                          • Ouron (Greek) - Urine
                          • Genitalis (Latin) - Pertaining to generation or birth, Exterl sexual organs
                          • Sinus (Latin) - Bend, fold, curve, a bent surface; a bay, bight, gulf; a fold in land; hollow curve or cavity in the body
                        • In females, urogenital sinus gives rise to the lower portion of the vagi, Bartholin's glands, and Skene's glands. In males, the urogenital sinus gives rise to the prostate and Cowper's glands
                        • Uterus

                          Comes from Greek word for "womb." Organ in female body where fetus develops.

                        • Developed from the paramesonephric ducts
                        • Incomplete fusion of the two paramesonephric ducts can lead to a bicornuate uterus.
                        • Uterus is derived from the word meaning hysteria as the Greeks believed that it was the reason that women became emotional during their period.
                        • Vasculitis

                          "Inflammation" of the "blood vessels"

                          • Vasculum (Latin) - A small vessel
                          • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
                        • Many types of vasculitis that present in a variety of fashions
                        • Can affect arteries, veins, or both
                        • Venule

                          Small "Blood vessel" for deoxygenated blood.

                        • The first drainage of deoxygenated blood from the capillary before being returned to the heart
                        • Smaller than veins but larger than capillaries
                        • Vertigo

                          A condition in which a patient experiences the "sensation of whirling" despite lacking actual movement.

                          • Vertigo (Latin) - Dizziness, sensation of whirling
                        • Dysfunction in the vestibular system
                        • A spinning feeling associated with dizziness and vomiting
                        • Associated with boat trips and long car rides
                        • Meniere's disease involves the classic triad of vertigo, tinnitus, hearing loss
                        • It is common for people coming off of cruise boats to experience vertigo and feel like they are still rocking despite being on solid land days after their trip.
                        • Vitelline duct

                          "A leading" from the "yolk" sac to midgut of fetus.

                          • Vitellus (Latin) - Egg yolk
                          • Ductus (Latin) - A Leading, Conducting, or Aqueduct
                        • Persistence of the vitelline duct leads to the most common congenital defect of the GI tract, Meckel's Diverticulum
                        • Literally meaning egg yolk aqueduct, this structure gets its me from its function as a connection between the fetus and the yolk sac of the mother.
                        • Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia

                          A "large" "globe" of white "blood" cells.

                          • Makros (Greek) - Large, large to scale
                          • Globus (Latin) - Sphere, globe
                          • Haima (Greek) - Blood
                        • Slow growing tumor of B cells what produce large amounts of IgM. Due to the increase in B cells there is a decrease in production of other cell types in the bone marrow leading to anemia
                        • Characterized by high levels IgM in the blood
                        • The me of the disease comes literally from the fact that there is excess amounts of IgM in the blood
                        • Xeroderma Pigmentosum

                          An autosomal recessive disease characterized "Dry" and "pigmented" "Skin" from sun exposure.

                          • Xeros (Greek) - Dry, whithered
                          • Derma (Greek) - Skin
                          • Pigmentum (Latin) - Color matter, pigment, paint
                        • Defect in base excision repair
                        • Pyrimidine TT dimer formation
                        • People affected by this disease are often times call children of the night because of their inability to go outside during the day and be exposed to harmful UV rays
                        • Zona reticularis

                          Med for the innermost "geographic belt" of the adrenal gland with a "network" of cells producing sex hormones (androgens).

                          • Zona (Latin) - Geographic belt, celestial zone
                          • Reticulum (Latin) - Littlle net, network like structure
                        • Secretes androgens
                        • Regulated by the production of ACTH
                        • 17alphahydroxlase deficiency leads decreased production of androgens and leads to congenital adrenal hyperplasia
                        • Med for the netlike appearance of the cells that are arranged in all different directions
                        • Remember GFR when remembering the layers of the adrenal glands because they sit on the kidneys. Recall that the juice gets sweeter the deeper you eat i.e. Glomerulosa = aldosterone (salt), Fasciculata = glucocorticoid (sugar), Reticularis = sex hormones (sex)
                        • Celecoxib

                          NSAID

                          • Coxib (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                        • COX2 specific inhibitor
                        • Acetaminophen

                          • Possible COX inhibitor, mechanism is unknown
                          • Aldrenoate (drotes)

                            • Drote (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                          • Osteoporosis and Paget disease of the bone
                          • Inhibits osteoclast mediated bone resorption
                          • Allopurinol

                            Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor

                            • Hyperuricemia, gout, LeschNyhan disease
                            • Xanthine oxidase inhibitor
                            • Febuxostat

                              Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor

                              • Hyperuricemia, gout, LeschNyhan disease
                              • Xanthine oxidase inhibitor
                              • Probenecid

                                Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor

                                • Gout, hyperuricemia
                                • Uricosuric drug, increases uric acid secretion
                                • Colchicine

                                  Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor

                                  • Gout, hyperuricemia
                                  • Binds tubulin to prevent polloimerization of microtubules
                                  • Etanercept

                                    TNFa inhibitor

                                    • Ankylosing spondylitis, psoriasis, rhematoid arthritis
                                    • Decoy receptor for TNFa
                                    • Infliximab

                                      TNFa inhibitor

                                      • Ximab (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                    • Ankylosing spondylitis, Irritable bowel disease, rhematoid arthritis, psoriasis
                                    • Antibody that binds to TNFa
                                    • Adalimumab

                                      TNFa inhibitor

                                      • Umab (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                    • Ankylosing spondylitis, Irritable bowel disease, rhematoid arthritis, psoriasis
                                    • Antibody that binds to TNFa
                                    • Polythelia

                                      The presence of "many" "nipples", or more literally, an extra nipple.

                                    • Polythelia is not to be confused with polymastia, which is the presence of supernumerary mammary gland
                                    • Psuedostratified

                                      Having the "deceiving" appearance of being arranged in "layers"

                                      • Pseudein (Greek) - To deceive, cheat by lies, fake
                                      • Stratum (Latin) - Spread out, layer
                                    • Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelia are found in the linings of the trachea as well as the upper respiratory tract. Non-ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelia are located in the membranous part of male vas deferens.
                                    • Adnexa

                                      The appendages of an organ, basically extensions that "add on" or "fasten to" it

                                      • Ad (Latin) - Near, At, To Add On
                                      • Adnectere (Latin) - Fasten to
                                    • In gynecology, it refers to the appendages of the uterus: the ovaries, Fallopian tubes, and ligaments holding the uterus in place. Adnexal masses are common, such as cysts, endometriomas, fibroids, neoplasms, and abscesses.
                                    • Choana

                                      A "funnel"-shaped opening towards the back of the nasal cavity

                                    • - AKA posterior naris, posterior nasal aperature, or internal nostril - Opening in the back of the nasal passage between the nasal cavity and the throat - There's a left and right, plural is choanae
                                    • MEDYMOLOGY