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REPRODUCTIVE
281 terms share this category
Adenohypophysis

The "gland" "under or beneath" the brain that secretes hormones to promote "growth", also known as the anterior pituitary gland.

  • Aden (Greek) - Gland
  • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
  • Phusis (Greek) - Growth, movement
  • Located inside the sella turcica
  • Derived from Rathke's pouch (ectoderm)
  • Produces FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH, PRL, GH
  • Med literally as an offshoot gland under the brain because of its location and function as a secretor of hormones
  • Sheehan syndrome is a condition seen in pregnant women when the pituitary grows, but the blood supply to it doesn't leading to ischemia
  • Adenomyoma

    A "mass" composed of "glands" and muscle tissue. Muscles were originally described as "mice" under the skin.

    • Aden (Greek) - Gland
    • Mus (Greek) - Muscle, mouse
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Most commonly seen in the uterus
  • Usually asymptomatic, but can be associated with dysmenorrhea and pelvic or abdominal pain
  • Adrenal medulla

    The "marrow or pith" of the organ "near" or on top of the "kidney".

    • Ad (Latin) - Near, At, To Add On
    • Renes (Latin) - Kidneys
    • Medulla (Latin) - Bone marrow, pith
  • Secretes epinephrine, norepinephrine, and some dopamine in response to sympathetic nerves
  • The me of the structure, or marrow comes from the fact that this is the inner portion, or core of the adrenal gland, versus the cortex or bark.
  • Agenesis

    The process in which something is "not" formed or "born".

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
  • Kidney agenesis causes a potter sequence and is incompatible with life
  • Allantoic duct

    A "sausage" "shaped" cell that "leads" waste products out of the embryo and help to exchange gas.

    • Alanto (Greek) - Sausage
    • Eidos (Greek) - Form, Resemblance or Shape, Likeness
    • Ducere (Latin) - To Lead
  • Connects the bladder of the fetus to the umbilicus
  • An allantoic cyst can develop with improper degradation of the allantoic duct
  • The urachus is the allantoic duct remnant
  • Alopecia areata

    A condition in which a person loses hair "in patches" over the body. The me alopecia is derived from "fox mange" or a loss of hair on fox's skin due to parasitic mites that cause a similar appearance.

  • Can be caused by stress leading to patches of hair falling out
  • Alphafetoprotein

    The "first" major protein produced by the yolk sac of the "offspring" during pregnancy.

    • Alpha (Greek) - The me of the first letter of the Greek alphabet
    • Fetus (Latin) - Pregncy, Childbirth, Offspring
    • Protos (Greek) - First
  • AFP in the amniotic fluid can mean that there is an open neural tube defect
  • Hypothesized to be the fetal form of serum albumin
  • It is initially produced in the fetal yolk sack. By the third trimester AFP is produced entirely by the liver.
  • Amenorrhea

    "Without" a "monthly" "flow", or lack of a period in a woman.

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Men (Greek) - Month
    • Rhein (Greek) - Flow
  • Commonly seen in anorexic patients due to decreased caloric intake and excess exercise resulting in hormone dysregulation in the pituitary
  • It can be caused my many medical illnesses but usually an alteration in hormones is the main cause
  • Literally called Without a monthly flow
  • Amnion

    "The membrane around the fetus".

    • Amnion (Greek) - Membrane around a fetus, bowl in which blood of victims was caught
  • Sampling of the amniotic fluid can help predict genetic diseases (Amniocentesis).
  • Amniotic band syndrome

    A condition in which parts of the fetus get caught in "strips that tie or constrain" leading to ischemic of those limbs or parts within the "membrane around the fetus".

    • Amnion (Greek) - Membrane around a fetus, bowl in which blood of victims was caught
    • Band (Old Norse) - The strip that ties or constrains
    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
  • Surgery is usually the preferred method of treatment.
  • Affects approximately 1:1200 births
  • Ampulla of fallopian tube

    Named for the atomist who first described it, it is the "flask like" second part of the fallopian tube that curves over top of the ovary.

    • Ampullae (Latin) - Flasklike bottle, a two handled vessel
  • Most common site of fertilization to occur
  • Scarring in the ampulla can lead to ectopic pregnancies in this part of the fallopian tube due to improper implantation of the egg.
  • Androblastoma

    A "mass" of "budding cells" that produce hormones that "make a man".

    • Andro (Greek) - Man, male
    • Blastos (Greek) - Germ, sprout, bud or budding, immature
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • A sex cord tumor of the testicles and ovaries
  • Produces high amounts of testosterone leading to masculine features in women
  • Acne
  • Hirsutism
  • Also known as a Sertolileydig tumor, as the etymology suggests, the me tumor secretes testosterone making women appear masculine.
  • Androgen

    A hormone that "produces or originates" the development of a "man".

    • Andro (Greek) - Man, male
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
  • A steroid hormone
  • Development of male sex organs
  • Androgen literally means making man
  • Testosterone is the most well known androgen
  • Antenatal

    Referring to "before" a child is "born".

  • Synonymous with prenatal
  • Aorticopulmonary septum

    The "fence or partition" that separates the "artery that springs from the heart" and the artery which goes from the heart to the "lungs".

    • Aorte (Greek) - The arteries springing from the heart, What is hung up
    • Pulmon (Latin) - Lung
    • Saeptum (Latin) - A fence, enclosure, partition
  • Derived from neural crest cells
  • Conotruncal abnormalities
  • Transposition of great vessels, Tetralogy of Fallot, Persistent Truncus Arteriosus
  • Aplasia

    "Not" having "formation" of an organ.

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Plasis (Greek) - Molding, Formation
  • Pulmonary hypoplasia in potters sequence due to the inability to develop the lungs
  • Aplasia cutis congenita

    To be "without" the "formation" of "skin" in a localized or widespread area at birth.

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Plasis (Greek) - Molding, Formation
    • Cutis (Latin) - Skin
    • Con (Latin) - With, Together
    • Genus (Latin) - Birth, family, tion
  • Mechanisms include genetic factors, teratogens (e.g., methimazole, carbimazole, misoprostol, valproic acid), compromised vasculature to the skin, and trauma.
  • Arachnoid mater

    The middle "cobweb" like layer covering or "mothering" the spinal cord.

  • CSF circulates in the subarachnoid space (between arachnoid and pia mater) and is reabsorbed by arachnoid granulations
  • Stems from the fact that the arachnoid mater has a fine spider weblike appearance of the delicate fibers of the arachnoid which extend down through the subarachnoid space and attach to the pia mater

  • Mnemonics
    The layers that PAD the brain
    Meninges:layers in order
    Piamater, Arachnoid, Dura
    Areolae

    A pigmented, "small open space" on the breast around the nipple bud.

    • Areola (Latin) - Small empty space, garden
    • Areola (Latin) - Small open space
  • Paget's disease of Breasts: eczematous patches on nipple, result of underlying DCIS
  • More generally defined as small circular area on the body colored differently from the surrounding tissue, therefore can also be used to describe other small circular areas such as the inflamed region surrounding a pimple.
  • Aromatase

    An "enzyme" responsible for a key step in the biosynthesis of estrogen, an important factor in sexual development (helps convert androgens (male hormone) to estrogen (female hormone).

    • Aromatic (French) - Obsolete
    • Ase (English) - Used to form the me of enzymes
  • Excess aromatase activity in boys, it can lead to gynecomastia, and in girls to precocious puberty and gigantomastia. In both sexes, early epiphyseal closure leads to short stature
  • Accumulations of androgens low aromatase leads to accumulation of androgens leading to virilization of a female at birth (males are not affected). Females will have primary amenorrhea. Individuals of both sexes will be tall, as lack of estrogen does not bring the epiphyseal lines to closure.
  • Ascites

    A condition in which the abdomen becomes fluid filled causing it to resemble a "wineskin or sac".

    • Askos (Greek) - Wineskin, bag, sac
  • Buildup of fluid in the space between the lining of the abdomen and abdominal organs (the peritoneal cavity)
  • Causes: Cirrhosis, Heart failure, Hepatic venous occlusion (BuddChiari syndrome),
  • Ascites was seen as a punishment especially for oathbreakers among the ProtoIndoEuropeans

  • Medytoons
    Bacteremia

    "Small stuff" in the "blood", mely bacteria.

  • Bacteremia occurs when source of infection has encroached the vascular space. Symptoms include fever, weight loss, tachycardia, etc. Treatment requires blood cultures, chest xrays, urinalysis, CSF analysis, and empiric antibiotic therapy.
  • Bilaminar disc

    "Two"layered, "round" "thin plate" of cells that evolve via embryogenesis composed of hypo and epiblasts.

    • Bi (Latin) - Twice, double
    • Lamina (Latin) - Thin piece of metal or wood, thin slice, plate
    • Discus (Latin) - A flat round form of the sun or moon
  • At the beginning of gastrulation, the primitive streak forms within the bilaminar disc
  • Blastocyst

    A "pouch"like structure formed in early development with an inner "budding" cell mass that makes the embryo and an outer layer (trophoblast) that gives rise to the placenta.

    • Blastos (Greek) - Germ, sprout, bud or budding, immature
    • Kustis (Greek) - Bladder, atomical pouch or sac
  • Blastocyst begins to form 5 days after fertilization
  • Bowenoid papulosis

    Precancerous cutaneous condition presenting as single or multiple, small, flesh colored flat or warty lesions on the genitalia of men and women

    • Papula (Latin) - Pimple, swelling, pustule
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Transmitted by human papillomavirus, mostly benign but some may transform into cancerous lesions
  • Intraepithelial neoplasia
  • Bulbourethral glands

    "Acornshaped balls" located at the "bulged" shaped muscle at the base of the penis, lateral to the tube that allows for "the passage of urine" and just below the prostate that produce preejaculate which lubricates the urethra and washes out any residual urine still left in the urethra

    • Bulbus (Latin) - Bulb, onion
    • Ourethra (Greek) - Passage for urine
    • Glans (Latin) - Acornshaped ball
  • Also known as the Cowper glands. They produce some prostate specific antigen (PSA) and levels of PSA can increase with a Cowper's gland tumor to levels normally associated with prostate cancer.
  • Csection

    Surgical procedure used to deliver a baby by cutting the mother's abdomen and then uterus

    • Increased risk of respiratory distress syndrome since stress during the delivery causes a release of steroids that stimulates surfactant production
    • Caesarian med for Julius Caesar who was delivered by surgery, who was med for the Latin word Cadere, to cut
    • Cardinal ligament

      A piece of tissue in the uterus that "binds" the cervix to the pelvic wall, forming a "hinge" at its fusion with the latter

    • Contains the uterine artery and uterine vein
    • Located at the base of the broad ligament
    • Close proximity to ureters putting them at risk during ligation of uterine vessels in a hysterectomy
    • Carotid artery

      A blood vessel found in the neck that delivers blood from the heart to the brain. It was believed that compression of these "arteries" would "stupefy" a patient, or cause unconsciousness. of these "arteries" would "stupefy" a patient, or cause unconsciousness.

