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RESPIRATORY
135 terms share this category
Abscess

A collection of pus thought to "carry" "away" dead, infected tissue.

  • A collection of pus that has accumulated within a tissue
  • Common seen at the site of infection, many times on the skin or within internal body cavities
  • Often times associated with redness, warmth and pus drainage
  • Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    A "sharp" or quickly onset "affliction" of "breathing in and out", usually due to alveolar damage.

    • Acuere (Latin) - To Sharpen, sharply onset
    • Respirare (Latin) - To breath in and out
    • Districtus (Latin) - Restraint, rrowness, Affliction
    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
  • Damage of alveolarcapillary interface leading to impaired gas exchange, often due to pneumonia, trauma, aspiration, or sepsis
  • Hyaline membranes in alveoli
  • Hypoxemia and cyanosis
  • Whiteout on CXR
  • Treat with PEEP ventilation
  • Alveoli

    The "hollowed out structure" that acts as the site of gas exchange in the lungs.

    • Alveus (Latin) - Any hollowed out structure
  • The alveoli do not collapse on themselves due to surfactant produced by type II pneumocyte
  • Angiofibroma

    Small "masses or growths" composed of "blood vessels" and "a fiber"ous material.

    • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
    • Fibra (Latin) - A fiber, filament, entrail
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Small skin colored papules present on the nose and cheeks.
  • Composed of fibrous tissue.
  • Anthracosis

    A "condition or disease" in which there is "charcoal" deposition in the lungs from sooty air.

    • Anthrax (Greek) - Charcoal
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Seen in urban dwellers, it is benign and asymptomatic
  • Despite the me, this condition is not associated with the grampositive microbe, bacillus anthracis.
  • Antitrypsin

    An enzyme that works "against" a variety of proteins that breakdown tissue, described as occuring via "friction".

    • Anti (Greek) - Against, opposite, opposed to
    • Tripsis (Greek) - Rubbing, friction
  • Alpha1Antitrypsin disease is a loss of this enzyme, leading to large scale deterioration of mainly lung and liver tissue
  • Commonly presents as cirrhosis and panacir emphysema

  • MedyQuestion
    • A 26 year old patient with no known medical history present to his pcp for recent shortness of breath. He denies smoking or illicit drug use and has no history of asthma or allergies. Chest xray demonstrated hyperinflated lungs bilaterally. PFTs are performed, showing an fev1:fvc ratio of 68%. The physician gets blood work that demonstrates a cbc within normal limits. CMP demonstrated na of 142, k 4.0, bun 7 cr .8, chloride 101, bicarbonate 23, ast of 237 alt of 255 and alk phos of 1. What is the most likely diagnosis in this patient?

    USMLE Step 1

    Asbestosis

    Chronic inflammatory and fibrotic condition affecting the lung tissue caused by the inhalation of asbestos fibers. Med from the stone from which it’s made, that when set on fire could "not be extinguished".

    • Asbestos (Greek) - Inextinguishable, quicktime
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Calcified pleural plaques
  • Affects lower lobes
  • Ferruginous bodies
  • Associated with shipbuilding, roofing and plumbing
  • Asphyxia

    In modern use, it means to choke. A misnomer today in that originally meant to be"without" a "pulse" because individuals who weren't breathing were originally thought to not have blood flow.

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Sphuxis (Greek) - Pulse
  • A decreased amount of oxygen delivery to the brain as a result of a change in breathing in patterns
  • Can cause both coma and death in individuals
  • Aspiration pneumonia

    A type of "inflammation of the lung" that is caused by "breathing" foreign bodies into the lungs.

    • Aspirare (Latin) - To breathe, blow upon
    • Pneumonia (Greek) - Inflammation of the lungs
  • Seen commonly in alcoholics who vomit and breathe it in
  • Objects tend to get lodged in the right lower bronchus
  • Usually due to aerobic bacteria
  • Results in right lower lobe abscess
  • Asthma

    A disease in which it is "hard to breather".

    • Azein (Greek) - Breathe hard
  • Presents most prominently with expiratory wheezing
  • Bronchial hyperresponsiveness causes reversible bronchoconstriction
  • Test with methacholine challenge
  • In 200 BC it was believed to be at least partly related to the emotions (stress)
  • Atelectasis

    An "imperfect or incomplete" "extension or dilation" of the alveoli in the lungs.

    • Ateles (Greek) - Imperfect, incomplete
    • Ektasis (Greek) - A Stretching Out, Extension, Dilation
  • Commonly referred to as a collapsed lung
  • Can be caused by a variety of things, one being poor surfactant spreading during inspiration, causing the surface tension to be at its highest which tends to collapse smaller alveoli
  • "Ateles" can further be broken down into "a", which means without, and "telo", which means the end. This combines to form "without an end or goal", which subsequently translates to "incomplete".
  • Atypical pneumonia

    "Inflammation of the lungs" caused by organisms that are "not" "characteristic" for causing the disease.

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Typikos (Greek) - Impression, characteristic
    • Pneumonia (Greek) - Inflammation of the lungs
  • Often caused by: Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Chlamydia psittaci, Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, Legionella pneumophila
  • Symptoms are less severe, high fever, headache, a dry irritating cough, than normal pneumonia
  • Diffuse interstitial infiltrates on chest xray
  • Bohr effect

    Physiological phenomenon stating that an increase in carbon dioxide and resultant decrease in pH leads to increased dissociation of oxygen from hemoglobin

    • Facilitates oxygen transport to peripheral tissues
    • Affinity of oxygen to hemoglobin is inversely proportional to acidity and carbon dioxide concentration
    • Bronchiectasis

      The permanent "dilation or stretching out" of the windpipe.

