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PHARMACOLOGY
536 terms share this category
Absorption

The process of "being swallowed up" or taken up by the body.

  • A term used to describe the process by which the body takes up any foreign substance
  • Affinity

    The level of "relation" a ligand has to its receptor.

    • Affinis (Latin) - Related, Near the border
  • Km is the notation for affinity. The higher the Km, the lower the affinity and vice versa
  • Agonist

    A chemical that acts as a "contestant" for a binding site on an enzyme or receptor.

  • Synthetic agonists (drugs) produce the same response in a receptor that the natural ligand would
  • Partial agonists cause a decreased response
  • Agranulocytosis

    A "condition" in which the body does "not" produce immune "cells" that contain "grain" like inclusions that contain chemicals to fend off invaders.

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Granum (Latin) - Grain, seed
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Very high risk of infection due to immunosuppression
  • Classically associated with drugs such as antithyroid drugs (methimazole, propylthiouracil, etc.), clozapine, carbamazepine, and NSAIDs.
  • Med literally without production of granule containing cells
  • Analgesia

    To be "without" "feeling pain".

    • An (Greek) - Without, not
    • Algein (Greek) - To feel pain
  • COX2 inhibitors
  • Opioids including heroin
  • Painkillers
  • Opium is the oldest known algesic derived from the poppy plant. Homer in the Iliad refers to opium as the bringer of sleep and forgetfulness .
  • Antagonist

    A molecule that "rivals or struggles for" the active sight of a transporter or enzyme.

    • Antagonistes (Greek) - Competitor, component, rival, to struggle against
  • Come as competitive and noncompetitive inhibitors
  • Autonomic

    Involuntary or unconscious movements and bodily functions of "one's own self".

    • Auto (Greek) - Self, one's own
  • Part of the peripheral nervous system, divided into three main subsystems: the parasympathetic nervous system, sympathetic nervous system and the enteric nervous system
  • Avidity

    The accumulated strength and "eager"ness of multiple single interactions.

    • Avidus (Latin) - Eager, greedy
  • Individually, each bond may be readily broken, but when many binding interactions occur at the same time, transient unbinding of a single site does not allow the molecule to diffuse away, and binding of that weak interaction is likely to be restored.
  • Bioavailability

    The amount of something available to "serve" the "life" or body.

  • Amount of drug administered that reaches the systemic circulation without being changed.
  • Bioavailability for IV dose is 100%
  • Bioavailability for oral dose is less than 100% and depends on absorption and hepatic first pass metabolism
  • Catalyst

    A substance that brings "down" the activation energy (originally thought to do so by "loosening" bonds)

    Chemotherapeutics

    "Chemicals" used to "treat" and "heal" people with cancer by killing cancer cells.

    • Chemic (Medieval Latin) - Of Alchemy, relation to chemical action or chemicals
    • Therapeuein (Greek) - Healing, Treat medically
  • Anticancer agent, kills rapidly dividing cells, myelosuppression, alopecia, mucositis
  • Mustard gas was used as a chemical warfare agent during World War I, but was discoed to also be a potent suppressor of hematopoiesis. During World War II, nitrogen mustards were found to have a similar effect in suppressing rapidly growing white blood cells. After WWII was over and declassified, the researchers took these experiences and developed the first anticancer drug, known as Mustine.
  • Cholinergic

    Describes nerve cells that contain the neurotransmitter "acetylcholine," an important signaling molecule for nervous system "activity."

    • Choline - A water soluble nutrient often times linked to B vitamins and precursor to neurotransmitter acetycholine
    • Ergon (Greek) - Activity, Work
  • Acetylcholine, neuromuscular junction, preganglionic sympathetic nerves, preand postganglionic parasympathetic nerves
  • It is believed that a possible cause of Alzheimer Disease is reduced synthesis of acetylcholine (cholinergic hypothesis). Disease first observed by German physician Dr. Alois Alzheimer, who described dementia in elderly patients.
  • Cinchonism

    A condition that results from overdose of quinidine, a plantderived medication from the genus "chino" that causes symptoms such as temporary deafness, ringing in the ears, headache and rashes.

    • Cincho (Latin) - Common me Quinine, drug treated Countess Chincchon
  • Tinnitus, reversible deafness, quinidine
  • Antiarrhythmic
  • Most symptoms of cinchonism are reversible with discontinuation of the drug. Legend has it that the Countess of Chinchon in Spain was the first European to be cured from Malaria when a physician administered the medicine that he had procured from local Indians.
  • Clearance

    A measure of how quickly a substance (such as a drug) is removed from the blood, resulting in a "clean space."

    • Clear (English) - A clean space
  • Renal excretion, biliary excretion, hepatic biotransformation
  • Drugs can be cleared from the body via the liver, kidneys, or bile
  • Competitive

    A form of enzyme inhibition in which another molecule "contends" for the active site.

