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PSYCHIATRY
121 terms share this category
Acting out

Defense mechanism involving acting out unacceptable thoughts or feelings, usually to gain attention

  • Associated with tantrums or juvenile delinquency
  • Altruism

    The practice of selfless concern for the wellbeing "from one's self to others".

  • Considered a mature defense mechanism.
  • Helping the homeless or poor is considered to be an altruistic activity
  • Anaclitic depression

    A condition in which newborn infants "recline" or waste away while in the hospital. This leads to "pressing down" of their development.

  • Leads to abnormalities including growth, speech and motor retardation.
  • Also known as hospitalism in the 1930's due to the tendency of infants to deteriorate whilst in the hospital for extended periods of time.
  • Anorexia

    To be "without" an "appetite"

    • An (Greek) - Without, not
    • Orexis (Greek) - Appetite
  • Very thin girls that have amenorrhea due to extreme weight loss and low body fat
  • Young girls obsessed with exercise and losing weight despite already having notably low BMIs
  • The term nervosa literally means that there is a neurotic loss of desire to eat
  • Mary Queen of Scots is suspected to have suffered from anorexia
  • Patients are often times treated with psychiatric counseling rather than with food
  • Anterograde amnesia

    "Forgetfulness" "before" a "step" or event that recently occurred.

  • Causes include benzodiazepine drugs, traumatic brain injury, Alcohol Intoxication (blackout)
  • All affect hippocampus
  • Antisocial

    A personality disorder where a person acts "against" a "companion, ally" friends, or other people.

    • Anti (Greek) - Against, opposite, opposed to
    • Socius (Latin) - Companion, ally
  • Longterm pattern of often criminal behavior which includes manipulating, exploiting, or violating the rights of others
  • Males > females
  • Must be older than 18 and have history of conduct disorder
  • Avoidant

    A personality disorder in which a person "withdraws" oneself from social interaction.

    • Avoider (French) - To clear out, withdraw oneself
  • Hypersensitive to rejection, socially inhibited, and timid
  • Desire acceptance, unlike schizoid these people want to interact with others
  • Borderline

    A cluster B personality disorder with the following symptoms: impulsivity, unstable mood, self harm, boredom, inability to maintain stable interpersonal relationships, fear of abandonment. The impulsivity manifests as a personality that's constantly on the "edge" of changing.

    • Bordure (Old French) - Seam, edge of a shield
  • Strong association with splitting
  • Bulimia

    A psychiatric disease of "hunger" where one also binge eats like an "ox".

  • Involves binge eating followed by selfinduced vomiting, use of laxatives or diuretics
  • Body weight is normal
  • Associated with eroded teeth, inflammation of the parotid glands, calluses on the back of the hand from selfinduced vomiting (also called Russell’s sign) and electrolyte deficiencies.
  • Bulimia comes from the Greek word boulimia which means hunger. Bulimia nervosa means disease of hunger that affected the nervous system
  • Classical conditioning

    A "class" of behavioral modification techniques in which one learns a specific learned behavior or "agreement" between a stimulus and a response after multiple repetitions.

  • Aka Pavlovian conditioning, aka respondent conditioning, stimulus
  • A conditioned stimulus (CS
  • Neutral stimulus) is paired with an unconditioned stimulus (US) that automatically causes a response, called an unconditioned response (UR)
  • After several repetitions, the subject exhibits a conditioned response (CR) to the CS alone without the US
  • This CR is acquired through experience and is relatively impermanent.
  • In Pavlov's experiment, Pavlov observed the UR (salivation) when meat powder (US) was placed in a dog's mouth. He then rang the bell (US) before giving the meat powder. After many repetitions of this pairing of the bell and the meat, the dog began to salivate with the bell alone (CR).
  • Cognitive disorder

    A disorder in which one's ability "to know" facts, learning, perception, etc. is compromised.

    • Cognoscere (Latin) - To Know
    • Dis (Latin) - Not, In a Different Direction, Between
    • Ordinare (Latin) - Ordain, regular
  • Mental health, memory, amnesia, dementia, delirium, deterioration from a previous level of function
  • The DSMIV describes cognitive disorders as disorders with significant impairment of cognition or memory that represents a marked deterioration from a previous level of function. The most common disorders are delirium, dementia, and amnesia.
  • Conduct disorder

    A disease which causes patients to act "different" than the "norm" in which they are not able to do things that "bring others together".