      • Bronkhos (Greek) - Windpipe, throat
      • Ektasis (Greek) - A Stretching Out, Extension, Dilation
    • Symptoms include chronic cough, shortness of breath, coughing up blood, foul smelling sputum and recurrent lung infections
    • Causes include cystic fibrosis, Kartagener syndrome, airway obstruction, necrotizing infection, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
    • The inventor of the stethoscope, Rene Laennec, used his invention to first discover this disease in 1819.
    • Bronchioles

      Small airways that branch from large airways of the "throat".

    • Pseudostratified ciliated columnar cells in terminal bronchioles, cuboidal cells in respiratory bronchioles
    • Smooth muscle in the airway extends up to terminal bronchioles only
    • Terminal bronchioles found in the conducting zone filter, humidify and warm the air and respiratory bronchioles found in the respiratory zone participate in gas exchange.
    • Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma

      A type of cancer of the "hollowed out structures" of the lungs and "windpipe".

    • One of two type of lung cancer that is not associated with smoking
    • Looks like pneumonia on chest xray so it important to repeat xray after treating a patient with pneumonia to ensure it is not this type of cancer
    • Causes thickening of the alveolar walls and arises from Clara cells
    • Bronchitis

      "Inflammation" of the airways in the "throat"

      • Bronkhos (Greek) - Windpipe, throat
      • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
    • Chronic bronchitis is form of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease caused by an increase in size of the mucus producing glands in the bronchi
    • Characterized by excessive amounts of mucus, productive cough for more than 3 months for a year for more than 2 years, wheezing and crackles
    • Reid index (ratio of thickness of mucus gland layer compared to total thickness of the bronchial wall) is more than 50 percent
    • Smoking is the leading cause
    • Comorbidity with emphysema
    • Acute bronchitis is inflammation of the bronchi caused primarily by viruses. The main symptom is cough as patients try to get rid of the mucus. As most cases are caused by viruses, it is not recommended to use antibiotics for this illness
    • Bronchoconstriction

      "Compression" of the airways in the "throat".

    • Growing of the bronchi and bronchioles due to contraction of the smooth muscle
    • Mediated by parasympathetic nervous system
    • Reversible in asthma
    • Bronchodilation

      "Widening" of the airways in the "throat".

    • Relaxation of the smooth muscle in the walls mediated by sympathetic nervous system
    • Bronchopneumonia

      Disease that affects the "throat" and "lungs".

    • Pneumonia with scattered and patchy consolidation around the bronchioles usually multifocal and bilateral
    • Most commonly caused by Streptococcus pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenza and Klebsiella
    • Bronchus

      Large airway that branches from the "throat".

    • Large airway in the conducting zone of the respiratory tree which warms, filters and humidifies air but does not participate in gas exchange
    • Cartilage and goblet cells extend only up to the bronchi
    • Carboxyhemoglobin

      "Spherical" protein in red "blood" cells that usually carries oxygen, but is instead bound to a "carbon" and "oxygen" group

    • Carboxy Hb has decreased oxygen binding capacity and decreased oxygen unloading in tissues...Chronic CO poisoning presents with headaches
    • Classic finding of CO poisoning is cherry red skin color
    • CO exposure from carbon monoxide that has decreased oxygen binding capacity and decreased oxygen unloading in tissues
    • Exhaust and gas heaters
    • PaO2 is normal, SaO2 is decreased
    • Carbon monoxide has 200x more affinity than oxygen for hemoglobin
    • Carcinoid syndrome

      Describes the symptoms that "run" "together" as a result of the "cancer" "like" tumor

    • Increased serotonin production can decrease tryptophan levels leading to niacin deficiency
    • Serotonin secreted by gastro intestinal carcinoid tumors gets metabolized by the liver while serotonin secreted by bronchial carcinoid enters the systemic circulation
    • Most common tumor of appendix
    • GI carcinoids arise from enterochromaffin cells
    • Group of symptoms including flushing, diarrhea, secondary restrictive
    • Flushing is due to kallikrein secretion rather than serotonin secretion
    • Cavitary foci

      "Hollow" lesions which were the "centers" of caseous necrosis seen in the lungs in tuberculosis

      • Cavus (Latin) - Hollow, Space
      • Focus (Latin) - Hearth, fireplace, center of activity
    • First time infection with TB lesions are in the lower lobes of the lung, reactivated lesions are in the upper lobes of the lungs
    • Centriacinar

      The "center" of a "grape"like cluster of air sacs in the lungs.

    • Alveoli, emphysema, smoking
    • CharcotLeyden crystals

      Microscopic crystals, med after the scientists who discovered them, that can be found in stool or sputum of people who have allergies or parasitic infection.

      • Kryos (Greek) - Frost, Crystal
    • Parasitic infection, allergic disease, asthma, eosinophilic inflammation
    • Indicative of eosinophilic inflammation as they are formed from the breakdown of eosinophils
    • Described by JeanMartin Charcot (1853) and Ernst Viktor von Leyden in 1872
    • Chromogranin A

      A small "grain"like and "colored" protein made by certain cells in the body that functions in helping cells to secrete substances and is also used as a marker for certain diseases.

      • Khroma (Greek) - Color, complexion character
      • Granum (Latin) - Grain, seed
    • Negative regulator of neuroendocrine function, precursor, neurons, endocrine cells
    • Its levels are elevated in pheochromocytoma and diabetes
    • It is used as an indicator for pancreas and prostate cancer and in carcinoid syndrome
    • In serves as a precursor to other and functions to neuroendocrine secretory protein located in vesicles in neurons and endocrine cells that is a precursor for several functional peptides that negatively regulate the neuroendocrine function of the releasing cell (autocrine) or nearby cells (paracrine).
    • Chromogranin A is a precursor for vasostatin, pancreastatin, catestatin, and pravastatin. These are all negative neuroendocrine regulators.
    • Chronic bronchitis

      "Inflammation" of the airways in the "throat" that persists over "time".

