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Acute tubular necrosis

A "sharp" or quickly onset "death" of the "small pipes" within the kidney.

  • Acuere (Latin) - To Sharpen, sharply onset
  • Tubulus (Latin) - A small pipe
  • Nekros (Greek) - Dead body, Corpse, Death
  • Injury of the renal tubular epithelial cells, with dead cells clogging the tubules and resulting in obstruction
  • Brown casts
  • Failure to concentrate urine
  • Intrarenal azotemia
  • Causes include ischemia, aminoglycosides, heavy metals, myoglobinuria, ethylene glycol, contrast dye, and urate
  • Aedes aegypti

    An "unpleasant" mosquito.

    • Aedes (Greek) - Unpleasant
  • A mosquito known for spreading the dengue fever, chikungunya, yellow fever viruses, and other diseases
  • Originally from Africa, but now found throughout the tropical world
  • Aegypti Species me
  • Aldosterone

    A "steroid that acts as a second messenger" whose chemical structure is composed of an "alcohol group deprived of oxygen".

    • Aldehyde (Latin) - Alcohol deprived of oxygen
    • Sterol (English) - Steroid, act as second messengers and in membrane stabilizers
  • A steroid hormone produced by the Zo Glomerulosa. It is involved in the regulation of blood pressure by causing the kidneys to absorb sodium and excrete potassium and hydrogen
  • Acts on the collecting tubule section of the nephron
  • Conn syndrome is a disease in which a person produces an appropriate amount of ADH leading to symptoms of hyponatremia leading to hypertension and edema.
  • ACE inhibitors indirectly affect aldosterone levels by preventing conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II. Angiotensin II promotes release of aldosterone.
  • Alport syndrome

    A condition med for Cecil Alport, characterized by inflammatory kidney.

    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
  • A defect in the protein collagen
  • Characterized by hearing loss due to a problem with the tiny bones of the ear
  • Leads to glomerulonephritis.
  • In 1927, Cecil Alport described 3 generations of a family with combustions of progressive hereditary nephritis and deafness
  • Angiomyolipoma

    A "mass or growth" made of "muscle", "fat" and "blood vessels".

    • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
    • Myo (Greek) - Muscle
    • Lipos (Greek) - Fat
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Most common benign tumor of the kidney
  • Associated heavily with Tuberous Sclerosis
  • Angiotensin

    An organic molecule that causes an intense "stretch" or vasoconstriction of "blood vessels" in order to increase blood pressure.

  • The second step in the reninangiotensinaldosterone pathway that becomes activated when one is hypovolemic or has decreased blood pressure
  • A popular target for antihypertensive drugs
  • Ace inhibitors block the action of angiotensin converting enzyme, the enzyme responsible for turning angiotensin 1 into angiotensin 2 and completing the RAA cascade to decrease blood pressure
  • Ankyloglossia

    An anamoly of the mouth in which the "tongue" has a bend in the front of it causing it to look like a bent "elbow".

  • Ankyloglossia is known colloquially as "tonguetied"
  • Caused by a short frenulum that causes the tip of the tongue to attach to the floor of the mouth more anteriorly than normal
  • It is often asymptomatic and difficult to diagnose, however can cause speech difficulties, poor oral hygiene, and trouble with swallowing foods
  • Arcuate artery

    An "artery or windpipe" that "bows or curves" around the border of the cortex and medulla of the kidney.

    • Arcus (Latin) - Bow (the weapon), a curve
    • Arteria (Greek) - Windpipe, artery
  • Rel circulation receives around 20% of the cardiac output. Branch off abdominal aorta at level of L1
  • Med after the fact that they are shaped in arcs due to the shape of the renal medulla
  • Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP)

    A "protein" hormone produced by the "main room" of the heart (atria) causing increased "excretion" of "sodium" by the kidneys to ultimately decrease blood pressure

    • Atrium (Latin) - Central court or main room of an ancient Roman house, or either of the upper cavities of the heart
    • Natrium (Latin) - Sodium
  • Causes vasodilation (via GMP)
  • Decreased sodium reabsorption at kidneys, and promotes increased urine production
  • Natriuresis = diuresis but with extra sodium
  • Bartter syndrome

    A rare inherited absorptive defect of thick ascending loop of Henle med after American endocrinologist Frederic Bartter. The symptoms found "running" "together" include low potassium levels, increased blood pH and normal to low blood pressure.

      BeckwithWiedemann syndrome

      Congenital growth disorder med after Dr. HansRudolf Wiedmann and Professor John Bruce Beckwith. The symptoms found "running" "together" include heavy weight, a large tongue, abdominal defects, and creases in the ears

      • Overgrowth syndrome
      • Increased risk of Wilms Tumor and hepatoblastoma
      • Abdominal defects include omphalocele and enlarged organs.
      • Originally used to be called exomphalosmacroglossiagigantism syndrome
      • Bowman's capsule

        Saclike structure surrounding the glomerulus with a parietal layer made up of a single layer of squamous epithelium and a visceral layer made up of podocytes above the glomerular basement membrane. The space between the two layers is the Bowman space where fluid filtered from the glomerulus is collected.