      • Karoun (Greek) - Stupefy, To put to sleep
      • Arteria (Greek) - Windpipe, artery
    • Left and right common carotid arteries supply the neck and head. Common carotid arteries separate to become internal carotid artery which supplies the brain and external carotid artery which supplies other parts of the face including skin, scalp, meninges and skull
    • Arteries were regarded by the ancients as air ducts because the arteries do not contain blood after death
    • Medieval writers took them for the channels of the "vital spirits."
    • Causalgia

      A type of "hot" burning "pain" caused by nerve damage.

    • Also known as complex regional pain syndrome
    • Choriocarcinoma

      A malignant "cancer" of the "membrane enclosing the fetus."

      • Khorion (Greek) - Membrane enclosing the fetus, afterbirth
      • Karkinos (Greek) - Cancer, crab
    • Cancer, placenta, hematogenous spread, lung, germ cell tumor, ovary, testis
    • Usually spreads to the lungs early via the blood
    • Since this cancer includes syncytiotrophoblast (cell type in the placenta that secretes βhCG), there are elevated blood levels of beta human chorionic gonadotropin (βhCG).
    • Chorion

      A "membrane enclosing the fetus" that develops during pregnancy and allows transfer of nutrients from the mother to the fetus.

      • Khorion (Greek) - Membrane enclosing the fetus, afterbirth
    • Vascular, membrane, villi, placenta, fetus
    • Eventually becomes the placenta
    • The chorion is formed by extraembryonic mesoderm and the two layers of trophoblast and surrounds the embryo and other membranes.
    • The chorion develops a rich supply of blood vessels and forms an association with the endometrial lining of the mother's uterus. Together the endometrium and chorion eventually form the placenta.
    • Chromaffin cells

      Cells produced in the adrenal glands that release hormones needed for the stress response. They are med for their "affinity" with chromium salts, which causes the hormones they produce to turn brown in "color."

      • Khroma (Greek) - Color, complexion character
      • Affinis (Latin) - Related, Near the border
      • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Neuroendocrine cells, adrenal glands, epinephrine, norepinephrine, paracrine signals
    • The word 'Chromaffin' comes from a portmanteau of chromium and affinity. They are med as such because they can be visualized by staining with chromium salts. Chromium salts oxidize and polymerize catecholamines to form a brown color, most strongly in the cells secreting noradreline.
    • Circumcision

      A surgical "cut" "around" the foreskin at the tip of the penis.

    • Penis, foreskin
    • Circumcision is the world's oldest planned surgery. It features prominently in the Hebrew Bible, which describes the circumcision of Abraham, making him the first med person to undergo the procedure.
    • Clear cell adenocarcinoma

      A "cancer" of "glandular" tissue, composed of cells that look "clear" on the inside, that primarily affect female reproductive organs.

      • Clear (English) - A clean space
      • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
      • Aden (Greek) - Gland
      • Karkinos (Greek) - Cancer, crab
    • CCA of the vagi, uterine clear cell carcinoma, clear cell ovarian carcinoma
    • Tumors composed of cells with clear cytoplasm that contain glycogen
    • In the vagi, CCA is linked to the drug diethylstilbestrol (DES)
    • In the ovary, CCA forms cystic tumors with polypoid (projection arising from flat mucosa) masses that protrude into the cyst
    • In the uterus, CCA is a rare form of endometrial cancer that arises from atrophic (degenerative) endometrium instead of endometrial hyperplasia (increase in number of cells).
    • DES used to be prescribed to pregnant women because it was mistakenly thought to prevent miscarriages and ensure a healthy pregnancy. However, research has shown that any woman exposed to DES in utero has an increased risk of clear cell carcinoma of the vagi.
    • Trachelectomy

      Procedure "to cut" "out" the cervix, or "neck" of the uterus

    • - Aka "cervicectomy." "Cervix" is also latin for "the neck" because it's a cylinder of tissue connecting the vagina and uterus - Treats women with early stage cervical cancer - It preserves the uterine body, so it allows preservation of fertility (as opposed to radical hysterectomy) - Can cause problems with birthing (acts like cervical insufficiency if you get this procedure)
    • Colonoscopy

      A procedure to "look at or see" the "large intestines".

      • Kolon (Greek) - Large intestine
      • Skopein (Greek) - To look, see
    • Indicated for anyone >50 years of age who presents with iron deficiency anemia, and anyone who presents with S. bovis bacteremia.
    • Comedocarcinoma

      A noninvasive "cancer" that "eats" away at tissue centrally, producing a central necrosis.

      • Comedere (Latin) - To consume
      • Karkinos (Greek) - Cancer, crab
      • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
    • Ductal carcinoma in situ, earlystage, intraductal, noninfiltrating, cordlike calcification, cheesylike material
    • Earlystage breast cancer (ductal carcinoma in situ) that is intraductal and noninfiltrating and which demonstrates central necrosis with calcification of the duct that feels cordlike and yields a cheesylike material when squeezed.
    • The ducts fill with plugs of tumor growth, which squeezed out as sebum (yellow, cheeselike material). This is the most aggressive of intraductal carcinomas.
    • Conotruncal abnormalities

      A group of congenital heart defects "departing from the normal" that result from malformations in the "cone" like "trunk"structure that ultimately gives rise to the outflow tracts of the heart.

      • Conus (Latin) - Cone
      • Truncus (Latin) - Trunk of a tree, trunk of the body
      • Abnormis (Latin) - Departing From Normal
    • Congenital, outflow tracts, cyanotic
    • Group of congenital heart defects resulting from malformations of the outflow tracts of the heart or impaired development of the branchial arches and arteries
    • They are a major cause of symptomatic cyanotic cardiac disease diagnosed in utero via ultrasound.
    • Due to parallel fetal circulation, these defects are well tolerated in utero, however, patients present with acute hypoxia within a few days of birth. Examples of conotruncal heart defects include: Tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of great vessels, truncus arteriosus, interrupted aortic arch, double outlet right (or left) ventricle.
    • Corniculate

      A characteristic of cartilage with "hornlike" projections

    • Hornlike cartilages in larynx
    • Term used to describe an object possessing hornlike extensions
    • It is used to describe the shape of the corniculate cartilages of the larynx. they articulate with the tips of the arytenoid cartilages and serve to prolong them posteriorly and medially
    • Corpus cavernosum/spongiosum

      A "body" of "cavities" that becomes engorged with blood during erection; A "body" of "spongelike" tissue that absorbs blood during an erection.

    • Erection, ejaculation, penis
    • The corpus spongiosum is mass of spongy tissue surrounding the male urethra within the penis. It functions to prevent the urethra from pinching closed, thereby maintaining the urethra as a viable channel for ejaculation. The corpus cavernosum becomes engorged with blood during an erection.
    • Corpus spongiosum and corpus cavernosum are two different entities, although in older texts they were both referred to as corpus cavernosum. However, this is not correct.
    • Corpus luteum

      A steroid hormonesecreting "body" colored "yellow" due to the presence of cholesterol needed to synthesize hormone.

    • Ovary, ovulation, progesterone, menstruation, fertilization
    • A temporary, yellow hormonesecreting body formed in an ovary at the site of the follicle that has matured and released its ovum/egg. secrets progesterone until the fertilized egg can take over. If egg not fertilized, the corpus luteum becomes inactive after 1014 days and menstruation occurs.
    • Corpus luteum cyst

      A "pocket of fluid" that occurs in a "yellow" "body" known to produce steroid hormones.

      • Corpus (Latin) - Body
      • Luteus (Latin) - Yellow
      • Kustis (Greek) - Bladder, atomical pouch or sac
    • Cyst, corpus luteum, ages < 50
    • A type of cyst that occurs if the corpus luteum doesn't disappear and instead fills with fluid or blood. rarely occurs beyond age 50 because eggs are no longer being produced in menopausal period.
    • Cricothyroid

      A "circular" muscle in close proximity to the thyroid gland, shaped like a "shield"

    • Muscle of the larynx, phonation, thyroid cartilage, vocal cords
    • One of the muscles of the larynx that tilts the thyroid forward to help tense and elongate the vocal cords
    • Originates from the anterolateral aspect of the cricoid cartilage and insets into the inferior cornu and lamina of the thyroid cartilage
    • Innervated by the external laryngeal branch of the vagus
    • Crista terminalis

      In embryology, this is the "tuft or plume" that represents the "boundary" where the sinus venosus and the heart meet.

    • The smooth portion of muscle near the right atrial appendage
    • Corresponds anatomically with the terminal sulcus on the external surface of the rigth atrial appendage
    • Cryptorchidism

      A condition in which the "testes" fail to descend, and remain close to the "flesh".

    • Undescended testes, birth defect, scrotum
    • A condition in which one or both of the testes fail to descend down into the scrotum from their origin in the abdomen
    • Must be corrected in early childhood or children are at an increased risk of developing testicular cancer.
    • Cytotrophoblast

      A "germ" "cell" of the placenta that "consumes" nutrients from blood for fetus.

      • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
      • Trophe (Greek) - Food, Nourishment
      • Blastos (Greek) - Germ, sprout, bud or budding, immature
    • Inner layer
    • Trophoblast
    • The inner layer of the trophoblast in an embryonic placenta that gives rise to the syncytiotrophoblast that make up the outer layer.
    • Decidua basalis

      A "foundation" layer of endometrium that "sheds" repeatedly during the menstrual cycle.

    • Endometrium
    • Implanted embryo
    • The area of endometrium between the implanted chorionic sac and the myometrium, which becomes the maternal part of the placenta.
    • Deformation

      An "distortion" in the shape of a body part.

    • Distortion
    • Disfigurement
    • Dermoid cyst

      A type of "atomical pouch" that forms on the skin's surface.

      • Derma (Greek) - Skin
      • Eidos (Greek) - Form, Resemblance or Shape, Likeness
      • Kustis (Greek) - Bladder, atomical pouch or sac
    • A cystic teratoma that can be found anywhere teratomas can form (such as in the ovaries). Teratomas can have wide ranges of different tissues growing within them including hair, teeth, and nails.
    • Desmin

      A protein that looks and functions like a "chain," holding sarcomeres together.

      • Desmos (Greek) - Bond, Chain, Fastening
    • Zline of sarcomere
    • Intermediate filaments of muscle
    • A protein found at the Zline of sarcomeres. It is also found in the intermediate filaments of skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscles.
    • Desmolase

      An "enzyme" that cleaves carboncarbon bonds.

      • Desmos (Greek) - Bond, Chain, Fastening
      • Ase (English) - Used to form the me of enzymes
    • Enzyme, carbon bond, steroid, hormone, reproductive system
    • An enzyme that cleaves and forms carboncarbon bonds. It is important in steroid formation within the body.
    • Displacement

      A defense mechanism in which one "readjusts" ones goals because they are unattainable.

      • Dis (Latin) - Not, In a Different Direction, Between
      • Placer (Middle French) - To place
    • Defense mechanisms
    • Psychology
    • Unconscious
    • Unconscious defense mechanism whereby the mind substitutes either a new aim or a new object for goals that in their original form were dangerous or unacceptable.
    • Freud initially saw displacement as a means of dreamdistortion, involving a shift of emphasis from important to unimportant elements!
    • Diverticulum

      A pouch that "turns away" from its normal course in a structure.

    • Usually used in context of the small intestine, where a part of the wall can develop an outpouching that strays away from its normal course.