      • Khronikos (Greek) - Of time, concerning time
      • Bronkhos (Greek) - Windpipe, throat
      • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
    • Cough due to inflammation of bronchial tubes causing mucus production and difficulty getting air in and out
    • Lasts for at least 3 months, two years in a row.
    • Cigarette smoking is the most common cause. This is a longterm condition that keeps coming back and never goes away completely.
    • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

      A disease of the "lung" that progresses over a long period of "time" and is characterized by inflammation of the small airways and a "build up" of mucus that causes a "barrier" to the outflow of air.

    • Aka chronic obstructive lung disease, chronic obstructive airway disease, shortness of breath, cough, mucus production
    • Characterized by longstanding and progressively worsening shortness of breath, cough, and mucus production (as measured by lung function tests)
    • It is most commonly due to tobacco smoke
    • Smoking is the primary risk factor for COPD.
    • Coryza

      Inflammation of the mucous membrane in the nose with that drains mucus

    • Caused especially by a cold or by hay fever.
    • Club (Clara) cells

      Cells that protect the small airways in the lungs and have a dome shape resembling a "short, thick stick" under the microscope.

      • Klubba (Old Norse) - Cudgel
      • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Aka Clara cells, aka bronchiolar exocrine cells, detoxification, respiratory bronchioles, respiratory stem cells
    • Have short microvilli and are found in the bronchioles of the lungs in the ciliated simple epithelium whose function is to protect the bronchiolar epithelium by secreting a variety of substances and act to detoxify harmful substances inhaled into the lungs
    • Act as stem cells and regenerate the bronchiolar epithelium
    • Club cells used to be called Clara cells, as they were discovered by Max Clara in 1937. However, Clara, an avid member of the Nazi party, used tissue taken from executed victims of the Third Reich for his research, including his discovery of Clara cells. Therefore, in May 2012, most respiratory journals concluded that the continued use of his me was equivalent to honoring him so they changed the me to Club cell, effective as of January 1, 2013.
    • Communityacquired pneumonia

      A disease of the "lungs" caused by infectious agents (S. pneumoniae) found in "the community".

    • Pneumonia, community, fluidfilled lungs, lack of oxygenation
    • Most common caustic microorganism differ among age groups: Newborns: Group B Step, Listeria, Infants: S, pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, S. aureus, Adults: viruses, S. pneumoniae, Mycoplasma, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and others.
    • Cor pulmonale

      A failure of the right side of the "heart" due to elevated pressures in "pulmonary" vessels

    • Pulmonary heart disease, right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH)
    • Failure of the right side of the heart caused by longterm high blood pressure in the pulmonary artery and the right side of the heart
    • Chronic cor pulmonale leads to right ventricular hypertrophy, where as acute cor pulmonale results in dilatation
    • Crackles

      A pathologic breath sound characterized by "sharp noises".

      • Cracian (Old English) - Make A Sharp Noise
    • Aka rales or crepitations, crackles, inspiratory sound, pneumonia
    • Are discontinuous, nonmusical, brief crackling noises made by the lungs more commonly during inspiration
    • Caused by the popping open of small airways and alveoli collapsed by fluid, exudate, or lack of aeration during expiration. Can be heard in patients with pneumonia, atelectasis, pulmonary fibrosis, etc.
    • Croup

      A pediatric upper respiratory illness characterized by a "croaking," or loud, hoarse sound.

      • Croup (English) - To Croak
    • Aka laryngotracheobronchitis, barking cough, stridor, hoarseness, viral upper respiratory infection
    • A common, primarily pediatric respiratory condition of the upper airway characterized by a barking cough, stridor and hoarseness
    • Can be due to a viral (more common) or bacterial cause. Most common viral causative agents include parainfluenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and can be often treated with a single dose of oral steroids
    • Croup means to cry hoarsely and the me was first used to describe the disease in Scotland

    • Mnemonics
      3 S's of Croup
      Croup symptoms
      Stridor, Subglottic swelling, Seal-bark cough
      Currant jelly

      A term used to describe stool that resembles "raisins of Corinth".

    • A term used to describe the appearance of gel like body fluid that is usually dark red due to the high RBC content
    • Current jelly stool commonly seen in intussusception
    • Current jelly sputum associated with Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia
    • Curschmann spirals

      Spiral shaped mucus plugs formed in lower airways and found in sputum of patients affected by lung cancer, asthma, chronic bronchitis, or in asymptomatic smokers

      • Spira (Greek) - Spiral
      • Spira (Latin) - A coil, twist, fold
    • Spiral mucus plugs, lower airway, basophilic, asthma, lung cancer
    • Cystic fibrosis

      A genetic condition in which failure to secrete fluids results in "pouches" of fluid and layers of collage "fibers" behind epithelial surfaces.