        • Capsula (Latin) - A small box or container
        • Capsula (Latin) - A small box or container
      • Crescents in the Bowman's capsule is associated with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
      • Renal filtration barrier is composed of fenestrated endothelium, glomerular basement membrane and podocytes
      • Calyce

        "Cup"like chambers of the kidney through which urine passes before going through the renal pelvis and ureters

        • Kalyx (Greek) - Husk or cup
      • Blunted calyces seen in chronic pyelonephritis
      • Collecting ducts

        A structure that "leads" contents being drained "together".

        • Collectare (Latin) - To Gather Together
        • Ductus (Latin) - A Leading, Conducting, or Aqueduct
      • Kidney, nephron, electrolyte balance, fluid balance, reabsorption, excretion, aldosterone, antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
      • The collecting duct is responsible for the balance and continued reabsorption and excretion of water, sodium, potassium, hydrogen, and bicarbonate ions.
      • Cortex

        The "bark, or outer layer" of the kidney, adrenal glands, and many other organs.

        • Cortex (Latin) - Bark of a Tree, Outer layer
      • Outer part of kidney ,glomerulus, bowman's capsule, EPO, cortical collecting ducts
      • Outer portion of the kidney between the renal capsule and the renal medulla
      • Contains renal corpuscles (glomerulus and Bowman's capsule), renal tubules expect parts of the loop of Henle, blood vessels and cortical collecting ducts. Erythropoietin is produced here.
      • Creatinine

        A breakdown product "resembling" "flesh".

        • Kreas (French) - Flesh, meat
        • Inus (Latin) - Of, like
      • Creatine phosphate breakdown product, muscle mass
      • The result of the breakdown of creatine phosphate in muscle
      • Normal levels vary and depend on muscle mass but it is usually produced at a constant rate by the body.
      • Cushing Syndrome

        A condition characterized by a person being exposed to high levels of cortisol for long periods of time.

        • Characterized by a buffalo hump on the back due to fat deposition
        • Hirsutism due to increase in androgen production
        • Moon facies
        • Central obesity
        • Can be caused by extensive use of corticosteroids or an overactive pituitary.
        • Determined with a dexamethasone test in which a person is exposed to a glucocorticoid analog that leads should lead to negative feedback of the pituitary gland and suppression of glucocorticoid production
        • Cystitis

          An "inflammatory" condition of the "pouch" that holds urine.

          • Kustis (Greek) - Bladder, atomical pouch or sac
          • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
        • Inflammation
        • Urinary tract infection
        • Dysuria
        • Increased urinary frequency
        • Inflammation of the bladder leading to a frequent need to urite along with a burning sensation. It can be due to an infection of ascending bacteria from the urethra to the bladder or from persistent irritants near the urethral opening.
        • Diffuse alveolar damage

          A "loss" in "hollowed out structures" (alveoli) that occurs in all lung fields.

          • Diffundere (Latin) - To Pour Out or Away
          • Alveus (Latin) - Any hollowed out structure
          • Dammum (Latin) - Loss, Hurt, Damage
        • ARDS
        • TRALI
        • AIP
        • A histological finding seen in lung diseases such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, transfusion related acute lung injury, and acute interstitial pneumonia.
        • Dysphonia

          A "bad" "voice" or inability to speak or make sounds.

          • Dys (Greek) - Bad, Ill, Abnormal, Evil
          • Phone (Greek) - Voice
        • Many possible causes and pathologies
        • Damage to the laryngeal nerve
        • Neoplasia of the vocal cords
        • Amyloidosis
        • Trauma of the vocal cords
        • Dysplasia

          "Bad formation" (malformation, abnormal growth) of cells or tissue.

          • Dys (Greek) - Bad, Ill, Abnormal, Evil
          • Plasis (Greek) - Molding, Formation
        • Usually used in the context of abnormal cell proliferation that can progress to cancer
        • Eosinophil

          Immune cells med for their "dawn", or pinkred color upon staining with acidic dye.

        • Trigger degranulation in mast cells
        • It is suspected that Americans have increased allergies due to good sanitation. Since allergic reactions and parasites are mediated by the same part of the immune system, the lack of parasitic infections leads to overreaction of the immune system to allergens.

        • Mnemonics
          Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas!
          % Concentrations of the Types of White Blood Cells
          Neutrophils (65%). Lymphocytes (25%). Monocytes (6%). Eosinophils (3%). Basophils (1%)

          Process "to make" "red" blood cells.

        • Stimulated by release of erythropoietin from kidneys in response to decreased oxygen in circulation
        • Falciform

          "Sickleform" ligament that attaches the liver to anterior abdominal wall.

        • Contains round ligament, paraumbilical veins, and obliterated umbilical vein
        • Foam cells

          Macrophage 'cells' containing phagocytized oxidized lipids, causing a "frothy" appearance, after blood vessel endothelial damage from atherosclerosis

          • Fam (Old English) - Foam, saliva froth
          • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel

          "inflammation" of the "gums" and "mouth".

          • Gingiva (Latin) - Gums
          • Stoma (Greek) - Mouth
          • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
        • Associated with HSV1
        • Globus pallidus

          A "pale" structure of the basal ganglia of the brain that helps regulate voluntary movement.

        • Split into the internal and external globus pallidus
        • Works with the striatum and substantia nigra to help regulate voluntary movement
        • The origin of the me is not known as the structure does not in fact resemble, as the me implies, a pale colored globe.
        • Glomerulopathy

          A general term for "diseases" that affect the "balllike" structure of the kidneys.