    • MedyQuestion
      • A 56 year old man goes to his primary care physician because of a 6 week history of difficulty swallowing. He reports that while he is able to swallow, he often times feels like pieces of food are stuck in his throat. He denies chest pain, SOB, or difficulty breathing. He says that his wife noticed that he has increasingly worsening breath lately, and that he sometimes wakes up with pieces of food on his pillow. What study is most likely to confirm this patient’s diagnosis?

      USMLE Step 1

      Dressler syndrome

      A type of pericarditis believed to be an immune system response after damage to heart tissue such as an MI, surgery, or traumatic injury.

      • Characterized by fever, pleuritic pain, pericarditis, and pericardial effusion.
      • Dressler syndrome was first described by William Dressler in 1956!
      • Ductule

        A very small duct

        • Ductus (Latin) - A Leading, Conducting, or Aqueduct
      • From the Latin "ductus", leading.
      • Ductus arteriosus

        An "artery" that bypasses the lungs, "leading" blood from the pulmonary artery to the aorta.

        • Ductus (Latin) - A Leading, Conducting, or Aqueduct
        • Arteria (Greek) - Windpipe, artery
      • The ductus arteriosus closes at birth and becomes the ligamentum arteriosum.
      • Duodenum

        The first segment of the small intestine. It was so med because its length was approximately the width of "twelve fingers".

        • Duodeni (Latin) - In Twelves, Space of Twelve Digits
      • Duodenum
      • Small intestine
      • Digestion
      • From the Latin "duodeni", meaning in twelves. Its length was approximately the width of twelve fingers.
      • Dysentery

        "Bad" "intestines" resulting in blood in the stool.

        • Dys (Greek) - Bad, Ill, Abnormal, Evil
        • Enteron (Greek) - Intestine, Small intestint, Piece of Gut, Bowel
      • Bloody diarrhea caused by microbial organisms
      • Dyshormonogenic goiter

        The "bad" production of thyroid "hormones" leading to hypothyroidism with a "goiter" (a swelling of the thyroid gland).

        • Dys (Greek) - Bad, Ill, Abnormal, Evil
        • Horman (Greek) - Urge, impell
        • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
        • Gutter (Latin) - Throat
      • Goiter
      • Hypothyroidism
      • Thyroid hormone
      • Dystocia

        A "bad" or difficult "childbirth".

        • Dys (Greek) - Bad, Ill, Abnormal, Evil
        • Tokos (Greek) - Childbirth
      • A condition in which, despite normal contraction of the uterus, the baby is not expelled
      • The most common type is shoulder dystocia in which the shoulder is caught, leading to potential life threatening events to the baby
      • Treatments include Csection or vaccum extraction
      • The term can be used to describe the phenomenon in reptiles, referred to as egg binding
      • Ecthyma Gangrenosum

        A "rushing" "out" of an infection into a pustule which contains a center that has been "eaten away".

      • An infection of the skin usually caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
      • Ectocervix

        The "outside" of the "neck" like structure projecting from the uterus.

        • Ek (Greek) - Out
        • Topos (Greek) - Place
        • Cervix (Latin) - The Neck, pe of the Neck
      • Face the vagi
      • Composed of squamous epithelium
      • Ectopic

        When an organ or body part is "out" of "place", or malpositioned. It can also refer to the production of a hormone from a location "out of place" from where it normally is produced.

        • Ek (Greek) - Out
        • Topos (Greek) - Place
      • Displacement
      • Malposition
      • Hormone
      • Pituitary
      • Eisenmenger syndrome

        An uncorrected lefttoright shunt (ASD, VSD, PDA, or AV canal defect) causes increased blood flow to the pulmonary system, resulting in pulmonary hypertension. Increased pressure in the lungs causes the pressure on the right side of the heart to rise, and eventually to supersede the left so that the shunt is reversed to a righttoleft shunt.

        • Right to left shunt
        • Reversal of shunt
        • Blood flow
        • Heart
        • Eisenmenger syndrome
        • Dr. Victor Eisenmenger described this complex of symptoms in 1897, describing a patient with a VSD who experienced cyanosis and clubbing. It was not known until later that the complex was due to shunt reversal, and that it didn't matter where the shunt was located as long as there was a communication between the two circulations.
        • Endochondral ossification

          Process of creating "bone" by replacing the "internal" "cartilage" with bone.

        • Skeletal system
        • Long bones
        • Cartilage
        • Bone
        • Development
        • Endometrial hyperplasia

          "Excessive" "formation" of the lining "within" the "womb."

          • Endon (Greek) - Within, Inside, Interl
          • Metrium (Latin) - Womb
          • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
          • Plasis (Greek) - Molding, Formation
        • It can lead to heavy bleeding episodes and can be the precursor to endometrial cancer
        • Growth
        • Uterus
        • Endometrium
        • Proliferation
        • Endometriod cyst

          Process of endometriosis occurring "within" the "womb" that leads to blood build up that spills onto the "bladder" when it ruptures.

          • Endon (Greek) - Within, Inside, Interl
          • Metrium (Latin) - Womb
          • Kustis (Greek) - Bladder, atomical pouch or sac
        • Cyst
        • Ovary
        • Chocolate cyst
        • Endometriosis
        • Endometrioma

          "Morbid growth" "within" the "womb."

          • Endon (Greek) - Within, Inside, Interl
          • Metrium (Latin) - Womb
          • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
        • Endometriosis
        • Ovary
        • Endometriosis

          "Condition" that causes endometrial cells to grow outside the "womb" rather than "inside."

          • Endon (Greek) - Within, Inside, Interl
          • Metrium (Latin) - Womb
          • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
        • Abnormal growth
        • Uterus
        • Endometrium
        • Endometritis

          Inflammation of the endometrial lining "within" the "womb."

          • Endon (Greek) - Within, Inside, Interl
          • Metrium (Latin) - Womb
        • Uterus
        • Inner layer
        • Endometrium
        • Inflammation
        • Eosinophilic granuloma

          "Seed"like lesions on the skin composed of "dawn" colored cells.

          • Eos (Greek) - Dawn
          • Philein (Greek) - To love
          • Granum (Latin) - Grain, seed
          • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
        • Benign form of Langerhans cell histiocytosis
        • May present as lytic bone lesions that could potentially cause bone pain and fracture
        • Presents in cats as skin diseases
        • Ephelis

          A "freckle" of melanin.

        • Also known as a freckle
        • Usually visible on people with fair skin
        • Epiblast

          A cell type that "sprouts" from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst and lies "above" the hypoblast.

          • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
          • Blastos (Greek) - Germ, sprout, bud or budding, immature
        • Undergoes gastrulation to form the three germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm)
        • Literally med above the bud because it lies above the hypoblast.
        • Epiphyseal plates

          A plate of hyaline cartilage found in the metaphysis of the ends of long bones

          • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
          • Phusis (Greek) - Growth, movement
        • Site of endochondral ossification in growing long bones
        • Also known as the growth plate
        • Fracture of the epiphyseal plate can lead to shortened limbs to disruption in proper bone elongation
        • Epiphysis

          The end of the bone "above" the "growth" plate.

          • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
          • Phusis (Greek) - Growth, movement
        • The tip of long bones
        • TellTale site of GiantCell tumors of bones
        • Most common site of osteomyelitis in adults
        • Epistaxis

          Hemorrhage in or "above" the nose that causes blood to "drip."

          • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
          • Stazein (Greek) - To let fall in drops
        • Also known as a nosebleed
        • Erythroplakia

          Premalignant "red" lesions on a mucous membrane that "stick" around the mouth or glans penis.

        • Penile squamous cell carcinoma
        • Coined by Louis Queyrat to describe a precancerous red lesion of the penis, which is now known as erythroplasia of Queyrat
        • Estradiol

          Primary female sex steroid hormone with "two" "alcohol" (hydroxyl) groups.

          • Oestrus (Latin) - Frenzy
          • Di (Greek) - Two, Double, Twice
          • Ol (Latin) - Alcohol, Phenol
        • Produced by aromatization of testosterone in granulosa cells
        • Most potent form of estrogen
        • Used to treat menopause symptoms, prevent osteoporosis, and replace estrogen in ovarian failure
        • Eukaryotes

          "Well" defined cells with a nucleus that appears as a "nut."

          • Eu (Greek) - True, Good, Well
          • Karyon (Greek) - Kernel, nut
        • Animal cell
        • Plant cell
        • Fungi
        • It is theorized that eukaryotes came about after old Archaebacteria consumed one another but ended up living as symbiotic organisms
        • Eutocia

          A "good" "childbirth".

          • Eu (Greek) - True, Good, Well
          • Tokos (Greek) - Childbirth
        • Literally, the term for a normal childbirth
        • Fibrinoid necrosis

          Tissue "death" with accumulation of proteinaceous material "resembling" "fibrin."

          • Fibra (Latin) - A fiber, filament, entrail
          • Eidos (Greek) - Form, Resemblance or Shape, Likeness
          • Nekros (Greek) - Dead body, Corpse, Death
        • Associated with immune vasculitis, malignant hypertension, and preeclampsia
        • Seen in blood vessels
        • Fibroadenoma

          Benign, "glandular", "fiber"like breast "tumors" usually found in young women.

          • Fibra (Latin) - A fiber, filament, entrail
          • Aden (Greek) - Gland
          • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
          Fibrocystic change

          A change in breast tissue from normal to "small fibers" that make up small "bladders, or atomical sacs".

          • Fibra (Latin) - A fiber, filament, entrail
          • Kustis (Greek) - Bladder, atomical pouch or sac
        • Common benign breast lump that may be tender or itchy, especially just before menstruation
        • May present with menstruation tenderness
        • Folic acid

          An 'acid' vitamin required for D and R synthesis that is found in green "leaves"

        • Found in leafy green vegetables
        • Converted to THF, which is used for methylation reactions
        • Deficiency may result in megaloblastic anemia
        • Also known as Vitamin B9
        • Follicular carcinoma (thyroid)

          "cancerous" "growth" of the "little bag" of cells within the thyroid

        • Invades fibrous capsule
        • Fulminant

          An event or process that occurs as suddenly and quickly as "lightening" and may be severe to the point of lethality.

        • Used to describe acute onset liver failure in hepatitis patients
        • Can also be caused by shock due to hypoperfusion of the liver
        • Galant (reflex)

          Newborn reflex demonstrated when the newborn is held face down. The spine is stroked, and the newborn should flex towards the side stroked.

          • Galant (French) - Rejoice, make merry
        • Also known as a primitive reflex
        • Gastroparesis

          A "paralysis" of the "stomach".

          • Gaster (Greek) - Stomach, belly, eater, devourer
          • Para (Greek) - Along, side, beside, near, against, contrary to
          • Hienai (Greek) - Let go
        • Treat postoperatively with metoclopramide
        • Gastroschisis

          A congenital malformation in which a "separation" in the abdomen allows the "stomach" and other internal organs to protrude externally from the body.