      • Kustis (Greek) - Bladder, atomical pouch or sac
      • Fibra (Latin) - A fiber, filament, entrail
    • An autosomal recessive genetic disorder that is characterized by a defect in the protein cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) resulting in abnormal transport of chloride and sodium across an epithelium, leading to viscous secretions
    • Symptoms include recurrent sinus infections, poor growth, difficulty breathing, and infertility
    • Diagnosed by genetic testing or by a sweat test.
    • Diencephalon

      An embryonic structure that gives rise to the structures "within the head" on the "two sides" of the brain/

      • Di (Greek) - Two, Double, Twice
      • En (Greek) - Within
      • Kephale (Greek) - Head
    • Thalamus
    • Subthalamus
    • Hypothalamus
    • Epithalamus
    • Forebrain
    • Part of the neural tube that gives rise to the posterior forebrain structures. In adults, it appears at the upper end of the brain stem and includes the thalamus, subthalamus, hypothalamus, and the epithalamus.
    • Dysplastic kidney

      The "malformation" of the kidneys during fetal development.

      • Dys (Greek) - Bad, Ill, Abnormal, Evil
      • Plassein (Greek) - To mold or form
      • Kidnere (Middle English) - Kidney
    • The kidney is generally not functional and can have multiple cysts.
    • Emboliform nucleus

      A small cerebellar "kernel" that contributes to the superior cerebellar peduncles and is "wedged" between the dentate nucleus and the globose nucleus.

    • Brain
    • Cerebellar nucleus
    • Superior cerebellar peduncle
    • Embryogenesis

      The "origin" of the development of the embryo or "fetus".

      • Embruon (Greek) - Fetus
      • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
    • Embryo
    • Development
    • Differentiation
    • Zygote
    • Sperm
    • Egg
    • Fertilization
    • Eosinophilic casts

      A "form" created within the urine composed of "dawn" colored immune cells.

      • Eos (Greek) - Dawn
      • Philein (Greek) - To love
      • Kasta (Old Norse) - To throw, a form of
    • Associated with acute allergic interstitial nephritis
    • Epigastric

      The central region "above" the "stomach."

      • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
      • Gaster (Greek) - Stomach, belly, eater, devourer
    • Pain in region associated with GERD, gastritis, pancreatitis, peptic ulcers, hiatal hernias, and gallstones
    • Epispadias

      A congenital "gouge" in which the urethra ends in an opening "above" the dorsum of the penis.

      • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
      • Spado (Latin) - A tear or gouge
    • Associated with bladder exstrophy
    • First reported in Byzantine Emperor Heraclius (610641 AD)
    • Golgi apparatus

      Cell trafficking organelle that "makes read" various proteins to be shipped out to places within and outside of the cell.

    • Adds mannose6phosphate to proteins that are destined for lysosomes
    • Failure of mannose6phosphate addition leads to Icell disease.
    • Since the Golgi apparatus is so large (relatively speaking), it was one of the first organelles discovered in the cell.
    • Granzymes

      Enzymes stored within small "seed"like structures in cells that destroy other cells.

      • Granum (Latin) - Grain, seed
      • Zume (Greek) - To leaven
    • Serine proteases that are released by cytotoxic T cells and initiate apoptosis in the target cell
    • These molecules were unofficially named Grs for years before scientists came up with the me granzymes.
    • Hairy leukoplakia

      Painless "flat white" plaques on the tongue that cannot be scraped off.

    • Associated with HIV and EBV
    • This disease was first discovered during the huge AIDS epidemic in the early 1980's.
    • Hemophilia

      Disease in which patients "love" to "bleed"

    • Intrinsic pathway coagulation disorder characterized by the deficiency of factor VIII (Hemophilia A) or factor IX (Hemophilia B)
    • Increased PTT
    • Hemarthrosis
    • Treat Hemophilia A with recombinant factor VIII
    • Rasputin became famous for treating a Russian prince with hemophilia by simply ordering him to not take aspirin.
    • Hilum

      A "trifle or little thing" or depression of space where blood vessels and nerves enter a structure.

      • Hilum (Latin) - Little thing, trifle
    • Seen in the lungs and kidneys.
    • Holoprosencephaly

      Failure of the "brain" to separate into left and right hemispheres, leaving it "whole."

      • Holo (Greek) - Whole, entire
      • Pros (Greek) - Toward to
      • En (Greek) - Within
      • Kephale (Greek) - Head
    • Leads to cleft lip/palate and cyclopia
    • Associated with sonic hedgehog gene mutations
    • Hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis

      A "hardening" of the "arteries" causing them to be thick and "over" "formed".

    • Onion skin appearance on histology
    • Associated with severe chronic hypertension
    • Hypersecretion

      "excessive" production of a bodily fluid that is "moved" into a lumen (as gastric acid, mucus, or growth hormone).

      • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
      • Secretionem (Latin) - A dividing, separation
    • Stomach acid hypersecretion can lead to ulcers
    • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

      "Disease" of "excess heart muscle."

      • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
      • Trophe (Greek) - Food, Nourishment
      • Kardia (Greek) - Heart
      • My (Greek) - Muscle
      • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
    • Most cases are autosomal dominant
    • Also seen in Friedreich's ataxia, Pompe disease
    • Causes a S4 and systolic murmur on the left sternal border that increases with valsalva and standing
    • Cause of sudden death in young athletes
    • Concentric hypertrophy of left ventricle with myofibrillar disarray and fibrosis
    • Interstitial nephritis

      "Inflammation" of the space that "stands" "amongst" or throughout the "kidney", or the space between the tubules.

      • Inter (Latin) - Among, between, betwixt, in the midst of
      • Sistere (Latin) - To stand
      • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
      • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
    • Most commonly caused by analgesics and antibiotics (methicillin)
    • Keratin

      A fibrous structural protein that is the key structural material making up the outer layer of human skin. It is also the key structural component of hair and nails (and, interestingly, "horns").

      Krukenberg tumor

      A malignancy (or "mass") in the ovary that metastasized from a primary site, classically the gastrointestinal tract.