          • Glomus (Latin) - Ballshaped mass
          • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
        • Refers to glomeruli of the kidneys
        • Glycogen

          A large polysaccharide "produced" from multiple units of "sweet wine" or sugar.

          • Glykys (Greek) - Sweet, sweet wine
          • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
        • Used as a storage form of glucose in animals
        • Mainly found in liver and muscle cells
        • May undergo glycogenolysis to maintain serum glucose
        • Glycogen was discovered by Claude Bernard through experiments that revealed a liver that could form sugar.
        • Golgi apparatus

          Cell trafficking organelle that "makes read" various proteins to be shipped out to places within and outside of the cell.

        • Adds mannose6phosphate to proteins that are destined for lysosomes
        • Failure of mannose6phosphate addition leads to Icell disease.
        • Since the Golgi apparatus is so large (relatively speaking), it was one of the first organelles discovered in the cell.
        • Haptoglobin

          A blood protein that "fastens" onto free hemoglobin that has been released from RBCs

          • Hapto (Greek) - Touch, Fasten
          • Globus (Latin) - Sphere, globe
        • Spleen identifies hemoglobinhaptoglobin complex and removes it
        • Haptoglobin exists in most animals, but for some reason chickens and geese do not have any.
        • Hepatopancreatic ampulla

          The "flask"shaped union of two ducts, one which extends from the "liver" and the other which extends from the organ that looks like it's made of "all" flesh (pancreas).

          • Hepatos (Greek) - Liver
          • Pan (Greek) - All, every
          • Ampullae (Latin) - Flasklike bottle, a two handled vessel
        • Hepatopancreatic ampulla is located halfway along the second part of the duodenum, which marks the transition from the foregut to the midgut.
        • Hepatopancreatic ampulla precedes the hepatopancreatic sphincter (sphincter of Oddi). This transition represents a change in blood supply, from celiac artery to the superior mesenteric artery
        • Homozygous

          Diploid organism that has two of the "same" alleles of one gene that are "joined" in the same organism

          • Homos (Greek) - Once and the same, like
          • Zygotos (Greek) - Yolked together, Joint

          "Loosen" chemical bonds with "water."

        • Occurs in Phase I (biotransformation) of drug metabolism
        • ATP undergoes hydrolysis to yield ADP and phosphate ion
        • Glucose6 phosphate undergoes hydrolysis to become glucose in the last step of gluconeogenesis
        • Interleukin

          Proteins and signalling molecules (cytokines) secreted by "white" blood cells that allow them to communicate "among" one another.

          • Inter (Latin) - Among, between, betwixt, in the midst of
          • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
        • Regulate cell growth, differentiation, motility, and stimulate an immune response.
        • Interspinales

          Short muscles placed in pairs "between" the "spinous" processes of the vertebral column, one on either side of the interspinal ligament

          • Inter (Latin) - Among, between, betwixt, in the midst of
          • Spina (Latin) - Spine

          Intrahepatic is a term that means "within" the "liver"

          • Intra (Latin) - On the inside, within
          • Hepatikos (Greek) - Pertaining to the liver
          Intraparenchymal hemorrhage

          A type of "bleeding" that occurs within the brain's parenchyma, or "visceral flesh."

          • Intra (Latin) - On the inside, within
          • Parenkhyma (Greek) - Something poured in beside, visceral flesh
          • Haimorrhages (Greek) - Bleeding violently
        • Most commonly caused by traumatic injury
        • Nontraumatic intraparenchymal hemorrhage most commonly results from hypertensive damage to blood vessels
        • Intussusception

          A medical condition in which a part of the intestine has invited into another section of intestine, which often results in an obstruction (this is a medical emergency). One part of the intestine ends up "within" another part of intestine (which is the part that "takes its up").

        • Think Inception intestines within intestines
        • Occurs most commonly at the ileocecal junction
        • Isthmus

          A "arrow passage" or connection between two parts of an organ atomic structures.

          • Isthmos (Latin) - Narrow passage, narrow neck of land
          Jugular ganglion

          This structure, located near the "throat," contains somatosensory neuronal cell bodies (a "tumor" of cell bodies) that provide sensory information.

        • The information is provided from the external auditory meatus (auricular branch), cranial meninges (meningeal branch), and the external surface of the tympanic membrane
        • Also called the superior ganglion of the vagus nerve.
        • Ketonuria

          The presence of "ketones" in the "urine"

        • Nuria indicates an excess of a substance in the blood
        • Lichen planus

          A "flat" lesion which resembles a fungus that "eats around itself"

          • Leikhen (Greek) - What eats around itself
          • Planus (Latin) - Flat, level
        • Thought to be autoimmune
        • Described by the 6 P's: planar, purple, polygonal, pruritic, papules, and plaques
        • Lipofuscin

          "Dark" colored "fat" within older cells.

        • Wear and tear pigment associated with aging
        • Commonly yellow colored
        • Seen mostly within the liver, kidney and heart
        • Longus colli

          The "long" "neck" muscle that runs between C1 and C3.

        • Commonly injured in whiplash injuries
        • Macrophage

          Cells found in tissues that "eat" cellular debris and pathogens. These cells are "larger" than most cells.