    • Conduct (Latin) - Brought Together
    • Dis (Latin) - Not, In a Different Direction, Between
    • Ordinare (Latin) - Ordain, regular
  • Psychological, pattern of behavior, violation of basic rights and norms
  • Psychological disorder diagnosed in adolescence that presents with a consistent pattern of behavior where the basic rights of other or societal norms and laws are violated (often called antisocial behavior)
  • Conduct disorder is often considered a precursor to an antisocial personality disorder, which can only be diagnosed at the age of 18. The child's behavior can include aggression to people and animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness and theft, and serious violation of rules.
  • Contemplation

    A stage of quitting a drug where patients are "thinking" about quitting and "surveying" options

    • Contemplat (Latin) - Surveyed, Observed, Contemplated
  • Drug use, smoking, quitting
  • The stage of quitting a drug where patients are thinking about quitting (in 6 months or less) because they consider their drug use a problem and are more aware of personal consequences
  • However, even though they are more receptive to information about their drug problem and are willing to identify their barriers to quitting, they aren't ready to quit yet.
  • 5 stages of quitting: precontemplation (not thinking about quitting), contemplation (thinking about quitting, but not ready yet), preparation (getting ready to quit), action (quitting), maintenance (remaining a nondrug user)
  • Countertransference

    A defense mechanism whereby doctor takes thoughts or emotions and "places" them on patients, "contrary" to the normal where patient expresses his or her emotions towards doctor

    • Contra (Latin) - Opposite, Contrary to, Against, In return
    • Trans (Latin) - Across, over, beyond
    • Ferre (Latin) - To bear, to carry
  • Transference, repressed feelings, emotions, psychology
  • Occurs when a therapist transfers his or her repressed feelings in reaction to emotions, experiences, or problems of a client
  • Cyclothymia

    A "cyclic" variation in "mood".

    • Cyclo (Greek) - Wheel, Circular
    • Thymos (Greek) - Mood, Emotion, Spirit
  • Cyclothymia, hypomania, mild bipolar
  • A mood disorder characterized with alternating periods of hypomania and periods of mild depression
  • A milder form of bipolar disorder
  • The me of this disorder comes from its cyclic nature in that a person goes from being manic to depressive and back again in a seemingly circular pattern
  • Delirium

    A state of being in which one goes in and out of consciousness, much like the "ridge and furrow" pattern of farm land, suggesting lack of evenness.

    • De (Latin) - Away, Off, Down
    • Lira (Latin) - Ridge between furrows
  • Confusion
  • Delirium
  • Temporary
  • Reversible
  • A state of confusion brought on by an agent such as a physical or mental illness. Delirium is temporary and reversible (unlike dementia).
  • Delusional disorder

    A pathological condition in which one is "deceived," believing completely false things.

    • Delusionem (Latin) - A Decieving
    • Dis (Latin) - Not, In a Different Direction, Between
    • Ordinare (Latin) - Ordain, regular
  • Psychology
  • Distorted reality
  • Bizarre delusions
  • A condition in which the patient has one or more non real ideas/thoughts that is in no way possible or true.
  • Dementia

    A condition in which an individual is literally "out of his mind".

    • Dementia (Latin) - Madness, Insanity, Literally being Out of One's Mind
  • Declining mental ability and memory
  • Alzheimer's disease
  • A decline in mental ability in which one's memory and thinking can be effected. A common example is Alzheimer's disease.
  • Denial

    A state in which one does not accept reality because it is aversive to self.

    • De (Latin) - Away, Off, Down
    • Negare (Late Latin) - To deny, Refuse to say no
  • Avoidance
  • Being in state of denial

  • Mnemonics
    Death Always Brings Great Acceptance
    The 5 stages of Greiving
    Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Guilt, Acceptance
    Dependent

    A term used to describe one who "needs" a substance to function normally.

  • Dependence
  • Addiction
  • Substance abuse
  • Dependence describes one's physical or mental need for an object of behavior. It is similar to addiction
  • Dependence describes one's physical or mental need for an object of behavior. It is similar to addiction.
  • Depersonalizaiton

    A process in which a "person" loses concept of who he or she is.