      • These tumors are often found in both ovaries, consistent with metastasis
      • Most common source is gastric adenocarcinoma at the pylorus of the stomach.
      • Med after Fredrich Ernst Krukenberg
      • Langerhans cell

        These cells are antigenpresenting immune cells of the skin and mucosa.

        • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
      • These cells contain large granules called Birbeck granules
      • They are present in all layers of the epidermis, but are most prominent in the stratum spinosum.
      • Langerhans med after Paul Langerhans
      • Laplace's law

        A law pertaining to blood flow physiology: the pressure related to the circumference of a vessel storing or transmitting fluid equals the product of the pressure across the wall and the radius of the vessel for a sphere and half this for a tube.

        • Med after PierreSimon Laplace
        • Laryngeal nerve

          A branch of the vagus nerve that supplies all the intrinsic muscles of the "larynx," except the cricothyroid muscles.

          • Laryngeus (Latin) - Relating to the larynx, the upper windpipe
          • Neuron (Greek) - Nerve, straw, tendon
        • The nerves emerge from the vagus nerve at the level of the arch of aorta, and then travel up the side of the trachea to the larynx
        • This nerve supplies sensation to the larynx below the vocal cords, gives cardiac branches to the deep cardiac plexus, and branches to the trachea, oesophagus and the inferior constrictor muscles.
        • Laryngeal papilloma

          A rare medical condition caused by a HPV infection of the throat (or "larynx").

          • Laryngeus (Latin) - Relating to the larynx, the upper windpipe
          • Papilla (Latin) - Nipple
          • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
        • This can cause assorted "tumors" or "papillomas" to develop over an extended period of infection. Without treatment it is potentially fatal as uncontrolled growths could obstruct the airway.
        • Laryngotracheobronchitis

          A respiratory condition that is triggered by an acute viral infection of the upper airway. An "inflammation" of the "throat," "windpipe," and "bronchi"

          • Laryngeus (Latin) - Relating to the larynx, the upper windpipe
          • Trakhys (Greek) - Rough
          • Bronkhos (Greek) - Windpipe, throat
          • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
        • The infection leads to swelling inside the throat, which interferes with normal breathing and produces the classical symptoms of a barking cough, stridor, and hoarseness. It may produce mild, moderate, or severe symptoms, which often worsen at night
        • Known as croup
        • Laxative

          Medicine used "to loosen" the bowels

          Lingual nerve

          The nerve that innervates the "tongue."

          • Lingua (Latin) - Tongue
          • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
        • General somatic afferent innervation of the anterior 2/3 of the tongue
        • Commonly injured in wisdom tooth surgery
        • Loa Loa

          A nematode carried by flies that causes swelling in the skin and may be seen in the conjunctiva.

          • Treat with diethylcarbamazine
          • Commonly seen swimming around the eyeball
          • Mesosalpinx

            Part of broad ligament that acts as a "middle" "tube" between the ovaries and fallopian tube

            • Mesos (Greek) - Middle, in the middle, in between
            • Salpinges (Greek) - Tube
            Metencephalon

            Embryologic origin of part of the "brain" and "beyond".

            • Meta (English) - Beyond, in the midst of
            • En (Greek) - Within
            • Kephale (Greek) - Head
          • Origin is rhombencephalon, gives rise to Pons and Cerebellum
          • Cavity of metencephalon gives rise to upper part of 4th ventricle
          • Migratory polyarthritis

            "Moving" "inflammation" of "multiple" "joints".

            • Migrare (Latin) - To move from one place to another
            • Polloi (Greek) - Many
            • Arthron (Greek) - Pertaining to the Joint
            • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
          • Crohn's disease
          • Myxedema

            "Mucus" deposition in the dermis causing doughy "swollen" appearance.

          • Associated with thyroid dysfunction
          • Pretibial myxedema in hyperthyroidism, facial myxedema in hypothyroidism, nonpitting edema
          • Narcolepsy

            Sleep disorder associated with excessive daytime feeling of "numbness" and sleepiness with "attacks" of hallucinations around sleeping times.

            • Narke (Greek) - Numbness, stupor
            • Lepsis (Greek) - An attack, seizure
          • Involves vivid dreams, sleep paralysis, recurrent car accidents, and cataplexy
          • If patient also overweight, consider sleep apnea in DDx for daytime sleepiness
          • Nasopalatine nerve

            Branch of maxillary "nerve" that controls the "nose" and "throat" and supplies the front upper teeth.

            • Nasus (Latin) - Nose
            • Palatum (Greek) - Roof of the mouth, of the Palace
            • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
          • Target of nerve block for dental work on upper incisors
          • Nasopharyngeal carcinoma

            Polypoid "cancerous" "growth" in "nose" and "throat".

            • Nasus (Latin) - Nose
            • Pharynx (Greek) - Throat, windpipe
            • Karkinos (Greek) - Cancer, crab
            • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
          • Associated with EBV
          • Extremely common in Guangdong province of China
          • Nematodes

            Also known as roundworms with "thread" "like" bodies. Parasites which infect the GI tract

            • Nema (Greek) - Thread
            • Odes (Greek) - Like
          • Al pruritus
          • Anemia
          • Malabsorption
          • History of recent travel to tropics
          • Pampiniform plexus

            Loose network of "vinelike" veins found in the male spermatic cord.

            Pancarditis

            "Inflammation" of the "entire" "heart".

            • Pan (Greek) - All, every
            • Kardia (Greek) - Heart
            • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
            Pes anserinus

            The "goose" "foot" shaped space on the knee where 3 tendons of the thigh meet.