          • Makros (Greek) - Large, large to scale
          • Phagein (Greek) - To eat, eater of
        • Hosts for M. tuberculosis, Leishmania, Brucella, HIV, and adenovirus
        • Predominant cells involved in atherosclerosis
        • They are produced by differentiation of monocytes.
        • Median nerve

          A "nerve" toward the "middle" of the brachial plexus.

          • Medialis (Latin) - Middle
          • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
        • Sensory innervation to the palmar side and il beds of the thumb, index and middle finger, and half the ring finger as well as the lateral part of the palm
        • Motor innervation to the proctor teres, flexor carpi radialis, palmaris longus, flexor digitorum superficialis, lateral of the flexor digitorum profundus, flexor pollicis longus, proctor quadratus, first and second lumbrical, opponens pollicis, abductor pollicis brevis, and flexor pollicis brevis
        • Carpal tunnel syndrome, ape hand deformity, pope's blessing, median claw, thenar atrophy
        • Medullary carcinoma (thyroid)

          "Cancer" of the "marrow or pith" of the kidney.

        • Produces calcitonin, sheets of cells in amyloid stroma, MEN 2A, 2B
        • Medullary cystic kidney disease

          A disease in which the "marrow or pith" kidney becomes filled with small "pouches or bags".

          • Medulla (Latin) - Bone marrow, pith
          • Kustis (Greek) - Bladder, atomical pouch or sac
          • Kidnere (Middle English) - Kidney
          • Desaise (Old French) - Lack of Ease
        • Autosomal dominant disorder characterized by medullary cysts that lead to tubulointerstitial fibrosis and renal insufficiency
        • Shrunken kidneys
        • Melena

          "Dark" feces associated with GI bleeding in the upper GI tract

          • Melas (Greek) - Dark, black, murky
        • Tarry stool
        • Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis

          "Inflammation" of the "kidneys" due to "growth" of the "membrane".

        • Nephrotic: Type I tramtrack appearance due to mesangial ingrowth
        • Type II dense deposits Nephritic: Type I HBV, HCV
        • Type II C3 nephritic factor
        • Menorrhagia

          Abnormally "heavy" and prolonged "monthly" menses.

        • Pain is greater than typical during menstrual cycle.
        • An often overlooked cause of menorrhagia is a clotting disorder.
        • Mesonephric duct

          Embryological structures from the "middle" of the future "kidneys" that differentiates into seminal vesicles, epididymis, ejaculatory duct, ductus deferens

          • Mesos (Greek) - Middle, in the middle, in between
          • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
        • Becomes the Wolffian duct
        • Described by Caspar Friedrich Wolff in 1750s, a German physiologist.
        • Mesovarium

          "Egg" shaped portion in "middle" of broad ligament that suspends ovaries.

          • Mesos (Greek) - Middle, in the middle, in between
          • Ovum (Latin) - Egg
          Metabolic acidosis

          A "condition" in which the pH "changes" to be more "acidic".

        • Blood pH <7.35, pCO2 is low, and HCO3 is low
        • Increased anion gap: MUDPILES methanol, uremia, DKA, propylene glycol, Iron or INH, lactic acid, ethylene glycol, salicylates (late)
        • Normal anion gap: HARDASS Hyperalimentation, Addison's disease, Rel tubular acidosis, Diarrhea, Acetazolamide, Spironolactone, Saline infusion
        • Compensation of metabolic acidosis is respiratory alkalosis
        • Adequacy of compensation can be determined by using Winter's formula pCO2 = 1.5*HCO3 + 8 +/ 2
        • Metachromatic leukodystrophy

          Lysosomal storage disease that affects "white" "colored" myelin due to lack of "nourishment" which leads to "improper" "formation".

          • Meta (English) - Beyond, in the midst of
          • Khroma (Greek) - Color, complexion character
          • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
          • Dys (Greek) - Bad, Ill, Abnormal, Evil
          • Trophe (Greek) - Food, Nourishment
        • Autosomal recessive condition due to defective arylsulfatase
        • Results in accumulation of cerebroside sulfate causing central and peripheral demyelination
        • With ataxia and dementia
        • Metanephric mesenchyme

          Embryological origin of glomerulus through "fusion" of distal convoluted tubules in the "midsts of" the "middle" of "kidneys".

          • Meta (English) - Beyond, in the midst of
          • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
          • Mesos (Greek) - Middle, in the middle, in between
          • Enkhuma (Greek) - Infusion

          Excess "new" uncontrolled growth and "formation" of clonal cells that produces tumors.

          • Neos (Greek) - New, young, youthful
          • Plassein (Greek) - To mold or form
        • Irreversible cellular change
        • Nephritic syndrome

          "Kidney" disorder due to inflammation. Characterized by blood and RBC "running" in the urine "with" protein loss.

          • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
          • Syn (Greek) - With, together
          • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
        • Red urine possibly following an infection or other illness
        • Edema is due to salt retention
        • Nephritis

          "Inflammatory" disease of the "kidneys". Can result in either Nephrotic or Nephritic syndromes

          • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
          • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease

          Wilm's tumor "growth", the most common "kidney" cancer in children. Single sided "budding" flank mass in a child that does not cross the midline.

          • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
          • Blastos (Greek) - Germ, sprout, bud or budding, immature
          • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
        • WAGR complex: Wilms' Tumor, Aniridia, GU malformation, Retardation
        • The second most common palpated mass in a child behind a distended urinary bladder
        • Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

          Massive production of dilute urine and "prudent" thirst "originating" from "kidneys" that can "not" respond to ADH that "goes through" them.

          • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
          • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
          • Diabainein (Greek) - Go Through
          • In (Unknown) - To carry off by evacuation
          • Sapidus (Latin) - Taste or flavor
        • Lithium side effect
        • Polyuria and polydipsia that does not respond to desmopressin
        • Nephrolithiasis

          "Inflammation" caused by "kidney" "stones".

        • Colicky flank pain
        • Hematuria without RBC casts
        • In descending order of frequency, Kidney stones can be composed of Calcium, Ammonium/Magnesium/Phosphate , Uric Acid, or Cystine
        • Commonly caused by dehydration
        • Nephron

          The functional unit of the "kidney". Traces the path of urine production from the glomeruli to the collecting ducts.


          "Kidney" disease. Diabetic nephropathy is the damage to the kidney that results from nonenzymatic glycosylation of the glomerular basement membrane, leading to loss of protein in the urine.

          • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
          • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
          Nephrotic syndrome

          "Kidney" "disease" "with" loss of blood proteins "running through" the filtration barrier.

          • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
          • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
          • Syn (Greek) - With, together
          • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
        • Frothy urine
        • Thromboembolism
        • Infection
        • Edema is due to loss of capillary oncotic pressure
        • Oligodendroglioma

          "Tumor" of oligodendrocytes the "treelike" "cells" of the CNS that "glue" cells together with myelin.

          • Oligos (Greek) - Few, scanty, small, little
          • Dendron (Greek) - Tree
          • Glia (Greek) - Glue
          • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
        • Frontal lobe
        • May present with seizures
        • Friedegg nucleus
        • GFAP+
        • Calcified tumor in white matter on imaging
        • Rare and slow growing
        • Pap smear

          A method of cervical cancer screening of which the me is derived from "Papanicolaou's test."


            Refers to the space "around" the "kidney".

            • Para (Greek) - Along, side, beside, near, against, contrary to
            • Renes (Latin) - Kidneys
            Pelvic splanchnic nerves

            Parasympathetic "nerves" that innervate "organs" in the "pelvis."

          • Parasympathetic nerves arising from S2S4 that join sacral plexus
          • Innervation of hindgut
          • Regulation of urinary bladder and rectum
          • Responsible for maintaining erection
          • Peritonsillar abscess

            Pus collected "around" the "tonsils" thought to "carry away" the infection.

            • Peri (Greek) - Around, about, beyond
            • Tonsillae (Greek) - Tonsils, Goiter
            • Cedere (Latin) - To Go, carry
          • A complication of tonsillitis
          • An otolaryngological emergency
          • Aerobic bacteria commonly implicated include Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, and Haemophilus
          • Aerobic bacteria commonly implicated include Fusobacterium, Peptostreptococcus, and Bacteroides.
          • Pneumothorax

            Accumulation of air into the pleural space (which separates the "lung" and "chest" wall)

          • A tension pneumothorax can result from trauma to the chest
          • A spontaneous pneumothorax can result with rupture of an emphysematous bleb

          • MedyQuestion
            • A 47 year old man presents to the emergency room with acute onset shortness of breath while playing basketball at his local rec league. On physical exam, the patient is found to be 6 feet 7 inches tall, with large hands. On chest auscultation you notice the patient’s chest appears to be inverted. There are decreased breath sounds on the left side. A chest x-ray is ordered. What was the cause of the patient’s sudden shortness of breath?

            USMLE Step 1

            • A 26 year old man came into the emergency room after being stabbed during a street altercation. A witness to the event told the triage nurses and EMS that the young man was in a shouting match with another person, when a knife was pulled and stabbed the patient in the side of the chest. On physical exam, the patient is unconscious with a systolic blood pressure of 76. A chest x ray demonstrated decreased breath sounds on the left side and trachea shifted to the right side. What is the cause of this patient’s imaging findings?

            USMLE Step 1

            Polyarteritis Nodosa

            An autoimmune "inflammation" of "many" "arteries" leading to micro aneurysms that cause small "knots" along the chest.

            • Polloi (Greek) - Many
            • Arteria (Greek) - Windpipe, artery
            • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
            • Nodosus (Latin) - Tied into many knots, full of knots
          • Polyarteritis nodosa is a type III hypersensitivity disorder characterized by transmural inflammation, fibrinoid necrosis and aneurysm formation in medium sized vessels
          • Characteristically see "rosary bead" like nodules on the front of the chest
          • PAN is usually seen in young adults and is associated with Hepatitis B and presents with malaise, fever, rash, abdominal pain
          • Corticosteroids are the cornerstones of treatment
          • Known for sparing of pulmonary vasculature
          • Polydipsia

            Abnormally high to extreme levels of "thirst". To drink "many" more times than baseline.