    • De (Latin) - Away, Off, Down
    • Personalis (Latin) - Pertaining to a person
  • Loss of control
  • Loss of senses
  • Depersonalization is the idea that a person does not feel like themselves anymore and does not have control over their actions. Derealization is a manipulation of the senses so that the external world does not feel real anymore.
  • Diplopia

    A condition in which one "sees" "double" of everything.

  • Double vision
  • Two images
  • Perception
  • Double vision is the simultaneous perception of two images of a single object that may be displaced horizontally, vertically, diagonally, or rotationally in relation to each other. Usually the result of impaired function of the extraocular muscles, where both eyes are still functional but they cannot converge to target the desired object.
  • Disorganized speech

    "Speaking" in a way that lacks "coherence".

    • Dis (Latin) - Not, In a Different Direction, Between
    • Organizare (Latin) - To organize
    • Spaec (Old English) - Act of speaking
  • World salad
  • Rambling speech
  • Broca's area
  • Word salad. Disjointed or rambling monologues. Person seems to talk to himself/herself or imagined people or voices. This is a result of damage to Broca's area.
  • Disseminated intravascular coagulation

    A condition in which blood "curdles" "within" "vessels" "all over" the body.

  • A pathological process characterized by the widespread activation of the clotting cascade that results in the formation of blood clots in small blood vessels throughout the body. This process leads to compromise of tissue blood flow and can ultimately lead to multiple organ damage. It consumes clotting factors and platelets leading to a disruption of normal clotting and severe bleeding at various sites. DIC occurs as a complicating factor from another underlying condition, usually in those with a critical illness.
  • Dissociation

    A condition in which one moves "apart" from self.

    • Dis (Latin) - Not, In a Different Direction, Between
    • Socius (Latin) - Companion, ally
  • Psychology
  • Dissociation
  • Detachment
  • Reality
  • Psychosis
  • Describes a wide array of experiences from mild detachment of immediate surroundings to more severe detachment from physical and emotional experiences. The major characteristic of all dissociative phenome involves a detachment from reality, rather than a loss of reality (as in psychosis).
  • The philosopher and psychiatrist Pierre Janet is considered to be the author of the concept of dissociation.
  • Dissociative amnesia

    A condition in which one becomes "forgetful" of characteristics of "one's self".

    • Dis (Latin) - Not, In a Different Direction, Between
    • Socius (Latin) - Companion, ally
    • Amnesia (Greek) - Forgetfulness
  • Retrograde
  • Memory
  • Autobiographical memory loss
  • Psychology
  • A memory disorder characterized by sudden retrograde autobiographical memory loss. It is said to occur for a period of time ranging from hours to years.
  • Dyspnea

    "Bad breathing", shortness of breath or trouble breathing.

    • Dys (Greek) - Bad, Ill, Abnormal, Evil
    • Pnoia (Greek) - Breath
  • Associated with myocardial infarction and COPD
  • External urethral sphincter

    The "outer" (of the two) tissues that "bind tightly" to close off of the "passage of urine".

  • Innervated by deep branch of perineal nerve
  • Facial nerve

    Cranial nerve "cord" VII "of the face" that contains motor, sensory and parasympathetic fibers.

    • Facialis (Latin) - Of the face
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Taste for anterior 2/3 of tongue
  • Upper motor neuron lesion causes contralateral facial paralysis but spares forehead
  • Lower motor neuron lesion causes ipsilateral forehead and facial paralysis
  • Gaucher's disease

    The most common lysosomal storage disease characterized by a deficiency in glucocerebrosidase, leading to an accumulation of glucocerebroside within the cell.

    • Tissue paper filled macrophages, or Gaucher cells
    • Hepatosplenomegaly
    • Aseptic necrosis, usually of femur
    • Bone pain
    • This disease is commonly seen in Ashkenazi Jews, about 1 in 500
    • October is tiol gaucher's disease awareness month
    • Haldane effect

      Phenomenon in red blood cells in which deoxygenation of hemoglobin increases its ability to carry carbon dioxide.

      • Originally discovered by John Scott Haldane.
      • Histoplasma Capsulatum

        Dimorphic fungi/"mold" that appears to be in "a little box" that infects lung tissues

        • Histos (Greek) - Tissue, web, warp
        • Plassein (Greek) - To mold or form
        • Capsula (Latin) - A small box or container
      • Found in the Mississippi and Ohio River valleys
      • Causes pneumonia
      • Hides within macrophages
      • Can be found in bird or bat droppings
      • Humerus

        Long bone in the arm that connects the "shoulder" to the elbow

        Hyperuricemia

        "Excess urine," or uric acid, in the "blood."

        • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
        • Ouron (Greek) - Urine
        • Haima (Greek) - Blood
      • Associated with LeschNyhan syndrome, drug toxicity (pyrazinamide, thiazide, furosemide, niacin, cyclosporine), tumor lysis syndrome, and von Gierke disease
      • Hypnagogic

        The state of drowsiness that "leads" to "sleep."

      • Hallucinations seen just before sleep
      • Associated with narcolepsy
      • Icterus

        "Jaundice."

      • Refers to yellowed discoloration of the skin, whites of the eyes that results from too much bilirubin in the blood
      • Seen in cirrhosis, biliary tree obstruction, Criglerjjar syndrome, Gilbert syndrome
      • Ishiocavernosus

        A muscle just below the surface of the perineum, present in both men and women. It arises by tendinous and fleshy fibers from the inner surface of the tuberosity of the ischium, a "hip" bone. The "hollow" part of the me refers to the fact that the muscle attaches to the clitoris (females) or penis (males), and these tissues have hollow spaces.

        • Ischion (Greek) - Hip joint and region
        • Cavus (Latin) - Hollow, Space
        Koilocytosis

        The cellular changes in a squamous epithelial cell, which occur as a result of infection of the cell by human papillomavirus.

        • Koilos (Greek) - Hollow
        • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
        • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
      • Changes to the cell include nuclear enlargement, irregularity in the nuclear membrane, and a perinuclear halo.
      • Macule

        A skin lesion that resembles a blemish or "spot".

      • Characterized by a change in color without elevation or depression that is less than 10mm in diameter at the widest point.
      • Seen in a number conditions, including measles, rheumatic fever, tinea versicolor, vitiligo, syphilis, tuberous sclerosis, and neurofibromatosis
      • Malignant hypertension

        An "excess" "stretching" of blood vessels with "malicious" effect.

        • Malignare (Latin) - Injure maliciously
        • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
        • Tensio (Latin) - Stretching
      • Hypertensive emergency
      • Involves potentially irreversible damage to one or more organ systems
      • Occurs after a person is put under anesthesia
      • Mandibular nerve

        The "Cord" that controls the "jaw".

      • The third branch of the trigeminal nerve (CN V3)
      • Sensory innervation to the buccal mucosa, anterior 2/3 of the tongue, mandibular teeth, auricula, skin of the temporal region, lower lip, and chin
      • Motor innervation to the mylohyoid, anterior belly of the digastric, tensor tympani, tensor veli palatini, masseter, temporalis, medial pterygoid, and lateral pterygoid
      • Miosis

        "Closing" of pupils.

        • Myein (Greek) - To close the lips
      • Seen in Horner's syndrome or opioid overdose (pinpoint pupils)
      • Monozygotic

        Derived from "single" "joining" of two gametes.

        • Monos (Greek) - Single, alone
        • Zygotos (Greek) - Yolked together, Joint
      • Twins arising from the fertilization of one sperm and one egg
      • Two separate fetuses develop due to separation of the zygote
      • If separation occurs at 04 days: dichorionic, diamniotic
      • If separation occurs at 48 days: monochorionic, diamniotic
      • If at 812 days: monochorionic, monoamniotic
      • If >13 days: monochorionic, monoamniotic conjoined twins
      • Naegleria Fowleri

        Freshwater protozoa, can cause near universally fatal meningoencephalitis if it gets to the brain

        • Amoebas in CNS
        • Don't fill Neti pots with tap water
        • Narcissistic

          Personality disorder associated with grandiosity and sense of entitlement, demands the best with no empathy for others. med after "narkissos" the mythological Greek who fell in love with his own reflection.

        • Patient that arrives to his appointment late and demands to be seen immediately
        • Obliterative endarteritis of the vasa vasorum

          "Inflammation" of "vessels of the vessels" supplying the largest "arteries" of the body. These arteries "within" these larger vessels become "inflamed" and are "blotted out" and occluded by disease.

          • Obliterare (Latin) - Cause to disappear, blot out, erase
          • Endon (Greek) - Within, Inside, Interl
          • Arteria (Greek) - Windpipe, artery
          • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
          • Vasa vasorum (Latin) - Vessels of the vessels
        • Associated with tertiary syphilis
        • Syphilitic aortitis
        • Long standing, untreated syphilis in an older patient
        • Oophoritis

          "Inflammation" of the ovary.