          • The pes anserinus is composed of tendons from the sartorius, gracilis, and semitendinosus muscles, which act to flex the knee
          • Inflammation of the underlying bursa can result in pes anserinus bursitis.
          • Pes anserinus means "goose foot," relating to its shape on the medial aspect of the knee.
          • Pleiomorphic

            "Larger, greater in quantity" variety in the "form, shape, outward appearance," and/or size of cells or their nuclei.

            • Pleion (Greek) - Larger, greater in quantity
            • Morphe (Greek) - Form, shape, beauty, outward appearance
          • Increased plesiomorphy is an indication of a poorly differentiated tumor
          • Pleura

            The outer connective tissue lining of the lungs, on the "side of the body, rib, flank"

            • Pleura (Greek) - Side of body, rib, flank
          • Puncture can cause pneumothorax
          • Divided into visceral and parietal pleura
          • A pleura, in general, is a membrane that folds back onto itself to form a double layered structure
          • PlummerVinson syndrome

            A manifestation of irondeficiency anemia with esophageal webs and atrophic glossitis

            • Associated with a microcytic anemia due to the iron deficiency
            • A beefy red tongue due to the atrophic glossitis can be seen
            • Pneumocystis Jirovecii

              An opportunistic fungal infection of the "lungs." Pathogenesis includes formation of globular "pouch"like cysts.

              • Pneumon (Greek) - Lung
              • Kustis (Greek) - Bladder, atomical pouch or sac
            • Start prophylaxis when CD4 < 200
            • A diffuse interstitial pneumonia
            • Treat with TMPSMX
            • The causative organism used to be called Pneumocystis carinii. Currently, the organism is called Pneumocystis jirovecii. The term PCP pneumonia originally stood for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, which is technically no longer applicable, but the term PCP pneumonia has been retained by clinicians due to convenience.

            • MedyQuestion
              • A 33 year old woman with history of IV drug abuse and HIV presents to the emergency room with complaint of productive cough and fever for 3 days. The patient reports bringing up yellow-green mucus on coughing. Patient has increased tactile fremitus on the right lower lobe. A CXR confirms the diagnosis of pneumonia. The patient’s last CD4 count last year was 320, but came back at 127 on this visit. What is the most likely causative agent for this individuals pneumonia?

              USMLE Step 1

              • A 33 year old woman with history of IV drug abuse and HIV presents to the emergency room with complaint of productive cough and fever for 3 days. The patient reports bringing up yellow-green mucus on coughing. Patient has increased tactile fremitus on the right lower lobe. A CXR confirms the diagnosis of pneumonia. The patient’s last CD4 count last year was 320, but came back at 127 on this visit. What medication should this patient be started on for prophylaxis?

              USMLE Step 1

              Pneumomediastinum

              A condition where "air" leaks into the mediastinum (group of structures in the "midway" of the thorax)

            • Seen in Boerhaave syndrome
            • Literally means air in the mediastinum
            • Pneumonia

              An infection of the alveoli, may lead to "inflammation of the lungs"

              • Pneumonia (Greek) - Inflammation of the lungs
            • Divided into lobar, bronchopneumonia, and interstitial types
            • Pneumonitis

              "Inflammation" of the "lung" tissue

              • Pneumon (Greek) - Lung
              • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
            • Hypersensitivity pneumonitis in farmers
            • Polycystic ovarian syndrome

              A hormonal disorder of the "egg"bearing organ resulting in the formation of "many" "sacs" and other symptoms that "run" "together"

              • Polloi (Greek) - Many
              • Kustis (Greek) - Bladder, atomical pouch or sac
              • Ovum (Latin) - Egg
              • Syn (Greek) - With, together
              • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
            • Increased LH:FSH ratio
            • Associated with obesity
            • Hyperandrogenism can be seen in this condition
            • Hirsutism can be seen in this condition
            • Polydipsia

              Abnormally high to extreme levels of "thirst". To drink "many" more times than baseline.

            • Seen in diabetes, hypokalemia
            • Is a symptom of anticholinergic poisoning
            • Related to word dipsomaniac, meaning alcoholic
            • Portacaval

              Treatment for high blood pressure in the liver. Makes a "gate, door, hollow cave" between portal (portal vein) and systemic (Inferior Ve Cava) circulations.

              • Porta (Latin) - Gate, door
              • Cavus (Latin) - Hollow, Space
            • Cirrhosis, Varices
            • Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure

              PCWP serves as an indirect measure of left atrial pressure due to large compliance of pulmonary circulation

            • Edema with normal PCWP=ARDS
            • Pulmonary hypoplasia

              "Under" "formation" of the "lung" tissue.

              • Pulmon (Latin) - Lung
              • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
              • Plassein (Greek) - To mold or form
            • Potter Sequence, RDS, congenital diaphragmatic hernia
            • Pulsus alternans

              Poor prognosis "Alternating" "pushes" of blood through major arteries.

            • Arterial pulses with alternating weak and strong beats. Highly suggestive of left ventricular impairment during contraction (systole).
            • Pyoderma Gangrenosum

              A "skin" lesion that is "eaten away" and producing "pus",

            • Two forms of pyoderma gangrenosum include the "typical" ulcerative form, occurring in the legs, and the "atypical" form which is more superficial occurring on the hands or other parts of the body
            • Associated with other autoimmune diseases, such as Rheumatoid Arthritis, Ulcerative Colitis, Crohn's Disease, Wegner's Granulomatosis and some leukemias.
            • Recurrent laryngeal nerve

              The branch of the vagus nerve that "runs back" or "returns" "to the larynx".