          • Seen in diabetes, hypokalemia
          • Is a symptom of anticholinergic poisoning
          • Related to word dipsomaniac, meaning alcoholic
          • Posterior scrotal nerves

            Posterior labial in women. Two nerves (medial and lateral), come from peroneal nerve which comes from the pudendal nerve. Comes atomically from "behind" to serve the "skin" of the "scrotum"

            • Posterior (Latin) - After, later, behind
            • Scrotum (Latin) - Scrotum, a skin, a hide
            • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring

            Refers to mother "after" "childbirth."

          • Postpartum depression is a common condition that affects postpartum mothers
          • Potency

            Amount of drug required to induce a measurable effect, how "powerful" a drug is.

          • An increase in potency results in a left shift in the dose response curve.
          • Preload

            End diastolic (filling stage) pressure of left or right ventricle. Determines heart muscle length at this stage in the heart cycle. Amount of blood ventricles "carry" "before" they contract.

            • Prae (Latin) - Before in time or place
            • Lad (Old English) - Way, course, carrying
          • AV fistula increases preload
          • Venodilators work by decreasing preload
          • Pronator teres

            Proximal "round" forearm muscle which acts to turn the forearm so that the palm is "facing downward"

            • Pronus (Latin) - Inclined forward or lying face downward
            • Teres (Latin) - Rounded
          • Proctor teres syndrome
          • Prostatic utricle

            The "leather bag" or sac of the male gland that "stands" "before" the base of the bladder.

            • Pro (Greek) - Before, Forward
            • Statos (Greek) - Standing, statiory
            • Uter (Latin) - Either
          • The "leather bag" or sac of the male gland that "stands" "before" the base of the bladder.
          • Protease

            An "enzyme" that breaks down "compounds composed to amino acids"

            • Protein (English) - A compound composed of amino acids
            • Ase (English) - Used to form the me of enzymes
          • PH determines optimal activity in digestive tract
          • Pulmonary fibrosis

            A "condition" in which there are "small fibers" invading the normal "lung" tissue.

            • Pulmon (Latin) - Lung
            • Fibra (Latin) - A fiber, filament, entrail
            • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
          • Sarcoidosis, Smoking, Radiation

          • MedyQuestion
            • A 6 year old boy is brought to the pediatrician because his mother reports that he has been having bouts of blue colored skin and shortness of breath. She says that when he is outside playing, he becomes short of breath much quicker than the other children. The patient was evaluated for asthma last year, but at that time demonstrated normal PFTs. The pediatrician asked the patient if anything made him feel better when he found it hard to breath, at which time, the boy squatted. What 4 characteristics are pathomnemonic for this child’s condition?

            USMLE Step 1

            • A 6 year old boy is brought to the pediatrician because his mother reports that he has been having bouts of blue colored skin and shortness of breath. She says that when he is outside playing, he becomes short of breath much quicker than the other children. The patient was evaluated for asthma last year, but at that time demonstrated normal PFTs. The pediatrician asked the patient if anything made him feel better when he found it hard to breath, at which time, the boy squatted. On cardiac auscultation, what type of murmur is expected to be appreciated and where?

            USMLE Step 1


            Motor component of the brain located in the basal ganglia.

            • Putamen (Latin) - Shell after pruning
          • Involved with Parkinson's Disease
          • Putamen damage related to restless leg syndrome
          • Means shell like in the shell of a nut. Looks structurally like a shell. The word means "to prune" which is analogous to think or to consider
          • Relapse

            "To slip" back to a previous disorder "again".

            • Re (Latin) - Again, anew
            • Labi (Latin) - To slip
          • Commonly used to describe addiction, though it is also used to describe multiple sclerosis and depression.
          • Renal agenesis

            To be "without" the formation of "kidneys" from the "origin or source"

            • Renes (Latin) - Kidneys
            • A (Greek) - Not, Without
            • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
          • RET gene. Potter sequence (pulmonary hypoplasia, absent urine output, widely separated eyes with low set ears)
          • Due to the failure of ureteric buds to form during embryogenesis
          • Bilateral renal agenesis is incompatible with life
          • Oligohydramnios is a common complication during pregnancy
          • Potter sequence was described in 1946 by pediatric pathologist Edith Potter, and linked shortly thereafter to renal agenesis.
          • Renal oncocytoma

            A "morbid growth or tumor" of the kidney.

            • Renes (Latin) - Kidneys
            • Onkos (Greek) - Mass, Bulk
            • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
            • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
          • Made of oncocytes, which is an eosinophillike cell
          • Tumor cells often have abnormal amounts of mitochondria
          • Renal osteodystrophy

            "Bad or abnormal" "nourishment" of the "bones" caused by chronic "kidney" disease

            • Renes (Latin) - Kidneys
            • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
            • Dys (Greek) - Bad, Ill, Abnormal, Evil
            • Trophe (Greek) - Food, Nourishment
          • Chronic kidney disease leads to decreased secretion of phosphate, which activates PTH which leads to bone resorption by osteoclasts
          • Also known as chronic kidney disease mineral and bone disorder
          • Renal plexus

            "Network" of nerves that surround the "kidneys"

          • Formed from the celiac ganglia and plexus, aorticorel ganglia, lower thoracic splanchnic nerves, and first lumbar splanchnic nerve and aortic plexus.
          • Renal tubular acidosis

            "A condition or disease" relating to the "small pipes" or tubules of the "kidneys" being unable to secrete "acid" or reabsorb base (bicarbonate)

            • Renes (Latin) - Kidneys
            • Tubulus (Latin) - A small pipe
            • Acidus (Latin) - Relating to acid
            • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease

            To "check or restrain" one's conscious desires for pleasures or instincts, and force them into the unconsciousness.