          • Oophoron (Latin) - Ovary
          • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
        • Often seen in pelvic inflammatory disease
        • Opponens pollicis

          The muscle that is responsible for "opposing" the "thumb."

        • Innervated by the recurrent branch of the median nerve
        • Palpebral fissure

          A "cleft" like space between the "eyelids."

          Paramyxovirus

          A "toxic substance" whose infection occurs "along" with "mucus" production.

          • Para (Greek) - Along, side, beside, near, against, contrary to
          • Myxa (Greek) - Mucus
          • Virus (Latin) - Poison, poisonous substance
        • Includes viruses outside of orthomyxoviridae which causes Influenza, such as measles, mumps and Ebola virus
        • Parenteral

          Administered into the body in ways that are "against" the methods used to introduce substances via the "intestines"

          • Para (Greek) - Along, side, beside, near, against, contrary to
          • Enteron (Greek) - Intestine, Small intestint, Piece of Gut, Bowel
        • Intravenous or intramuscular
        • Peroxidase

          An "enzyme" used for cleaving "peroxide" bonds.

          • Per (Latin) - Through, by means of
          • Oxys (Greek) - Sharp
          • Ase (English) - Used to form the me of enzymes
        • A family of enzymes that specifically cleave peroxide bonds.
        • Myeloperoxidase is a bluegreen heme containing pigment that gives sputum its color
        • Converts hydrogen peroxide to bleach
        • Found in neutrophils
        • Catalase is a peroxidase
        • Posthepatic

          "behind, after" the "liver." Refers to causes of jaundice. Posthepatic jaundice indicates that the issue causing the jaundice is not in the liver itself

          • Post (Latin) - Behind, afterward
          • Hepatos (Greek) - Liver
        • Increased conjugated bilirubin with normal unconjugated, dark urine and pale stool
        • Poxvirus

          "Poisonous substances" that causes fluidfilled "swellings".

          • Pox (Middle English) - Swell up
          • Virus (Latin) - Poison, poisonous substance
        • This family of viruses includes small pox, vaccinia virus and molluscum contagium virus.
        • Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy

          A "disease" of the "white" matter of the "brain" that "moves forward" getting worse and leads to "many" "sources" of deficits.

          • Multus (Latin) - Much, many
          • Focus (Latin) - Hearth, fireplace, center of activity
          • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
          • Enkephalos (Greek) - Brain, WIthin the Head
          • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
        • Progressive inflammation and damage of white matter caused by the JC virus. AIDS defining illness and occurs in immunocompromised individuals only.
        • Seen in heavily immunocompromised patients (such as HIV)
        • Certain MS treatments, such as talizumab, can precipitate PML
        • It is a demyelinating disorder
        • The JC virus is a polyomavirus
        • Pseudocyesis

          A "false" "conception" or pregnancy.

          • Pseudein (Greek) - To deceive, cheat by lies, fake
          • Kuesis (Greek) - Conception
        • A condition in which an animal or individual experiences the common symptoms of pregnancy without actually being pregnant
        • Caused by changes in the endocrine system or hormone imbalances
        • More common in animals than in humans
        • Sometimes is purely psychological in nature
        • Rathke pouch

          Embryologic structure that becomes the anterior pituitary.

          • Rathke (German) - German embryologist
        • Rathke's pouch gives rise to the anterior pituitary, which is divided into the pars distalis and pars tuberalis
        • Craniopharyngiomas are derived from Rathke's pouch
        • Raynaud disease

          Hypoperfusion causing pain and discomfort in fingers or toes secondary to excessive vasoconstriction of peripheral vessels

          • Sympathectomy is a potential treatment for Rayed phenomenon
          • Can be associated with connective tissue disorders such as CREST syndrome or Lupus
          • Discovered in the 19th century by French physician Auguste Rayed
          • Reedsternberg cell

            Large multinucleated cells derived from B cells that are histologically significant in diagnosis of Hodgkin's Lymphoma.

            • Hodgkin's lymphoma, Owl's eye appearance
            • Independently described by Carl Sternberg and Dorothy Reed in 1898, 1902 respectively. Decisively linked to B lymphocytes in 1999
            • Reid index

              Ratio between thickness of mucus secreting glands of the bronchus and epithelium/cartilage that covers bronchi.