              • Recurrere (Latin) - Run back, hasten back, return
              • Laryngeus (Latin) - Relating to the larynx, the upper windpipe
              • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
            • Hoarseness, Pancoast tumor, damage during surgery
            • Supplies all intrinsic muscles of larynx (except cricothyroid). Emerges at level of aorta then rises on sides of trachea up to larynx
            • Described by Roman physician Galen, who found pigs with this nerve severed were unable to squeal.
            • Regulatory Tcell

              Immune cells that "direct" and suppress the activation of the immune system; mechanism not fully understood

              • Regulare (Latin) - To direct
              • Thumos (Greek) - Excrescence like a thyme bud, thymus gland
              • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
            • Auto immune disease, CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+
            • Discovered in 1995 by Japanese scientist Shimon Sakaguchi. Foxp3 anomalies found in autoimmune disease.
            • Rheumatoid nodules

              A firm swelling, or "knot", seen in rheumatoid arthritis, or an autoimmune condition that affects the "joints", reducing their ability to move or "flow" past one another.

              • Rheum (Greek) - Discharge from the body, flux; a stream, current, flood, a flowing
              • Nodus (Latin) - Knot
              Rhinitis

              An "inflammation" of the "nose".

              • Rhino (Greek) - Nose
              • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
            • Associated with colds, the flu, URI's and commonly, as part of an allergic response
            • The me literally means flowing nose
            • Rhomboid minor

              "Rhombus""like" "small" upper back muscle that connects the medial border of the scapula to the vertebrae. Located superior to the rhomboid major.

              • Rhombos (Greek) - A magician's circle
              • Eidos (Greek) - Form, Resemblance or Shape, Likeness
              • Meion (Greek) - To lessen, lesser
            • Innervated by the dorsal scapular nerve
            • Fixes scapula to the thoracic wall
            • Involved in retraction of the scapula
            • Smaller than the rhomboid major
            • Seborrheic keratosis

              A skin "condition" with benign growths (composed same protein that comprises animal "horns") that have "grease" "flowing" from them.

              • Sebum (Latin) - Tallow, grease
              • Hroia (Greek) - Flow, flux
              • Keras (Greek) - Horn
              • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
            • Mostly associated with old age
            • LesserTrelat sign
            • Colon cancer
            • Sigmoid colon

              The part of the "large intestine" "shaped" like the letter "S".

              • Sigma (Greek) - The letter S
              • Oides (Greek) - From, like
              • Kolon (Greek) - Large intestine
            • The second to last segment of the large intestines that has a shape that resembles the letter 'S'
            • Innervated by the inferior mesenteric nerve
            • Med for its resemblance to the letter S as transliterated from the Greek alphabet from sigma
            • Sirenomelia

              Congenital deformity where the legs are fused together, thus having a lower torso that resembles a mermaid, or "mermaid limbs".

            • Often fatal due to abnormalities with the development of the kidneys and urinary bladder
            • Also known an Mermaid Syndrome, from the Greek word 'seiren' for mermaid
            • Spherocytosis

              A "defect" in red blood "cells", leading to a "ball" shape

              • Sphaira (Greek) - Globe, ball, playing ball, terrestrial globe
              • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
            • A defect in RBC membrane skeleton proteins (ankyrin, spectrin) that leads to small, round RBCs with no central pallor
            • Ankyrin and spectrin defect
            • Small round RBCs
            • RBC membrane defect
            • Leads to increased MCHC, increased RCDW, and increased RBC removal by the spleen.
            • Sporothrix Schenckii

              A "spore" and "hair"like dimorphic cigarshaped budding yeast bacteria commonly found on thorn bushes

            • A dimorphic, cigarshaped budding yeast commonly found in thorn bushes. It leads to pustule and ulcer formation.
            • Cigar shaped
            • Rose gardener's disease
            • Thorns
            • Staphylococcus Saprophyticus

              A "spherical, berryshaped" bacteria that "grows on decaying organic matter", a common cause of female UTIs

            • Gram positive, catalase positive bacteria that is resistant to novobiocin. It commonly causes UTIs in females of reproductive age
            • Honeymoon cystitis
            • Common cause of UTIs in sexually active women, second only to E. coli
            • Striatum

              "Grooved" portion of the brain that receives input from the cortex and sends signals to the basal ganglia

            • Grooved portion of the brain that receives input from the cortex and sends signals to the basal ganglia
            • Important in executive functioning, purposeful movements, and reward pathway
            • Atrophy of striatum associated with Huntington's Disease
            • Loss of dopaminergic innervation to the striatum is found in Parkinson's Disease
            • Sural nerve

              A nerve that provides sensory innervation to the "calf".

              • Sura (Latin) - Calf
              • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
            • Used in nerve biopsy and nerve grafts
            • Thromboxane

              An eicosanoid molecule that promotes "blood clot" formation via platelet aggregation, increases vascular tone, and increases bronchial tone.

              • Thrombos (Greek) - Clump of blood, clot of blood
              • Oxys (Greek) - Sharp
            • Arachidonic acid derivative that is formed through the cyclooxygenase pathway
            • Part of the blood thinning mechanism of aspirin works by inhibiting cyclooxygenase and therefore reducing the amount of thromboxane (and platelet aggregation)
            • Trabecular bone

              Highly vascularized "small beams" of tissue that contain red blood cell "bone" marrow. Typically located on the inside of bone, underneath the cortical surface.