            "Disease" associated with the "netlike" retina of the eye due to persistent damage

            • Rete (Latin) - Net
            • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
          • May lead to blindness
          • Sporothrix Schenckii

            A "spore" and "hair"like dimorphic cigarshaped budding yeast bacteria commonly found on thorn bushes

          • A dimorphic, cigarshaped budding yeast commonly found in thorn bushes. It leads to pustule and ulcer formation.
          • Cigar shaped
          • Rose gardener's disease
          • Thorns
          • Subendocardial infarction

            A "stuffing" of the coronary arteries, leading to necrosis "beneath" the "inside" layer of the "heart"

            • Sub (Latin) - Under, below, beneath, at the foot of
            • Endon (Greek) - Within, Inside, Interl
            • Kardia (Greek) - Heart
            • Infarcire (Latin) - To stuff into
          • Myocardial infarction of the innermost layer of the myocardium that does not extend out to the epicardium.
          • Involves the inner layers of the myocardium
          • Transferrin

            Plasma molecule that transports "iron" "across" the blood.

          • Transferrin is down regulated by the immune response to decrease the amount of iron available to bacteria
          • Transferrin levels reflect total iron binding capacity (TIBC)
          • Transferrin levels are increased in pregnancy
          • Med for its function literally as a transferer of iron
          • Trigeminal nerve

            The cranial nerve that has "three" branches "born at the same time" from it to innervate various parts of the head.

            • Tri (Greek) - Three
            • Geminus (Latin) - Born at the same birth
            • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
          • Cranial Nerve V
          • Receives sensation from the face and provides motor innervation to the muscles of mastication
          • Receives tactile sensation from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue
          • Associated with trigeminal neuralgia
          • Med literally thrice twinned. There are two trigeminal nerves, one on each side of the pons, that have three major branches: the ophthalmic (V1), the maxillary (V2), and the mandibular (V3).
          • Tuberous sclerosis

            Formation of "hardened" "bumps" on multiple organs.

          • An autosomal dominant neurocutaneous condition associated with benign tumor growth in many different organs. Associated with hamartomas, angiomyolipoma, Rhabdomyomas, angiofibromas, astrocytomas
          • Bourneville fully characterized the disease in 1880, which is why Tuberous Sclerosis is also known as Bourneville's disease.
          • Tunica albuginea

            A "white" "tunic" that covers various parts of the urogenital system of both males and females.

          • Can refer to a connective tissue layer of the penis, testicles, or ovaries
          • Urate crystal

            "Clear ice" rocks formed from urea, the main component of "urine."

          • Deposition of urate crystals commonly manifests as gout or tophi
          • Urate crystals are needleshaped and are negatively birefringent (yellow under parallel light and blue under perpendicular light)
          • Uremia

            Excessive amounts of "urea" in the "blood."

          • Uremia is the U of the MUDPILES mnemonic, and is therefore a cause of increased anion gap metabolic acidosis
          • In 1851, E.T. Frerich described clinical uremic syndrome and suggested that a toxicity was the mechanism of it cause. It was in 1856 that J. Picard developed a sensitive method to reproducibly measure blood urea. He was able to detect a 40% decrease of urea concentration between the renal artery and the renal vein. This work solidified the fact that renal failure coincided with an increase in blood urea. It was J. Picard with E.T. Frerich's work that made the term uremia popular
          • Ureter

            "Urinary ducts of the kidneys" that lead to the bladder.

            • Oureter (Greek) - Uriry duct of the kidneys
          • The ureteropelvic junction is the most common site of obstruction
          • Ureters pass underneath the uterine artery in females and underneath the vas deferens in males
          • Ureteral orifice

            "Opening" of the "urinary ducts of the kidneys" into the bladder

            Ureteric bud

            Embryonic structure that is the "seedpod" to the development of "urinary ducts of the kidneys," the renal pelvises, and the renal calyces.

            • Oureter (Greek) - Uriry duct of the kidneys
            • Bud (Middle English) - Seedpod
          • The ureteric bud is derived from the metanephric mesenchyme
          • Ureteropelvic junction

            The junction between the renal pelvis or "basin" and the "urinary ducts of the kidneys."

            • Oureter (Greek) - Uriry duct of the kidneys
            • Pelvis (Latin) - Basin or bucket
            • Jungare (Latin) - To join
          • The last part of the ureter to become patent during embryological development
          • Most common area of obstruction within the renal tract.
          • Vesicle

            A fluid filled "bladder."

          • Herpes
          • Bullous Pemphigoid
          • Pemphigus Vulgaris
          • Literally med for its similarity to the bladder in that a vesicle holds fluid like the bladder stores urine
          • Wheeze

            A pathologic lung sound characterized by a "hiss."

          • Produced when breathing as a result of growing of the airways within the bronchiole tree. Commonly heard in asthmatics and COPD patients due to bronchoconstriction
          • Stridor is a special type of high pitched wheeze brought on by the constriction of the upper airway rather than the lower.
          • Wilms tumor

            Med for Dr. Max Wilms, it is a cancer of the kidneys causing a "swelling" or growth.