          • Gaster (Greek) - Stomach, belly, eater, devourer
          • Schisis (Greek) - Separation, cleft
        • In gastroschisis, abdominal contents are not covered by peritoneum
        • This defect is due to failure of the lateral body folds to close during embryological development
        • Gastroschisis is a surgical emergency and occurs in about 1 in every 5,000 births
        • Geniohyoid

          A neck muscle under the 'chin' which elevates the "upsilon shaped" hyoid bone

          • Genion (Greek) - Chin
          • Huoeides (Greek) - Shaped like the letter upsilon
        • Innervated by C1 via the hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)
        • The me of the muscle is derived straight from the latin roots as the me literally means chinhyoid bone muscle
        • The situation and direction of this muscle has evolved since Neanderthals leading to the ability to establish a more patent airway while breathing.
        • Genital tubercle

          Embryonic "swelling" which gives rise to the "external organs" "pertaining to birth" (i.e.: male penis, female clitoris)

          • Genitalis (Latin) - Pertaining to generation or birth, Exterl sexual organs
          • Tuburculum (Latin) - Small swelling dimple
        • Contains high amounts of 5alpha reductase
        • Also known as the phallic tubercle
        • In part, the genital tubercle is responsible for gender differentiation.
        • Germinal center

          A "sharp, stationary point" in a lymph node from where B cells undergoing somatic hypermutation "sprout"

          • Germen (Latin) - Sprout
          • Kentron (Greek) - Sharp, statiory point of pair of compasses
        • Seen on histologic slides commonly during acute infections
        • Improper control of germinal centers can lead to lymphomas, including BCL and Burkitt's Lymphoma
        • Gravid

          A term used to describe a woman who is pregnant, from the latin description of being "full, or loaded".

          • Gravidus (Latin) - Loaded, full, swollen
        • In a standard OBGYN history, the Gravida refers to the number of times a woman has been pregnant
        • Greater petrosal nerve

          A branch of the facial nerve that innervates the lacrimal gland

          • Great (Old English) - Big
          • Petrosus (Latin) - Stony, rocky
          • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
          Gubernaculum

          Embryonic structure from mesenchyme that is thought to "steer" the development and descent of the testes.

        • Anchors testes within scrotum
        • Ovarian ligament and round ligament of uterus
        • Involved in gonadal descent
        • Gynecomastia

          Benign enlargement of "breast" tissue (mammary glands) in men, sometimes to the point of secreting milk

          • Gyne (Greek) - Queen, Woman, female
          • Mazos (Greek) - Breast
        • Seen in Klinefelter's syndrome (XXY) and in men with increased estrogen. Adverse effect of many drugs, especially those inhibiting dopamine/activating prolactin.
        • Associated with spironolactone, digitalis, cimetidine, ketoconazole, alcohol use, and marijuana use
        • Hemoptysis

          "Spitting" or coughing up "blood."

        • Associated with Wegener's granulomatosis, Goodpasture syndrome, bronchiectasis, and lung cancer
        • Hepcidin

          Hormone made by the "liver" to help regulate iron levels in the body by preventing excess iron absorption by "killing" ferroportin

          • Hepatos (Greek) - Liver
          • Cida (Latin) - Cutter, Killer, Slayer
        • Inhibits iron absorption in the gut
        • Hepcidin was first discovered in human serum and urine.
        • Hippocampus

          Component of the limbic system in that brain that resembles a "sea horse"

        • Plays a role in memory, emotion, olfaction, behaviors, and the autonomic nervous system
        • Lesion leads to the inability to make new memories
        • Hodgkin lymphoma

          Lymph node tumor localized to a single group of nodes

          • Lympha (Latin) - Water, clear water, a goddess of water
          • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
        • Characterized by ReedSternberg cells
        • Presents in a bimodal distribution
        • Associated with EBV
        • Symptoms include the classic B signs of lowgrade fever, night sweats, and weight loss
        • Hodgkin's lymphoma was discovered by Thomas Hodgkin while he was a museum curator at a hospital.
        • Homan sign

          Test for deep vein thrombosis in which there is calf pain with the dorsiflexion of the foot when normally no pain exists

          • Discovered by John Homans.
          • Hurler's syndrome

            Autosomal recessive mucopolysaccharidosis

            • Autosomal recessive
            • Symptoms include developmental delay, gargoylism
            • Airway obstruction, corneal clouding, and hepatosplenomegaly
            • AlphaLiduronidase deficiency
            • Accumulation of dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate
            • Hurler's syndrome is named after Dr. Gertrud Hurler, a German pediatrician.
            • Hydatidiform mole

              Cystic swelling of chorionic villi "forming" "water drop"shaped clusters in the proliferating chorionic epithelium.

            • Present with an enlarged uterus, abnormal vaginal bleeding, a honeycombed uterus with grapelike clusters, and a snowstorm appearance under a sonogram
            • Can be either complete (46 chromosomes) or partial (69 chromosomes) moles

            • MedyQuestion
              • A 21-year-old female has a progressively increasing serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) concentrations during a 6-week period. Despite removal of a hydatidiform mole, β-hCG levels continue to increase. What is the most likely diagnosis?

              USMLE Step 1

              Hydrothorax

              "Water" in the "chest.

              • Hydro (Greek) - Water
              • Thorax (Greek) - Chest, breastplate
            • Type of pleural effusion that leads to fluid buildup in the pleural cavity
            • Fluid may also be blood (hemothorax), pus (pyothorax), or lymph (chylothorax)
            • Hyoglossus

              "Ushaped" that muscle that flattens, retracts and depresses the "tongue"

              • Hyoides (Greek) - Shaped like the letter u
              • Glossa (Greek) - Tongue
            • Innervated by the hyoglossal nerve (cranial nerve XII)
            • Blood supply from the lingual artery, which is derived from the external carotid artery
            • Hyperemesis Gravidarum

              A condition in which "pregnant" women "vomit" "excessively".

            • Associated with high levels of hCG
            • Leads to nausea, vomiting, dehydration, ketosis, weight loss, electrolyte abnormalities.
            • Hypersensitivity pneumonitis

              A disease in which the "lungs" become "inflamed" due to inhalation of certain allergenic dusts which causes an "excessive" "sensation" .

              • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
              • Sensitivus (Medieval Latin) - Capable of sensation
              • Pneumon (Greek) - Lung
              • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
            • Interstitial lung disease (restrictive) that causes decreased lung volumes (FVC, TLC) and increased FEV1/FVC ratio greater or equal to 80%
            • Hypnopompic

              The state of semi consciousness that "sends away sleep."

            • Associated with narcolepsy
            • Precedes waking
            • Hypocalcemia

              "Less chalk," or calcium, in the "blood."

              • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
              • Calx (Greek) - Chalk, limestone
              • Haima (Greek) - Blood
            • Chvostek sign (facial muscle spasm upon tapping)
            • Tetany
            • Seen in secondary hyperparathyroidism, DiGeorge syndrome, hypoparathyroidism, and pseudohypoparathyroidism
            • Hypoglossal nerve

              The "cord" that runs "under" the "tongue"

              • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
              • Glossa (Greek) - Tongue
              • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
            • Cranial nerve XII
            • Innervates extrinsic muscles of the tongue
            • Hyponatremia

              "Less" "sodium" in the "blood."

              • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
              • Natrium (Latin) - Sodium
              • Haima (Greek) - Blood
            • Seen in legionella pneumophila infection, SIADH
            • Hypoproteinemia

              A metabolic condition characterized by "low" levels of "protein" in the "blood"

              • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
              • Proteios (Greek) - The first wuality
              • Haima (Greek) - Blood
            • A result of nephrotic syndrome
            • Ileum

              The fil section of the small intestine that lies in the "belly", following the duodenum and jejunum

              • Ileum (Latin) - Belly, adbomen below the ribs
            • Vitamin B12 absorption
            • Bile salt absorption
            • Fat absorption
            • Peyer patches, plicae circulares, crypts of Lieberkühn's
            • Largest number of goblet cells in small intestine
            • Ilium

              The uppermost and largest of the "hip bones."

              • Ilia (Latin) - Flanks, entrails, referring to the hip bone
            • Main atomic landmark is the iliac crest
            • Inflammation

              A localized reaction that produces redness and warmth, much like "setting a fire".

              Infratrochlear nerve

              A nerve that is derived from the nasociliary nerve that runs "below the trochlea," which is a bony structure located superiorly in the orbit. The nerve innervates the skin of the upper eyelids, the bridge of the nose, conjunctiva, lacrimal sac, and caruncle.

              • Infra (Latin) - Under, below, further on
              • Trochlea (Latin) - Pulley, a small wheel
              • Plexus (Latin) - Braid, network
              Intraarticular glucoscorticoids

              "Steroid" medication that is injected directly in "in the midst of" a "joint" space that is painful and inflamed. This is to reduce localized inflammation.

            • Glucocorticoids are used to inhibit inflammation that can be harmful to the body.
            • Krabbe's disease

              An autosomal recessive degenerative disorder that affects the myelin sheath of the nervous system.

              • It is a form of sphingolipidosis, as it involves dysfunctional metabolism of sphingolipids.
              • Med after Knud Haraldsen Krabbe
              • Kwashiorkor

                This is a condition of severe protein malnutrition.

                • It is characterized by edema (particularly in the abdomen), irritability, ulcerating dermatoses, and an enlarged liver with fatty infiltrates
                • This condition occurs in developing countries in areas of famine or poor food supply.
                • Derived from the Ga language of coastal Gha = the sickness the baby gets when the new baby comes
                • Labia minora/majora

                  They are atomical structures of the female genital tract and are the major externally visible portions of the vulva. "Labia" means lip.

                • The labia surround and protect the clitoris and the openings of the vagi and urethra.
                • Lactate dehydrogenase

                  An "enzyme" that is found extensively in body tissues, such as blood cells and heart muscle. It "removes" "hydride" from lactate which forms pyruvate.

                  • Lac (Latin) - Milk
                  • De (Latin) - Away, Off, Down
                  • Hydro (Greek) - Water
                  • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
                  • Ase (English) - Used to form the me of enzymes
                • A dehydrogenase is an enzyme that transfers a hydride from one molecule to another. Lactate dehydrogenase catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to lactate and back, as it converts DH to D+ and back
                • Because it is released during tissue damage, it is a marker of common injuries and disease.
                • Large cell carcinoma

                  This is an undifferentiated malignant neoplasm originating from epithelial cells in the lung.

                  • Large (Old French) - Broad, wide; generous, bounteous
                  • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
                  • Karkinos (Greek) - Cancer, crab
                  • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
                • This neoplasm is different from small cell carcinoma because of larger size of the aplastic cells, a higher cytoplasmictonuclear size ratio, and a lack of saltandpepper chromatin.
                • Legionella Pneumophilein

                  A aerobic, pleomorphic, flagellated, nonspore forming, Gramnegative bacterium that causes Legionnaires' disease.

                • Associated with air conditioners
                • Labs show hypotremia
                • Urine test
                • Legionella American Legion convention outbreak in Philadelphia
                • Leiomyoma

                  A benign "tumor" in "smooth" "muscle."

                  • Leios (Greek) - Smooth
                  • Myo (Greek) - Muscle
                  • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
                • A uterine fibroid is a leiomyoma of the uterus
                • White whorled masses
                • Well defined
                • Leukorrhea

                  A "white" yellowish "flow" or discharge from the vaginal canal.

                • Can be physiologic, due to an estrogen imbalance, or due to an inflammatory condition.
                • Levatores costarum

                  Muscle that "lifts" a "rib."