              • Trabecula (Greek) - Small beam
              • Ban (Old English) - Bone, tusk
            • More severely affected in osteoporosis type 1 than cortical bone
            • Where hematopoiesis occurs
            • Also known as spongy bone due to its resemblance to a sponge
            • Trypanosoma Cruzi

              Parasitic agent that causes Chagas disease. med after Dr. Cruz

            • Roma's sign (unilateral periorbital swelling without pain)
            • Dilated cardiomyopathy
            • Megacolon and megaesophagus
            • Transmitted by the Reduviid (or kissing) bug
            • Villi (intestinal)

              "Long and slender" projections in intestinal surface.

              • Villus (Latin) - Long, slender hair
              • Intus (Latin) - Within
            • Small projections from the intestinal wall whose purpose is to increase surface area of the GI tract in order to increase the amount of nutrient reabsorption. Blunting seen in Celiac disease
            • Med because of the resemblance under the microscope of villi to shaggy hair
            • Wheal

              A raised, red, flat lesion of the skin originally believed to be filled with "pus".

              • Wheal (Old English) - Suppurate, Pus
            • Commonly paired as a wheal and flare reaction as a response of the skin to an allergin
            • A raised, red, flat lesion of the skin
            • Xanthochromia

              A "yellow" "coloring", often times describing the CSF of the spinal cord after brain trauma.

            • Commonly seen in subarachnoid hemorrhages
            • Because there is blood in the CSF for one reason or another, the blood breaks down into its parts, yielding bilirubin, a pigment that turns the CSF, much like your skin in jaundice, yellow.
            • Diphenhydramine

              H1 1st generation blocker

              • Allergy
              • Motion sickness
              • Sleep aid
              • Reversibly inhibits H1 histamine receptors
              • Dimenhydrite

                H1 1st generation blocker

                • Allergy
                • Motion sickness
                • Sleep aid
                • Reversibly inhibits H1 histamine receptors
                • Chlorpheniramine

                  H1 1st generation blocker

                  • Iramine (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                • Allergy
                • Motion sickness
                • Sleep aid
                • Reversibly inhibits H1 histamine receptors
                • Loratadine

                  H1 2nd generation blocker

                  • Tadine (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                • Allergy
                • Reversibly inhibits H1 histamine receptors
                • Fexofedine

                  H1 2nd generation blocker

                  • Allergy
                  • Reversibly inhibits H1 histamine receptors
                  • Desloratadine

                    H1 2nd generation blocker

                    • Tadine (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                  • Allergy
                  • Reversibly inhibits H1 histamine receptors
                  • Cetirizine

                    H1 2nd generation blocker

                    • Allergy
                    • Reversibly inhibits H1 histamine receptors
                    • Albuterol

                      Beta2 agonist

                      • Terol (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                    • Acute respiratory exacerbation
                    • B2 receptor agonists
                    • Salmeterol

                      Beta2 agonist

                      • Terol (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                    • B2 receptor agonists
                    • Formoterol

                      Beta2 agonist

                      • Terol (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                    • Acute respiratory exacerbation
                    • B2 receptor agonists
                    • Theophylline

                      Methylxanthines

                      • Phylline (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                    • Respiratory exacerbation with rrow therapeutic index
                    • Inhibits PDE
                    • Ipratropium

                      Muscarinic antagonists

                      • COPD and prevents bronchoconstriction
                      • Inhibits Muscarinic receptors
                      • Beclomethasone

                        Corticosteroids

                        • Asone (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                      • Chronic asthma
                      • Ictivates NFkB > inhibits synthesis of cytokines
                      • Fluticasone

                        Corticosteroids

                        • Asone (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                      • Chronic asthma
                      • Ictivates NFkB > inhibits synthesis of cytokines
                      • Montelukast

                        Antileukotrienes

                        • Lukast (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                      • Asthma (aspirininduced)
                      • Blocks leukotriene receptors
                      • Zafirlukast

                        Antileukotrienes

                        • Lukast (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                      • Asthma (aspirininduced)
                      • Blocks leukotriene receptors
                      • Zileuton

                        Antileukotriene

                        • Asthma
                        • 5 lipoxygese pathway inhibitor
                        • Blocks the conversion of arachidonic acid to leukotrienes
                        • Omalizumab

                          Humanized monoclol antibody

                          • Zumab (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                        • Asthma
                        • Monoclol antibody that binds IgE and preents its binding to FcERI
                        • Used in patients with asthma resistant to steroids
                        • Guaifenesin

                          Expectorant

                          • Chest congestion
                          • Thins respiratory secretions
                          • Nacetylcysteine

                            Expectorant

                            • Chest congestion
                            • Mucolytic that loosens mucous plugs
                            • Used in CF patients
                            • Also used to treat acetaminophen overdose
                            • Bosentan

                              Endothelin receptor antagonist

                              • Pulmory arterial hypertension
                              • Endothelin 1 receptor antagonist
                              • It decreases pulmory vascular resistance
                              • Dextromethorphan

                                Antitussive

                                • Cough
                                • NMDA receptor antagonist
                                • Synthetic codein alog
                                • Pseudoephedrine

                                  Decongestant

                                  • Sal congestion
                                  • Phenylephrine

                                    Decongestant

                                    • Sal congestion
                                    • Methacholine

                                      Muscarinic receptor agonist

                                      • Used to diagnose asthma
                                      • Muscarinic receptor agonist
                                      • Bronchorrhea

                                        Excessive "flow" (discharge) of watery mucus from the "windpipe" (lungs).

                                      • Defined as coughing up more than 100 mL of mucus a day, resulting in a productive cough.
                                      • Most common causes are chronic bronchitis and malignancy (bronchioloalveolar carcinoma and pulmonary metastases).
                                      • Other causes include asthma, bronchiectasis, cholinergic (organophosphate) poisoning, TB, pulmonary contusion, and severe hypothermia.
                                      • MEDYMOLOGY