              • RI = Gland/ Wall. Should be <0.4 Greater value = chronic bronchitis
              • Reinforcement

                The process of "strengthening" a future behavior from a preceding stimulus by repeating a consequence "again".

                • Re (Latin) - Again, anew
                • Enforcier (Old French) - Make an Effort, Strengthen
              • Shaping, Scheduled reinforcement
              • Can be positive (desire for rewarding stimuli) or negative reinforcement (avoidance of adversive stimuli)
              • BF Skinner is a pioneer in reinforcement of behavior. Famous for Skinner boxes where test animals were trained to perform specific tasks to receive food (lever presses). Tasks were made progressively difficult and complex in a stepwise fashion, test subjects learned to perform complex tasks (shaping).
              • Reperfusion injury

                An harm or "wrong", done to tissue caused by the "return of flow, once again" of oxygenated blood "through" vessels "spread" to an area previously deprived of oxygenated blood.

                Retrognathia

                A condition where either the maxilla, the mandible, or both "jaws" are posteriorly positioned, or "behind" where they should be.

              • More commonly seen in Potter sequence
              • Retrovirus

                A "poisonous substance" whose genome is "reversetranscribed" from R to D.

                • Retro (Latin) - Backward, behind
                • Virus (Latin) - Poison, poisonous substance
              • Incorporates D into host genome
              • HIV is the most well known of these viruses
              • Schistosoma Mansoni

                Parasite that looks it has a "divided" "body" under a microscope. It is a major cause of Schistosomiasis, specifically causing intestinal schistosomiasis.

              • Most widespread of the schistosomiasiscausing agents.
              • Poor sanitation/cercariainfected waters results in swimmer's itch
              • Enlarged gastrointestinal/abdominal organs from eggs lodging
              • Praziquantel
              • S. mansoni is med after Sir Patrick Manson who first identified it in Formosa (Taiwan).
              • Schizoaffective

                Psychological illness that falls in between diagnosis of schizophrenia and a mood disorder, meaning "split" "emotions".

              • >2 weeks of stable mood with psychotics symptoms + major depressive/manic episode
              • Schizoid

                Personality disorder "resembling" "schizophrenia" in which the patient is aloof from others and prefers social isolation.

                • Skhizein (Greek) - To Split
                • Eidos (Greek) - Form, Resemblance or Shape, Likeness
                Schizophrenia

                A psychiatric illness meaning "a splitting of the mind"

              • Reoccurring psychosis that lasts >6 months
              • Schizophreniform

                An illness of the same "form" as schizophrenia (resembling schizophrenia)

              • Schizophrenia subtype with symptoms lasting 16 months
              • Senescent

                Meaning "growing old", or degrading of functions

              • Gradual degrade of functions in most complex life forms. In cells, it is the when diploid cells cease to divide.
              • Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

                A "little networked" "shaped" organelle free from "roughness" "within" a cell.

                • Smooth (Old English/Germanic) - Free from roughness
                • Endon (Greek) - Within, Inside, Interl
                • Plasm (Greek) - Mold, shape
                • Reticulum (Latin) - Littlle net, network like structure
              • Intracellular organelle responsible for steroid synthesis and the detoxification of drugs and poisons
              • Liver cells and adrenal cells contain large concentrations of SER as they are the sites of detoxification and steroid synthesis, respectively
              • Somatic hypermutation

                A mechanism for cells to create "exceeding" amounts of "changes" or mutations in certain immune cells, that takes place in the "body"

                • Soma (Greek) - Body
                • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
                • Mutare (Latin) - To change
              • A cellular mechanism of B cells to create diversity among cellular receptors that react to foreign antigens involving a series of mutations in the variable regions of immunoglobulin genes
              • Splenius cervicis

                A "bandage"like muscle which is attached to the neck

              • A muscle that arises from the spinous processes of the third to the sixth thoracic vertebrae and attaches to the transverse processes of the upper two or three cervical vertebrae.
              • Innervated by the posterior ramus of the lower cervical spinal nerves
              • Extends, laterally flexes, and rotates head and neck
              • Subepithelial deposits

                Substances "put down" "below" the tissue that sits "on top" of organs,

                • Sub (Latin) - Under, below, beneath, at the foot of
                • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
                • Thele (Greek) - Nipple, teat
              • Deposits found under the epithelial, often in reference to deposits in the glomerulus found in nephritic syndromes like poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis and nephrotic syndromes like membranous nephropathy
              • Visualized on electron microscopy
              • 'spike and dome' appearance
              • Membranous nephropathy
              • Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
              • Supinator

                The muscle that "bends back" the forearm from the palm facing down, to up.