                  Leydig cells

                  Cells found adjacent to the seminiferous tubules in the testicles that produce testosterone in response to luteinizing hormone.

                  • Testosterone production
                  • Macrosomia

                    The condition of having a "large" "body".

                    • Makros (Greek) - Large, large to scale
                    • Soma (Greek) - Body
                  • A condition of newborns commonly seen in mothers with uncontrolled diabetes
                  • Sometimes referred to as LGA or large for gestational age
                  • Considered to be macrosomic if the baby weighs more than 4500 grams, or 9lbs 15oz
                  • Malaria

                    A condition caused by the infectious species of Plasmodium, a parasitic protozoa indigenous to Africa. Directly translates to "bad" "air", because the disease was thought to have been caused by toxic swamp gas.

                    • Mala (Latin) - Bad, Wrongly, improperly
                    • Aria (Latin) - Air
                  • Fever that goes up and down over the course of 4872 hours
                  • Sickles cell is associated with immunity to malaria
                  • Literally med bad air because they used to think that it was caused by the toxic fumes of the swamps inhabited by mosquitos
                  • Malocclusion

                    "Bad alignment" of teeth when the jaw "shuts" that may require orthodontic or surgical treatment.

                    • Mala (Latin) - Bad, Wrongly, improperly
                    • Occludere (Latin) - To shut up
                  • Commonly corrected with braces
                  • Mandible (lower jaw)

                    The bone that forms the lower "jaw" in vertebrates.

                    Mast cell

                    Granulocyte that mediates allergic reaction by binding the Fc portion of IgE to its membrane. Looks like a "fat" "chamber".

                    • Mast (Germaic) - Fattening, feeding
                    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
                  • Type 1 hypersensitivity, cromolyn sodium prevents release of granules of histamine and heparin
                  • Originally med a feeding cell or fed cell due to the granules within in that gave the impression of the cell being fed
                  • Mastication

                    The process of crushing and grinding food with teeth and considered the first step of digestion.

                  • Granules contain histamine, heparin, and chemotactic factors for eosinophils that are released upon antigen binding
                  • Mastoid air cells

                    A network of "breast shaped" sinus cavities in the temporal bone that communicate with the middle ear.

                    • Mastos (Greek) - Breast
                    • Air (Old French) - Atmosphere, breeze, weather
                    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
                  • Derived from the first branchial pouch
                  • Maxilla (upper jaw)

                    Bone that makes up the "upper jaw", top half of the mouth, and houses the upper teeth.

                    Medulla

                    The innermost part of the kidney "pit" that contains structures of the nephrons

                    • Medulla (Latin) - Bone marrow, pith
                    Megaloblastic anemia

                    Type of anemias in which "budding cells" are "larger" than normal due to impaired D synthesis leading to being "without" proper "blood" composition.

                    • Megalo (Greek) - Great, large
                    • Blastos (Greek) - Germ, sprout, bud or budding, immature
                    • An (Greek) - Without, not
                    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
                  • B12 or folate deficiency
                  • Meningomyelocele

                    Herniation of neural "membranes" (meninges) of "brain" and "associated" spinal cord through spinal cal.

                    • Meninx (Greek) - Membrane
                    • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
                    • Cele (Old Irish) - Associate, Companion
                  • Chiari II malformation (thoracolumbar meningomyelocele)
                  • Chiari II malformation (partially herniated cerebellar tonsils and enlarged 4th ventricle) is always secondary to another deformity
                  • In the case of meningomyelocele, the herniated spinal cord and meninges pulls the brain stem caudally, resulting in a partial herniation.
                  • Menometrorrhagia

                    "Monthly" heavy, "bursting" shedding of a layer of the "womb" (menstruation) at irregular intervals

                  • Associated with malignancies, miscarriages and ectopic pregnancies.
                  • The amount of bleeding seen is variable, but can often lead to debilitating anemia or death if not properly managed.
                  • Menopause

                    "Decreased" "monthly" estrogen production due to agerelated decline in ovarian function.

                    • Men (Greek) - Month
                    • Pausis (Greek) - To cause to cease
                  • HHAVOC: hirsutism, hot flashes, atrophy of vagi, osteoporosis, coronary artery disease
                  • Average age at onset is 51 years
                  • Increased FSH is best test to confirm menopause
                  • FSH levels increase so much in menopausal women, the hormone was once extracted from their urine for commercial use.
                  • Mesenteric

                    Relating to the "middle" of the "intestine".

                    • Mesos (Greek) - Middle, in the middle, in between
                    • Enteron (Greek) - Intestine, Small intestint, Piece of Gut, Bowel
                  • Composed of ileum, jejunum, peritoneum
                  • Sir Frederick Treves (the first surgeon to perform an appendectomy) is credited with the introduction of the mistaken notion that the mesentery is fragmented (separate mesentery for each section of the GI tract) as opposed to the recently proven theory that the mesentery is a continuous structure. This misconception held for over a century.
                  • Mesocaval

                    Type of shunting procedures used to relieve portal hypertension. A "hollow" tube is placed in the "middle" of the liver.

                    • Mesos (Greek) - Middle, in the middle, in between
                    • Cavus (Latin) - Hollow, Space
                  • Procedure used to relieve cirrhosis or portal hypertension
                  • Mesoderm

                    One of three embryologic layers that form muscle and connective tissue in the "middle" of the "skin".

                    • Mesos (Greek) - Middle, in the middle, in between
                    • Derma (Greek) - Skin
                  • Forms muscle, bone, connective tissue, serous linings of body cavities, spleen, CV structures, lymphatics, blood, wall of gut tube, wall of bladder, urethra, vagi, kidneys, adrenal cortex, dermis, testes, ovaries
                  • Mesometrium

                    "Middle" of the "womb". Comprises a major part of broad ligament of uterus.

                    • Mesos (Greek) - Middle, in the middle, in between
                    • Metrium (Latin) - Womb
                  • Contains ureters
                  • Mesonephros

                    Embryological "middle" portion of "kidney"

                    • Mesos (Greek) - Middle, in the middle, in between
                    • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
                  • Functions as interim kidney for 1st trimester
                  • Later contributes to male genital system
                  • Mesothelioma

                    Malignant "growth" of "chest" pleura associated with asbestosis

                    • Mesos (Greek) - Middle, in the middle, in between
                    • Thele (Greek) - Nipple, teat
                    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
                  • Can lead to hemorrhagic pleural effusions and pleural thickening
                  • Psammoma bodies
                  • Even with asbestos exposure, patients are at greater risk of bronchogenic carcinoma
                  • Metanephros

                    Permanent tissue "beyond" the "kidneys" appearing in 5th week of gestation, gives rise to ureteric bud, metanephric mesenchyme.

                    • Meta (English) - Beyond, in the midst of
                    • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
                    Methemoglobin

                    "Ball" of "blood" that has oxidized form of hemoglobin "in the midsts of" reduced affinity for O2 but increased affinity for cyanide.

                    • Meta (English) - Beyond, in the midst of
                    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
                    • Globus (Latin) - Sphere, globe
                  • Involved in cyanide poisoning
                  • To treat cyanide poisoning, using nitrites to induce methemoglobin, which will bind up cyanide, then give thiosulfate to bind cyanide, which will form thiocyanate (renally excreted), and give Vit E or methylene blue to reduce methemoglobin
                  • Microarray

                    "Test" of thousands of "very small" nucleic acid sequences arranged in grids on glass or silicon.

                    • Mikros (Greek) - Small, little, petty, trivial, slight
                    • Assay (Latin) - Exigere, to examine, to test
                  • Detects single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)
                  • D or R probes hybridized to the chip, scanner detects the relative amounts of complementary binding
                  • Used in forensics, genotyping, predisposition to disease
                  • Technique first started in late 1980s
                  • Microglia

                    CNS phagocytes of mesodermal origin that respond to tissue damage in part by acting like "small" "glue".

                    • Mikros (Greek) - Small, little, petty, trivial, slight
                    • Glia (Greek) - Glue
                  • CNS phagocytes
                  • Micrognathia

                    A "small" "jaw."

                    • Mikros (Greek) - Small, little, petty, trivial, slight
                    • Gnathos (Greek) - Jaw
                  • A strong indicator of Edwards Syndrome (trisomy 18).
                  • Mitral valve prolapse

                    No regurgitant flow across the "turban", however the "valve" "slips" into left atrium due to myxomatous degeneration, RF, or chordae rupture

                    • Mitra (Latin) - Belt or turban
                    • Valva (Latin) - That which turns, fold of a door
                    • Prolaps (Latin) - Slipped forward
                  • Late systolic crescendo murmur
                  • Midsystolic click
                  • Mononucleosis

                    EBV or CMV infection of B cells, pharynx, and liver. Blood contains large numbers of cells with "single" "kernels" inside them (monocytes).

                  • Causes a CD8+ immune response
                  • Screened with monospot test that detects IgM antibodies that crossreact with horse or sheep RBCs (CMV does not react)
                  • Known as kissing disease
                  • Monospot test / heterophile antibodies
                  • Moro (reflex)

                    When a loud noise causes a baby to "bend back" it's legs and arms.

                  • CNS reflex present in healthy infant, but absent in healthy adult
                  • Disappear within 1 year of life abduct/extend limbs when startled, and then draw together
                  • Hang on for life reflex
                  • Mucosa

                    "Slimy" epithelial linings covering many organs, serving as absorptive or secretive surfaces.

                    • Mucus (Latin) - Slime, mold, snot
                    Mullerian inhibitory factor

                    Sertoli cells secrete MIF, which "forbids" paramesonephric ducts from "doing" it's normal development and subsequently causes male development.

                  • Sertoli cells, mesonephric duct
                  • Neurodegeneration

                    Progressive loss of "neurons" until they are "no longer of their kind". Includes CNS diseases such as Alzheimer's and PNS diseases such as ALS.

                    Neurofibromatosis

                    "Condition" of "fibrous" tumor "growth" from "nervous" tissue.

                    • Neuro (Greek) - Nerve, sinew, tendon
                    • Fibra (Latin) - A fiber, filament, entrail
                    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
                    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
                  • Autosomal dominant
                  • NF1: chromosome 17, cafe au lait spots, Lisch nodules, neural tumors
                  • NF2: chromosome 22, bilateral acoustic neuromas, meningioma, cataracts
                  • Neurocutaneous disorders include NF2, Tuberous sclerosis, VHL disease, and SturgeWeber
                  • Norovirus

                    A "poisonous substance" med after "Norwalk," Ohio where an outbreak occurred.

                    • Nor (Early English) - From Norwalk, Ohio where an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred from which the virus was isolated
                    • Nor (English) - Normal
                    • Virus (Latin) - Poison, poisonous substance
                  • Calici virus
                  • Profuse watery diarrhea and vomiting
                  • Cruise ships
                  • Day care centers
                  • Originally called the Norwalk agent after Norwalk, Ohio where the Bronson Elementary School faced an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis in children in November 1968. The virus is also called small, roundstructured viruses (SRSVs) and Snow Mountain virus. Norovirus causes illness referred to as winter vomiting disease, winter vomiting bug, viral gastroenteritis, acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis, and stomach flu though the latter is a broad term. Prevented by hand washing and avoiding buffets on cruises.
                  • Obsessivecompulsive

                    Recurrent thoughts that "besiege" an individual and "urge" them to complete ritualistic tasks.