            • Wilms - Med after German surgeon Max Wilms
            • Tumere (Latin) - To swell
          • Seen almost exclusively in children. Presents with a palpable mass over the kidney area of a child
          • Associated with aniridia, or lack of an iris, a condition in which the eye appears completely black
          • Commonly associated with blood in the urine and increased blood pressure in a child
          • Also known as a nephroblastoma, or literally, a kidney cell mass
          • Mannitol

            Osmotic Diuretic

            • Drug overdose, elevated intracranial/intraocular pressure
            • Draws fluid into urine via increasing tubular fluid osmolarity
            • Acetazolamide


              • Glaucoma, uriry alkalinization, metabolic alkalosis, altitude sickness, pseudotumor cerebri
              • Inhibit carbonic anhydrase causing bicarbote diuresis
              • Furosemide

                Loop Diuretic

                • Edematous states (CHR, cirrhosis, nephrotic syndrome, pulmory edema), hypertension, hypercalcemia
                • Inhibits /K/2Cl cotransport in thick ascending limb preventing concentration of urine
                • Stimulates PGE release
                • Ethacrynic acid

                  Loop Diuretic

                  • Diuresis in patient allergic to sulfa drugs
                  • Same as furosmide
                  • Hydrochlorothiazide

                    Thiazide diuretic

                    • Hypertension, CHF, idiopathic hypercalciuria, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
                    • Inhibit /Cl reabsorption in early distal tubule, reducing diluting capacity of the nephron

                    • Mnemonics
                      Hyper GLUC
                      Side Effects of Hydrochlorothiazide
                      Hyper Glycemia, Lipidemia, Uricemia, Calcemia

                      K+sparing diuretics

                      • Hyperaldosteronism, K+ depletion, CHF
                      • Competitive aldosterone receptor antagonists is cortical collecting tubule

                      • Medytoons

                        K+sparing diuretics

                        • Hyperaldosteronism, K+ depletion, CHF
                        • Competitive aldosterone receptor antagonists is cortical collecting tubule
                        • Triamterene

                          K+sparing diuretics

                          • Hyperaldosteronism, K+ depletion, CHF
                          • Block channels in cortical collecting tubule

                          • Medytoons

                            K+sparing diuretics

                            • Hyperaldosteronism, K+ depletion, CHF
                            • Block channels in cortical collecting tubule

                            • Medytoons

                              ACE inhibitor

                              • Hypertension, CHF, proteinuria, diabetic rel disease. Prevent unfavorable heart remodling
                              • Inhibit ACE
                              • Elapril

                                ACE inhibitor

                                • Hypertension, CHF, proteinuria, diabetic rel disease. Prevent unfavorable heart remodling
                                • Inhibit ACE
                                • Lisinopril

                                  ACE inhibitor

                                  • Hypertension, CHF, proteinuria, diabetic rel disease. Prevent unfavorable heart remodling
                                  • Inhibit ACE
                                  • Teset5


                                    • Abnormis (Latin) - Departing From Normal
                                  • Test5
                                  • Orthostasis

                                    The act of "standing" "upright"

                                    • Orthos (Greek) - Straight, correct
                                    • Stasis (Greek) - Standing still
                                  • Commonly used as another term for orthostatic hypotension.
                                  • Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP)

                                    A "peptide" hormone produced by the cardiac myocytes in heart ventricles causing increased "excretion" of "sodium" by the kidneys to ultimately decrease blood pressure

                                  • It is secreted in response to stretching of the ventricles caused by increased ventricular blood volume (aka increased blood pressure).
                                  • It has the same overall effect as ANP to increase sodium excretion to decrease blood volume and reduce blood pressure.
                                  • Differences between ANP and BNP: BNP is weaker (has a 10-fold lower affinity than ANP to the receptor), but has a much longer half life, making BNP better targets than ANP for diagnostic blood testing.
                                  • "peptide" = "peptos" (digested) + "ide" (a compound of) = a compound of digested proteins (fewer amino acids in peptides than proteins)
                                  • BNP is named as such because it was originally identified in extracts of pig brain in 1988, but has since been found to be primarily secreted by ventricular myocardium.
                                  • Cystocele

                                    "Herniation" of the "bladder" into the vagina

                                    • Kustis (Greek) - Bladder, atomical pouch or sac
                                    • Kele (Greek) - Swelling, hernia, tumor
                                  • Often from tearing of the pubocervical fascia during childbirth
                                  • Can be accompanied by urethrocele- "herniation" of the "urethra" into the vagina
                                  • What's more, urethrocystoceles exist too! A urethrocele combined with a cystocele
                                  • Enuresis

                                    The "action" of releasing "urine" due to lack of control "within" oneself

                                    • En (Greek) - Within
                                    • Ouron (Greek) - Urine
                                    • Esis (Greek) - Action, process, as a result of
                                  • Aka urinary incontinence, often at night in children
                                  • Diuresis

                                    The "process" of increasing production (think "thoroughput" or flow "through") of "urine"

                                    • Dia (Greek) - Through, completely
                                    • Ouron (Greek) - Urine
                                    • Esis (Greek) - Action, process, as a result of
                                  • Aka excessive production of urine, often performed by diuretic medications
                                  • MEDYMOLOGY