              • It is in the posterior aspect of the forearm and is innervated by the deep branch of the radial nerve
              • Wraps around the radius
              • Total anomalous pulmonary venous return

                A condition in which there is "new" "irregular" "turning" of the pulmonary "veins" back into the right side of the heart.

              • Can be associated with an ASD
              • Indomethacin is given to keep the ductus arteriosus patent
              • Trachea

                Midline air tube that connects the larynx to the left and right mainstem bronchi, which appears "rough" due to rings of cartilage.

              • The right mainstem bronchus is wider and more vertical than the left mainstem bronchus aspirations are more common on the right side.
              • Trichotillomania

                A neurological condition in which an individual becomes "frenzied" and "pulls out" his or her "hair."

              • Trichotillomania is often triggered by stress and is commonly seen in obsessivecompulsive disorder, depression, and anxiety
              • Can coexist with onychophagia, dermatillomania, tic disorders, or eating disorders
              • Methylphenidate

                CNS Stimulants

                • ADHD, rcolepsy, appetite control
                • Increase catecholamines at the syptic cleft, especially norepinephrine and dopamine
                • Dextroamphetamine

                  CNS Stimulants

                  • ADHD, rcolepsy, appetite control
                  • Increase catecholamines at the syptic cleft, especially norepinephrine and dopamine
                  • Methamphetamine

                    CNS Stimulants

                    • ADHD, rcolepsy, appetite control
                    • Increase catecholamines at the syptic cleft, especially norepinephrine and dopamine
                    • Haloperidol

                      Antipsychotic

                      • Schizophrenia, Tourettes
                      • Inverse agonist of Dopamine
                      • Trifluoperazine

                        Antipsychotic

                        • Schizophrenia, severe anxiety
                        • Blocks D1 and D2 receptors
                        • Fluphezine

                          Antipsychotic

                          • Schizophrenia
                          • Blocks D2 receptors
                          • Thioridazine

                            Antipsychotic

                            • Schizophrenia
                            • Olanzapine

                              Atypical Antipsychotic

                                Clozapine

                                Atypical Antipsychotic

                                  Quetiapine

                                  Atypical Antipsychotic (short acting)

                                    Risperidone

                                    Antipsychotic

                                    • Schizoprenia
                                    • Aripriprazole

                                      Atypical Antipsychotic

                                      • Partial Dopamine agonist
                                      • Ziprasidone

                                        Atypical Antipsychotic

                                        • Schizoprenia, bipolar disorder
                                        • Lithium

                                          Antipsychotic

                                          • Mania in bipolar disorder
                                          • Buspirone

                                            Anxiolytic pyschotropic

                                            • Generalized Anxiety Disorder
                                            • Serotonin 5HT1A partial agonist
                                            • Fluoxetine

                                              SSRI (Antidepressant)

                                              • Etine (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                            • Depression
                                            • Paroxetine

                                              SSRI (Antidepressant)

                                              • Depression, OCD, GAD
                                              • Sertraline

                                                SSRI (Antidepressant)

                                                • Depression, Anxiety
                                                • Citalopram

                                                  SSRI (Antidepressant)

                                                  • Depression
                                                  • Venlaflaxine

                                                    SNRI

                                                    • Depression, GAD, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder
                                                    • Amitriptyline

                                                      TCA

                                                      • Iptyline (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                    • Major Depressive Disorder (MC drug used)
                                                    • Prevent the reuptake of Norpinephrine and Serotonin
                                                    • Nortriptyline

                                                      TCA

                                                      • Iptyline (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                    • Depression
                                                    • Prevent the reuptake of Norpinephrine and Serotonin
                                                    • Imipramine

                                                      TCA

                                                      • Iptyline (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                    • Major Depression and Enuresis
                                                    • Prevent the reuptake of Norpinephrine and Serotonin
                                                    • Desipramine

                                                      TCA

                                                      • Iptyline (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                    • Prevent the reuptake of Norpinephrine and Serotonin
                                                    • Clomipramine