                  • Personality disorder
                  • In OC personality disorder, patient will think that everybody should be this way and will not report any negative impact on life
                  • Oculomotor nerve

                    Cranial nerve III is responsible for "producing movement" "of the eyes" every direction except lateral and inferomedial.

                    • Oculus (Greek) - Eye
                    • Motor (Latin) - Producing movement
                    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
                  • Palsy results in a down and out pupil
                  • Pupillary reflex
                  • Olfactory

                    Relating to the sense of "smell" and the atomical components of the olfactory system.

                  • Cranial nerve I
                  • Olfactory nerve

                    Cranial nerve I, which is the "cord" that carries afferent information about "smell" to the brain.

                    • Olfacere (Latin) - To smell
                    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
                  • Olfactory epithelium
                  • Technically it is a tract not a nerve since it does not exit the CNS
                  • Oligodendroglioma

                    "Tumor" of oligodendrocytes the "treelike" "cells" of the CNS that "glue" cells together with myelin.

                    • Oligos (Greek) - Few, scanty, small, little
                    • Dendron (Greek) - Tree
                    • Glia (Greek) - Glue
                    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
                  • Frontal lobe
                  • May present with seizures
                  • Friedegg nucleus
                  • GFAP+
                  • Calcified tumor in white matter on imaging
                  • Rare and slow growing
                  • Oligohydramnios

                    In utero, it describes a state of too "little" amniotic "waterlike" fluid within the "membrane around a fetus."

                    • Oligos (Greek) - Few, scanty, small, little
                    • Hydro (Greek) - Water
                    • Amnion (Greek) - Membrane around a fetus, bowl in which blood of victims was caught
                  • Potter's sequence
                  • Bilateral renal agenesis
                  • Due to placental insufficiency or inability of fetus to excrete urine
                  • <500ml
                  • Oncogene

                    A type of gene that when mutated, can cause cancer. This mutation gives "birth" to a future malignant "mass" by dysregulating the cell growth cycle.

                  • Protooncogenes code for proteins that help to regulate cell growth
                  • Ras protein
                  • Myc gene
                  • Cyclin dependent kinases
                  • Oogenesis

                    The "origin" and process of formation of female "eggs" in the ovaries.

                    • Ovum (Latin) - Egg
                    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
                  • Frozen in metaphase II until fertilization
                  • Orchitis

                    "Inflammation" of one or both of the "testicles."

                    • Orkhis (Greek) - Testicle
                    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
                  • Commonly seen in mumps
                  • Osteoblast

                    Cells that synthesize "bone" that originally came from mesenchymal "germ" cells.

                    • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
                    • Blastos (Greek) - Germ, sprout, bud or budding, immature
                  • Osteoid (bony matrix) is mineralized by osteoblasts
                  • Ovarian plexus

                    "Network" of nerves that arises from the renal plexus that innervates the ovary, where the "eggs" are located, and fundus of the uterus.

                    Ovary

                    Female reproductive organ where "eggs" are produced and mature.

                  • Attached to body wall by suspensory ligament of the ovary
                  • Secrete estrogen, progesterone, testosterone
                  • Ovulation
                  • Oxidation

                    Loss of electrons in a chemical reaction. "Oxygen" (O2) was the first recognized oxidizing agent.

                    • Oxide (Greek) - Ozygen with another compound
                  • LEO the lion goes GER = loss electron oxidation, gain electron reduction
                  • "Oxidation" was originally termed because O2 was the first recognized oxidizing agent. It originally referred to reactions with oxygen to form an oxide.
                  • Palatine nerves

                    Nerves with different "cords" to the "roof of the mouth," soft palate, tonsil, and lining membrane of the sal cavity

                    • Palatum (Greek) - Roof of the mouth, of the Palace
                    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
                  • From maxillary nerve
                  • Sphenopalatine ganglion
                  • Palmaris longus

                    The "long" tendon that runs along the anterior forearm towards the "flat of the hand".

                    • Palma (Latin) - The flat of the hand
                    • Longus (Latin) - Long
                  • Small tendon between the flexor carpi radialis and the flexor carpi ulnaris
                  • Innervated by the median nerve
                  • 14% of the population lacks the palmaris longus
                  • This tendon can be used in tendon grafts.
                  • Palpitations

                    The ability of one to "touch gently", or feel an abnormal heartbeat.

                  • Most palpitations are benign in nature
                  • Pannus

                    Abnormal layer of granulation tissue covering "all" of that specific area.

                    Paraesophageal

                    "Near" the "esophagus."

                    • Para (Greek) - Along, side, beside, near, against, contrary to
                    • Oisaphagos (Greek) - Gullet
                  • Besides the esophagus
                  • Paramedian pontine reticular formation

                    A "form/structure" that is located "near" the "middle" of the "bridge" between the medulla and midbrain (pons)

                    • Para (Greek) - Along, side, beside, near, against, contrary to
                    • Medius (Latin) - In the middle
                    • Pons (Latin) - Bridge
                    • Reticulum (Latin) - Littlle net, network like structure
                    • Forma (Latin) - Form
                  • Center of the pons that is responsible for coordination of eye movements, especially horizontal gaze
                  • Parasympathetic

                    The system that acts "against" the "sympathetic" system.

                    • Para (Greek) - Along, side, beside, near, against, contrary to
                    • Sympathicus (Latin) - Subject to a common nervous influence
                  • Part of the autonomic nervous system that balances and counteracts the sympathetic nervous system
                  • Parathyroid

                    Glands that lie "along" the "large oval shield"shaped thyroid glands.

                    • Para (Greek) - Along, side, beside, near, against, contrary to
                    • Thureos (Greek) - Oblong shield
                  • Four small endocrine organs of the neck that secrete parathyroid hormone
                  • Pathology

                    The "study of" "disease"

                    • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
                    • Logia (Greek) - Study
                  • The study of disease
                  • Penetrance (incomplete penetrance)

                    The ability of a trait to "enter or get into" a phenotype.

                  • Not all individuals with a particular (mutant) genotype showing the mutant phenotype
                  • BRCA1 mutations not always resulting in breast/ovarian cancer
                  • Tuberous sclerosis
                  • Phagosome

                    A "body" formed within a cell after "eating" a molecule or another cell.

                  • An intracellular body formed after phagocytosis of something external to the phagocyte.
                  • Usually combines with lysosomes for destruction and/or processing
                  • Impaired phagolysosome formation in ChediakHigashi syndrome.
                  • Philadelphia chromosome

                    A 9;22 chromosomal translocation associated with CML.

                    • Forms bcrabl fusion gene which codes for a constitutive tyrosine kinase
                    • Targeted by imatinib, a monoclonal antibody tyrosine kinase inhibitor
                    • CML associated with particularly high basophils
                    • Sensitive for CML but not specific the Philadelphia Chromosome may be seen in ALL and AML as well.
                    • Philtrum

                      The vertical groove in the middle area of the upper lip, located right under the sal septum; med "love potion" due to its attractiveness to ancient Greeks.

                    • A smooth philtrum is commonly seen in fetal alcohol syndrome or PraderWilli syndrome.
                    • Med "love potion" due to its attractiveness to ancient Greeks
                    • Phrenic plexus

                      A "braid or network" of nerves that supplies motor innervation to the "diaphragm".

                      • Phren (Greek) - Diaphragm or mind
                      • Plexus (Latin) - Braid, network
                    • Arises from the celiac ganglion, following along the inferior phrenic artery to enter the diaphragm.
                    • Pityriasis rosea

                      A skin disorder characterized by multiple scaly lesions. Starts as an initial herald (red, "rose") patch with the rest of the rash (hard, like "bran") breaking out after.

                    • Associated with a christmastree distribution on the body
                    • Selfresolving and typically no treatments are required
                    • Placenta

                      An organ that allows for communication between a developing fetus and its mother. Shaped like a "flat plate"

                      • Plax (Greek) - Flat plate
                    • Placental abruption occurs when the placenta separates from the uterine wall prematurely
                    • Involved in nutrient, waste, and gas exchange with the developing fetus
                    • Choriocarcinoma is a cancer of the placenta
                    • Placenta abruptae

                      The "flat plate" shaped placenta "breaks" "away from" the uterine wall prematurely.

                      • Plax (Greek) - Flat plate
                      • Rumpere (Latin) - Break, Broken off
                    • Associated with fetal brain damage
                    • Cocaine use during pregnancy is associated with placental abruption
                    • Placenta accreta

                      Abnormal "growth," "build up," and attachment of the "flat plate" shaped placenta to the myometrium.

                      • Plax (Greek) - Flat plate
                      • Accretus (Latin) - Growth, Gradual Build up
                    • Increased risk for placental hemorrhage
                    • Polycystic kidney disease

                      A genetic "disease" causing "many" "pouch"like cysts in the "kidneys." The disease can be present in both adult and infantile forms.

                      • Polloi (Greek) - Many
                      • Kustis (Greek) - Bladder, atomical pouch or sac
                      • Kidnere (Middle English) - Kidney
                      • Disease (Old French) - Lack, Want, Discomfort, Distress, Trouble, Misfortune, Disease, Sickness
                    • The adult form is autosomal dominant
                    • The infantile form is autosomal recessive
                    • Can lead to renal failure
                    • The condition is associated with hypertension
                    • Polydipsia

                      Abnormally high to extreme levels of "thirst". To drink "many" more times than baseline.

                    • Seen in diabetes, hypokalemia
                    • Is a symptom of anticholinergic poisoning
                    • Related to word dipsomaniac, meaning alcoholic
                    • Polyhydramnios

                      Accumulation of too much "watery" fluid "around a fetus". Can be acute or chronic.

                      • Polloi (Greek) - Many
                      • Hydro (Greek) - Water
                      • Amnion (Greek) - Membrane around a fetus, bowl in which blood of victims was caught
                    • Many causes, often idiopathic but think about things that prevent proper swallowing or filtration of amniotic fluid: Anencephaly, Bartter Syndrome, Esophageal Atresia, Chromosome disorders (Down's Syndrome with duodenal atresia etc.)
                    • Precontemplation

                      Stage of addiction during which the individual is not willing to listen to anything concerning their addiction. Stege "before" change is "contemplated/observed."

                      • Prae (Latin) - Before in time or place
                      • Contemplat (Latin) - Surveyed, Observed, Contemplated
                    • This is the stage after relapse but before contemplation.
                    • Prenatal

                      Referring to "before" a child is "born".