                                                      TCA

                                                      • Iptyline (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                    • Prevent the reuptake of Norpinephrine and Serotonin
                                                    • Doxepin

                                                      TCA

                                                      • Depression, anxiety, sleep disorder
                                                      • Prevent the reuptake of Norpinephrine and Serotonin
                                                      • Amoxapine

                                                        TCA

                                                        • Depression, anxiety, sleep disorder
                                                        • Prevent the reuptake of Norpinephrine and Serotonin
                                                        • Tranylcypromine

                                                          MAO inhibitor

                                                          • Atypical depression, anxiety, hypochondriasis
                                                          • Nonselective inhibition of MAO resulting in an increase of amine neurotransmitters (NE, 5HT, DA)
                                                          • Phenelzine

                                                            MAO inhibitor

                                                            • Atypical depression, anxiety, hypochondriasis
                                                            • Nonselective inhibition of MAO resulting in an increase of amine neurotransmitters (NE, 5HT, DA)
                                                            • Isocarboxazid

                                                              MAO inhibitor

                                                              • Atypical depression, anxiety, hypochondriasis
                                                              • Nonselective inhibition of MAO resulting in an increase of amine neurotransmitters (NE, 5HT, DA)
                                                              • Selegline

                                                                MAO inhibitor

                                                                • Atypical depression, anxiety, hypochondriasis
                                                                • Nonselective inhibition of MAO resulting in an increase of amine neurotransmitters (NE, 5HT, DA)
                                                                • Bupropion

                                                                  Atypical antidepressant

                                                                  • Atypical depression, smoking cessation
                                                                  • Increases NE and DA via unkonwn mechanism
                                                                  • Mirtazapine

                                                                    Atypical antidepressant

                                                                    • Atypical depression
                                                                    • Alpha2 antagonist
                                                                    • Maprotiline

                                                                      Atypical antidepressant

                                                                      • Atypical depression
                                                                      • Blocks NE reuptake
                                                                      • Trazadone

                                                                        Atypical antidepressant

                                                                        • Atypical depression
                                                                        • Inhibit 5HT reuptake
                                                                        • Agoraphobia

                                                                          The "fear of" open "places of gathering" or open areas, that the individual feels to be unsafe.

                                                                          • Agora (Greek) - Marketplace, Place of gathering
                                                                          • Phobos (Latin) - Fear of
                                                                        • This condition is a combination of genetics and environmental which can precipitate at any time during life.
                                                                        • Medications such as SSRIs are common place for medical treatment of the condition
                                                                        • A number of famous individuals suffer from the condition including Woody Allen and Paula Dean.
                                                                        • Arachnophobia

                                                                          The "fear" of "spiders".

                                                                        • Patients often times feel nervous around things associated with spiders including cob webs, or other arachnids such as scorpions
                                                                        • Common treatment methods include desensitization therapy and exposure therapy
                                                                        • Alogia

                                                                          A general "lack" of additional, unprompted "speech"

                                                                          • A (Greek) - Not, Without
                                                                        • Can refer to poverty of speech. This is commonly seen in patients suffering from schizophrenia, and is considered a negative symptom. Can also refer to complete lack of speech, as in profound mental retardation or advanced dementia.
                                                                        • Akathisia

                                                                          "without" "sitting," aka a sensation of restlessness where you have an inability to sit still

                                                                          • A (Greek) - Not, Without
                                                                          • Kathisis (Greek) - Sitting
                                                                        • Often as a side effect of 1st generation antipsychotics that block dopamine causing excess of cholinergic activity (Extrapyramidal Side effects = EPS)
                                                                        • Associated with the sensation of twitching of muscles.
                                                                        • Often in legs. People may fidget, rock back and forth, pace, or just feel uneasy.
                                                                        • Enuresis

                                                                          The "action" of releasing "urine" due to lack of control "within" oneself

                                                                          • En (Greek) - Within
                                                                          • Ouron (Greek) - Urine
                                                                          • Esis (Greek) - Action, process, as a result of
                                                                        • Aka urinary incontinence, often at night in children
                                                                        • Encopresis

                                                                          The "action" of releasing "excrement" due to lack of control "within" oneself

                                                                          • En (Greek) - Within
                                                                          • Copro (Greek) - Excrement
                                                                          • Esis (Greek) - Action, process, as a result of
                                                                        • Aka fecal incontinence
                                                                        • MEDYMOLOGY