                      • Prae (Latin) - Before in time or place
                      • Natus (Latin) - Born
                    • Synonymous with anetnatal
                    • Presbyopia

                      Having the "sight" of an "old man"

                    • "Near sightedness"
                    • Lens of eye degenerates and loses ability to focus on objects close to them
                    • Normal with aging
                    • Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia

                      A disorder in which the "eyelash"like cells display "abnormal" "movement"; the "first/main" reason is a problem with the cell itself

                      • Primarius (Latin) - First
                      • Ciliaris (Latin) - Pertaining to Eyelashes, upper eyelid
                      • Arius (Latin) - Connected with
                      • Dys (Greek) - Bad, Ill, Abnormal, Evil
                      • Kinein (Greek) - Motion, to move
                    • Rare, autosomal recessive
                    • Respiratory tract, fallopian tube and sperm affected
                    • Individuals are infertile
                    • With Situs Inversus=Kartagener's Syndrome
                    • Proopiomelanocortin

                      POMC: precursor polypeptide protein that breaks into alphaMSH, ACTH, beta endorphin and enkephalin

                      • Pro (Greek) - Before, Forward
                      • Opia (Greek) - Eye, face
                      • Melas (Greek) - Dark, black, murky
                      • Cortex (Latin) - Bark of a Tree, Outer layer
                    • Obesity, adrenal insufficiency, red hair
                    • Procerus

                      A "slender" pyramidal shaped muscle deep in the face between the eyebrows

                    • Located deep to the superior orbital nerve, artery and vein
                    • Causes furrowing of brows
                    • Processus vaginalis

                      Embryonic "process" from peritoneum that forms testes in males; the remaining portion after closure forms a "sheath" around the testes

                      • Processus (Latin) - Process, progression, course
                      • Vagina (Latin) - Scabbard, sheath
                    • Hydrocele, hematocele, indirect inguinal hernia, testicular torsion
                    • Failure to close in females leads to Cal of Nuck
                    • Prokaryotes

                      Organisms who existed "before" having a bound "nucleus"

                      • Pro (Greek) - Before, Forward
                      • Karyon (Greek) - Kernel, nut
                    • Include bacteria: cocci, bacilli, spirochaete
                    • Proptosis

                      "Falling" "forward" of the eyeball

                      • Pro (Greek) - Before, Forward
                      • Piptein (Greek) - To fall
                    • Commonly seen in Graves Disease
                    • Can be seen in ErdheimChester Disease
                    • Prostatic plexus (nervous)

                      "Network" of nerves of the lower part of the pelvic plexus that are around the gland that "stands" 'before" the base of the bladder

                      • Pro (Greek) - Before, Forward
                      • Statos (Greek) - Standing, statiory
                      • Prostates (Greek) - Guard or protector, one standing in front, leader, ruler
                      • Plexus (Latin) - Braid, network
                    • Innervate the corpora cavernosa of the penis and urethra
                    • Pseudo pelgerhuet anomaly

                      A "deviation from what is standard" when the nucleus of a neutrophil has fewer segments than normal

                    • Differentiate from bandemia, susceptible to leukemias
                    • Pseudocyesis

                      A "false" "conception" or pregnancy.

                      • Pseudein (Greek) - To deceive, cheat by lies, fake
                      • Kuesis (Greek) - Conception
                    • A condition in which an animal or individual experiences the common symptoms of pregnancy without actually being pregnant
                    • Caused by changes in the endocrine system or hormone imbalances
                    • More common in animals than in humans
                    • Sometimes is purely psychological in nature
                    • Pseudomembrane

                      A "false" "skin or parchment" over an existing one.

                      • Pseudein (Greek) - To deceive, cheat by lies, fake
                      • Membrana (Greek) - A skin, parchment
                    • Sticky membrane formed by Diphtheria, caused by a toxin secreting bacteria, present on the tonsils, pharynx and/or sal cavity. Causes respiratory issues for patients
                    • Grey covering in back of throat
                    • Psoriatic arthiritis

                      "Inflammation" of "joints" associated with a disease of being "itchy".

                      • Psoriasis (Greek) - To be itchy
                      • Arthron (Greek) - Pertaining to the Joint
                      • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
                    • HLAB27 association, Seronegative spondyloarthropathy
                    • Ptosis

                      A "falling away" of the upper eyelid.

                      • Ptosis (Greek) - Falling, a fall
                    • One of the three classic findings of Horner's syndrome
                    • Caused by Pan coast tumors
                    • Pubarche

                      The "beginning" of "ripening" of a child into an "adult".

                      • Puber (Latin) - Ripe, adult, time of maturity
                      • Arkhe (Latin) - Beginning, first of
                    • First appearance of pubic hair in a child
                    • Pubis

                      Anterior bone of the "pubis" or pelvis.

                      • Pubis (Latin) - Bone of the pubes
                      Raphe nucleus

                      A line or "seam" of nuclei in the midbrain that releases serotonin

                    • SSRI antidepressants target here
                    • Feedback to suprachiasmatic nuclei is involved with circadian rhythm
                    • Discovered in 1964 by Dahlstrom and Fuxe
                    • Renal corpuscle

                      The "body" containing the glomerulus and Bowman's capsule found in the "kidney".

                    • Rel corpuscle consists of the glomerulus and Bowman's capsule, which together are the initial bloodfiltering component of a nephron
                    • Heparan sulfate, a negatively charged glycosaminoglycan, is the substance that contributes to the electrostatic barrier of the glomerular filter and mainly helps prevent protein from seeping into the filtrate
                    • Rete testis

                      A "net" of spermcarrying tubules surrounding the "testicle".

                      • Rete (Latin) - Net
                      • Testis (Latin) - A witness, testicle
                    • Multiple benign cysts of the rete testis is known as rete tubular ectasia
                    • Reticulocyte

                      Immature "little" red blood "cells".

                      • Reticulum (Latin) - Littlle net, network like structure
                      • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
                      Retrograde amnesia

                      An inability to remember, or "forgetting", events "before" a certain point in time.

                    • Korsakoff syndrome is a cause of retrograde amnesia
                    • Ribot's law states that memories closer to the disease process are more likely to be lost over memories that are further back.
                    • Salmonella Typhi

                      A gram negative non motile bacteria that causes "stupor caused by fever"

                      • Salmonella - Med for veterry surgeon Daniel Salmon
                      • Typhus (Greek) - Stupor caused by fever, smoke, fog
                    • Rosy spots on the abdomen
                    • Prolonged carrier state in the gallbladder
                    • Fever
                    • Delirium
                    • Typhoid Mary, a famous carrier of typhoid fever, was a cook and infected many people in her lifetime. She was eventually quarantined where she eventually died.
                    • Sarcoma

                      A harmful "tumor" of the connective or "fleshy tissue"

                      • Sarx (Latin) - Flesh, Meat
                      • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
                    • A cancer of mesenchymal origin
                    • Sarcomas tend to spread through the blood.
                    • Scleroderma

                      A disease resulting in "hard skin"

                    • A chronic systemic autoimmune disease characterized by hardening of the skin and may also affect the internal organs.
                    • CREST
                    • AntiScl70 and antitopoisomerase antibody
                    • Sclerosing adenosis

                      A "hardening" of the lymph "glands" in the breast

                    • Benign buildup of tissue that develops within the breast lobules.
                    • Cyclic pain linked to menstrual cycle
                    • Secondary pneumonia

                      An inflammation of the "lung" caused by a bacterial infection that occurs "second" or "after" a primary viral infection.

                    • A bacterial pneumonia that occurs a few week after contraction of a viral pneumonia. Usually occurs in the elderly. Most commonly s. aureus.
                    • Influenza epidemics
                    • Semimembranosus

                      The "half skin muscle", describing the fact that about half of the muscle consists of a broad, membranous tendon. Part of the hamstring

                    • One of three muscles that make up the hamstring found on the back of the thigh and runs from the base of the pelvis. Allows the leg to flex and rotate and is a thigh extensor. Is innervated by the tibial nerve, a branch of the sciatic nerve.
                    • Hamstring stain, tendinitis
                    • Word comes from the Latin words semis meaning “half” and membra meaning “skin.” Describes the fact that half of the muscle consists of a membranous tendon.
                    • Seminal vesicle

                      Two "small, bladderlike structures" which contribute fluid for the production of semen, or "seed"

                    • Two saclike glands that secrete fluid substances into the ejaculatory ducts of males. Secretions consist of seminal fluid, which contains fructose, proteins, citric acid, inorganic phosphorous, potassium, and prostaglandins.
                    • Lipofuscin, high fructose
                    • Seminiferous tubules

                      "Tubelike" structures in the testes which "bear" or "carry" the "seed"

                    • Location where gametes are created in the testes through meiosis. Formed from primitive sex chords.
                    • Serosa

                      A membrane lining an internal cavity which protects the contents and secretes serum, a watery substance, which provides lubrication.

                      • Serum (Latin) - Watery fluid, whey
                    • A thin layer of cells on the exterior surface of tissue that encapsulate organs, responsible for the release of serous fluid.
                    • Serous fluid produced by this layer allows for moistening of the abdominal cavity which allows for organs to slide smoothly against one another with low friction.
                    • The name comes from the fact that this tissue is moistened by the watery serous excretions
                    • Also known as the serous membrane because of its release of serous fluid over the exterior of the tissue
                    • Serous cystadenocarcinoma

                      A malignant "mass" of a "gland" filled with "watery fluid" resembling a small "bladder".

                      • Serum (Latin) - Watery fluid, whey
                      • Kustis (Greek) - Bladder, atomical pouch or sac
                      • Aden (Greek) - Gland
                      • Karkinos (Greek) - Cancer, crab
                      • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
                    • Common malignant ovarian neoplasm filled with clear fluid
                    • Psammoma bodies can be seen
                    • Serratus anterior

                      A "saw"shaped muscle that is "before" or on the front side of the body, that extends from the 1st to 8th ribs.

                    • The large muscle overlaying the anterior and side wall of the rib cage with a main function of keeping the scapula held firmly to the back. Also aids in raising the arm above the head
                    • Innervated by the long thoracic nerve
                    • Damage to the serratus anterior (often times via stab wounds) leads to winging of the scapula and an inability to elevate the arm above the head
                    • The name of the muscle comes from the resemblance of saw teeth as the muscle overlays the ribs
                    • Sinus venosus

                      Embryonic "hollow cavity" located on the "vein"containing side of the heart, feeding into right atrium

                      • Sinus (Latin) - Bend, fold, curve, a bent surface; a bay, bight, gulf; a fold in land; hollow curve or cavity in the body
                      • Venosus (Latin) - Full of veins
                    • In adults, incorporated into the wall of the right atrium while also forming the SA node and coronary sinus
                    • Somatostatin

                      Inhibitory, or "stationary", hormone in the "body" made in the brain, delta cells of pancreas, stomach and intestines

                      • Soma (Greek) - Body
                      • Statos (Greek) - Standing, statiory
                    • Inhibitory peptide hormone
                    • Octreotide is a somatostatin analog
                    • Suppresses the release of gastric hormones, decreases the rate of gastric emptying
                    • Has negative feedback effects on the pancreas and anterior pituitary
                    • Sonic hedgehog gene

                      A protein in human development central to the development of the limbs and digits, causing the child to look like "Sonic the Hedgehog"

                      • By diffusing and creating a gradient both within a cell type and tissue, the sonic hedgehog protein allows for control of embryo development as dictated by the concentration in a given area
                      • Med because loss of function of this gene causes the fetus to develop covered in spike appearing tendrils that cause a resemblance to a hedgehog
                      • Spermatocele

                        A benign, sperm or "seed"filled cyst or "swelling" in the head of the epididymis

                        • Sperma (Latin) - Seed, sperma
                        • Kele (Greek) - Swelling, hernia, tumor
                        Stable angina

                        A chest pain or "strangling" of the heart that is "fixed" or occurs only with exertion.

                      • Chest pain caused by transient ischemia to cardiac muscle that has onset normally upon exertion.
                      • More predictable than unstable angi, which can occur at rest
                      • Syncope

                        A transient loss of consciousness due to blood supply being "cut off" from the brain.

                        • Syn (Greek) - With, together
                        • Koptein (Greek) - Strike, cut off
                      • Vasovagal syncope
                      • WolffParkinsonWhite syndrome
                      • Tensor veli palatini

                        A muscle that "stretches" over the "roof of the mouth" to assist in swallowing and yawning.

                        • Tenein (Greek) - To stretch, strain
                        • Vellum (Latin) - Veil or curtain
                        • Palatum (Greek) - Roof of the mouth, of the Palace
                      • Allows for air pressure to equalize between the tympanic cavity and outside air
                      • Teres major

                        The teres major connects the inferior angle of the scapula to the humerus. It functions to medially rotate and Adduct the arm.

                        • Teres (Latin) - Rounded
                        • Magnus (Latin) - Great in size, Greater
                      • Arm Adduction
                      • Arm medial rotation
                      • Testes

                        The testes are the "male gonads" found in the scrotum, which function to produce sperm and testosterone.

                        • Testis (Latin) - A witness, testicle
                      • Lymphatic drainage goes to the paraortic lymph nodes
                      • Blood testes barrier
                      • Testes in latin means witness. The legal principle testis unus, testis nullus means one witness equals no witness
                      • Therefore it became common practice to have at least two witnesses. Since witnesses came in doubles, the term was applies to these gods which also come in pairs.
                      • Testicular lymphoma

                        "Tumor" of the "testicles" of lymphatic cell origin.

                        • Testis (Latin) - A witness, testicle
                        • Lympha (Latin) - Water, clear water, a goddess of water
                        • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
                      • Klinefelter syndrome and cryptorchidism are risk factors
                      • Thalassemia

                        Hereditary "blood" disorders where the body produces structurally abnormal hemoglobin, med after being seen in people who lived near the Mediterranean "sea".

                      • Alpha thalassemias are associated with Asian or African descent
                      • Beta thalassemias are associated with Mediterranean descent
                      • Result in microcytic anemias

                      • Mnemonics
                        These conditions make your red blood cells small really F. A. S. T.
                        The Causes of Microcytic Anemia
                        Fe (iron) deficiency anemia. Anemia of chronic Disease. Sideroblastic Anemia. Thalassemia
                        Thecalutein cyst

                        Bilateral ovarian "enveloped" "cysts" associated with molar pregnancies, often associated with high beta human chorionic gonadotropin (βhCG) levels.

                        • Theke (Greek) - Case, Envelope, Sheath
                        • Luteus (Latin) - Yellow
                        • Kustis (Greek) - Bladder, atomical pouch or sac
                      • Associated with molar pregnancies
                      • Thecoma

                        A "tumor" of theca cells, which form a "sheath" around the inner granulosa cells of the ovary.

                        • Theke (Greek) - Case, Envelope, Sheath
                        • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
                      • Most patients with thecoma present with abnormal uterine bleeding
                      • Sex cord stromal tumor
                      • Benign ovarian neoplasm
                      • Thymoma

                        Benign "tumor" of the "oblong shield" shaped gland.

                        • Thumos (Greek) - Excrescence like a thyme bud, thymus gland
                        • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
                      • Thymomas are associated with myasthenia gravis
                      • They can also cause superior ve cava syndrome (proximity to the superior ve cava) and dysphagia (proximity to the esophagus)
                      • Tumor necrosis factor

                        Produced in inflammatory response and causes "swelling" and cellular "death."

                        • Tumere (Latin) - To swell
                        • Nekros (Greek) - Dead body, Corpse, Death
                        • Facere (Latin) - To do, To make
                      • There are various TNF α inhibitors that work as autoimmune therapeutics
                      • Must perform a PPD before administering TNF α inhibitors because TNF α is important in the defense against tuberculosis
                      • Also known as cachexin, as it is involved in the cachexia that occurs in chronic diseases
                      • Ulnar nerve

                        Nerve derived from the medial cord of the brachial plexus and around the "elbow" to supply medial forearm.

                        • Ulna (Latin) - Elbow
                        • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
                      • Damage to the hook of hamate in the hand can damage the ulnar nerve
                      • Guyon Cal Syndrome occurs due to compression of the ulnar nerve
                      • Damage to the distal ulnar nerve can result in the ulnar claw
                      • Upper subscapular nerve

                        Nerve from brachial plexus that innervates the muscle "beneath" the "shoulder blades."

                        • Up (English) - Up, top
                        • Sub (Latin) - Under, below, beneath, at the foot of
                        • Scapulae (Latin) - Shoulder blades
                      • Derived from C56, this nerve leaves the brachial plexus from the posterior cord and innervates the subscapularis. Commonly disrupted in ErbDuchenne nerve palsy
                      • Uremia

                        Excessive amounts of "urea" in the "blood."

                      • Uremia is the U of the MUDPILES mnemonic, and is therefore a cause of increased anion gap metabolic acidosis
                      • In 1851, E.T. Frerich described clinical uremic syndrome and suggested that a toxicity was the mechanism of it cause. It was in 1856 that J. Picard developed a sensitive method to reproducibly measure blood urea. He was able to detect a 40% decrease of urea concentration between the renal artery and the renal vein. This work solidified the fact that renal failure coincided with an increase in blood urea. It was J. Picard with E.T. Frerich's work that made the term uremia popular
                      • Urethritis

                        Inflammation of the urethra, an organ needed for the "passage of urine"

                        • Ourethra (Greek) - Passage for urine
                        • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
                      • Commonly caused by gonorrhea and chlamydia
                      • When accompanied with conjunctivitis and arthritis, consider Reactive arthritis
                      • Urticaria

                        Skin rash characterized by redness, itchiness, and "burning."

                      • A type of skin rash characterized by raised bumps (wheals) that are itchy and erythematous. Typically due to mast cell degranulation
                      • Allergic reactions
                      • Also known as Hives
                      • Vaccine

                        A method to confer immunity to a disease in people, derived from the latin for "cow" because the first was one created against smallpox by using cowpox virus.

                      • Live vaccines provide greater immunity but have the risk of converting to the disease
                      • Killed/inactivated vaccines provide weaker immunity but do not have the risk of converting to disease
                      • Benjamin Jesty inoculated his wife and two sons with cowpox in order to prevent them from getting smallpox, a large killer at the time it worked
                      • Variola

                        Another me for the infectious disease smallpox. Characterized by diffuse "pustules" on body.

                        • Variola (Latin) - Pustule, Pock, from varius Latin meaning Diverse as in the pustules themselves
                      • Smallpox is a live virus preparation and leaves a characteristic scar after the skin scabs
                      • Edward Jenner famously inoculated James Phipps with cowpox pus obtained from a lesion of a milkmaid, making him immune to small pox.
                      • Vesicourachal diverticulum

                        Abnormal outpouching of "bladder" or "urinary tract."

                      • The persistence of the urachus leading to an outpouching at the anterior part of the bladder.
                      • Vesicoureteral reflex

                        "Bending back" of urine from the "bladder" into the "urinary ducts of kidneys."

                      • Seen with posterior urethral valves
                      • Increased risk of acute and chronic pyelonephritis due to constant backflow, which allows potential bacterial infection to ascend from the bladder into the kidneys
                      • 85% of cases are female beyond the antenatal period of life
                      • Vibrio cholerae

                        A highly motile or "vibrating" bacteria that causes severe diarrhea.

                        • Vibrare (Latin) - Vibrate
                        • Kholera (Greek) - Disease characterized by diarrhea
                      • Gramnegative comma shaped bacterium which causes Cholera, a condition of profuse 'rice water' stools
                      • In India Cholera outbreaks are common from unclean water sources and makeshift medical clinic pop up during such outbreaks to care for the people afflicted. Cholera cots are used, which are cots with a hole in the middle to allow for feces to be expelled into a bucket placed below while a person suffering from cholera is too weak to move around. The amount of fluids given to the patient is determined by the amount of fluid in the bucket.
                      • Vitamink deficiency

                        A "fail"ure of Vitamin K in body.

                        • Vitamin (English) - An organic compound required in minimal amounts to sustain life
                        • Deficere (Latin) - To Desert, Revolt, Fail
                      • Uncontrolled bleeding
                      • The target of warfarin which blocks the activation via blocking off vitamin K epoxide reductase
                      • Green leafy vegetables are high in vitamin K
                      • Newborn babies must be given a shot of vitamin K to prevent them from having hemorrhagic complications and bleeding problems.
                      • Zygomatic bone

                        Bone "joined or yoked together" with the maxilla, sphenoid, frontal and temporal bone and makes facial cheek.

                        • Zygotos (Greek) - Yolked together, Joint
                        • Ban (Old English) - Bone, tusk
                      • More commonly known as the cheek bone, its name comes from the fact that it joins together multiple bones in a single place.
                      • Leuprolide

                        • Infertility (pulsatile), prostate cancer(continusous use with flutamide), uterine fibroids(continuous), precocious puberty (continuous)
                        • GnRH alog with agonist properties when used in pulsatile fashion
                        • Antagonist properties when used in continuous fashion
                        • Testosterone

                          • Treat hypogodism and promot development of secondary sex characteristics
                          • Stimulation of abolism to promote rceovery after burn or injury
                          • Agonist at androgen receptors
                          • Methyltestosterone

                            • Treat hypogodism and promot development of secondary sex characteristics
                            • Stimulation of abolism to promote rceovery after burn or injury
                            • Agonist at androgen receptors
                            • Fisteride

                              Antiandrogens

                              • BPH, male pattern baldness
                              • 5alpha reductase inhibitor
                              • Flutamide

                                Antiandrogens

                                • Prostate carcinoma
                                • Nonsteroidal competitive inhibitor of androgens at testosterone receptor
                                • Ketocozloe

                                  Antiandrogens

                                  • Polycistic ovarian syndrome
                                  • Inhibit steroid synthesis (inhibit 17,20 desmolase)
                                  • Spironolactone

                                    Antiandrogens

                                    • Polycistic ovarian syndrome
                                    • Inhibits steroid binding
                                    • Ethinyl Estradiol

                                      Estrogens

                                      • Hypogodism or ovarian failure, menstrual abnormalities, HRT in postmenopausal women
                                      • Use in men with androgendependent prostate cancer
                                      • Bind estrogen receptor
                                      • DES

                                        Estrogens

                                        • Hypogodism or ovarian failure, menstrual abnormalities, HRT in postmenopausal women
                                        • Use in men with androgendependent prostate cancer
                                        • Bind estrogen receptor
                                        • Mestranol

                                          Estrogen

                                          • Menstrual abnormalities, OCPs
                                          • Bind estrogen receptors
                                          • Clomipjene

                                            SERMs

                                            • Infertility and PCOS
                                            • Partial Agonist at estrogen receptor in hypothalamus
                                            • Tamoxifen

                                              SERMs

                                              • ERpositive breast cancer
                                              • Bind estrogen receptors