  • Inhibitor, enzyme, substrate, affinity
  • Form of enzyme inhibition where binding of the inhibitor to the active site on the enzyme prevents binding of the substrate, thereby decreasing the affinity of the substrate for the enzyme and requiring a higher concentration of the substrate to overcome the inhibitor.
  • In competitive inhibition, the maximum velocity of the reaction (Vmax) is unchanged while the affinity of the substrate for the enzyme (Km) decreases.
  • Conjugation

    A chemical process that converts a hydrophobic substance into a hydrophilic "combining" it with a polar group.

  • Renal excretion, watersoluble, covalent attachment, polar molecules, biotransformation
  • Products of conjugation reactions (phase II of drug metabolism) usually have an increased molecular weight and tend to be less active than their substrates and are more polar compounds that cannot diffuse across membranes.
  • Contraction

    A process undergone by all muscle types that results in "shortening" of the muscle

  • Smooth muscle, drugs, different responses
  • Contraction is essentially an interaction between actin and myosin, fuelled by ATP and initiated by an increase in intracellular calcium concentration.
  • Cutaneous

    A term used to describe that which is related to the "skin".

  • Cutaneous pigmentation, subcutaneous injection
  • Cytochrome

    A protein that functions as a "receptacle" for electrons, changing "color" as electrons generate energy.

    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Khroma (Greek) - Color, complexion character
  • Cytochrome a
  • Heme
  • Electron transport
  • Mitochondrial membrane proteins
  • ATP
  • A group of membranebound carrier molecules that participate in a stepwise transfer of electrons, ultimately leading to the generation of ATP. They contain a heme group and can be found as monomeric proteins or subunits of bigger enzyme complexes.
  • Decongestant

    A drug that "reverses" the process of particles and debris "coming together".

    • De (Latin) - Away, Off, Down
    • Congestus (Latin) - To Bring Together, Pile Up
  • Sal congestion
  • Upper respiratory tract
  • Pseudoephedrine
  • Phenylephrine
  • A drug that works by shrinking the mucous membranes in the nose, allowing easier passage of air and easier breathing. It relieves sal congestion in the upper respiratory tract. The active ingredient in most decongestants is pseudoephedrine or phenylephrine.
  • Dihydrotestosterone

    A "ketone" "steroid" hormone with "two" "water" molecules.

    • Di (Greek) - Two, Double, Twice
    • Hydro (Greek) - Water
    • Sterol (English) - Steroid, act as second messengers and in membrane stabilizers
    • Ketone (French) - Acetone
  • Testosterone
  • Androgen
  • 5 alphadihydrotestosterone is a sex steroid and androgen hormone. In men approximately 5% of testosterone is found in this more potent form. Dihydrotestosterone has 2 to 3 times greater affinity than testosterone and has 1530 times greater affinity than adrenal androgens.
  • Distal phalanges

    The fingers held "in close ranks" next to one another "far off" from the base of the hand. The phalanges were so med for their resemblance to a phalanx, or Greek military line.

    • Distal (English) - Distant
    • Phalanx (Latin) - Line of battle in close ranks
  • Phalanges are the bones of the fingers and are broken down into 3 bones: proximal, intermediate, and distal. Distal phalanges are the bones in the fingers that are furthest from the body, making up the finger tips.
  • Edward syndrome

    Trisomy 18: A chromosomal abnormality in which an extra copy of chromosome 18 is present.

    • The second most common autosomal trisomy after Downs syndrome. Typical symptoms include: kidney malformation, heart defects, intestinal abnormalities, rocker bottom feet, clenched hands, esophageal atresia, and intellectual impairment.
    • John Hilton Edwards, a British geneticist and professor at Birmingham University, discovered trisomy 18 in 1960.
    • Electrophoresis

      A laboratory technique that "carries" molecules through an electric field, which separates them by charge and size. "Amber" was the original material described in Ancient Greece with magnetic or electric properties when rubbed.

      • Electron (Greek) - Amber (Rubbing amber causes electrostatic phenome)
      • Phoreinlum (Greek) - Carry
    • Molecule
    • Separation
    • Charge
    • Size
    • Laboratory
    • Entamoeba Histolytica

      An aerobic parasitic protozoan that can "alter," "warp," or "loosen" the digestive tract "within" humans and other primates.

      • Entos (Greek) - Within
      • Amoibe (Greek) - Change, Alteration
      • Histos (Greek) - Tissue, web, warp
      • Lytikos (Greek) - Able to loosen
    • Aerobic
    • Parasite
    • Protozoan
    • Humans
    • Cysts
    • Stool
    • Infection
    • Enterovirus

      "A poisonous substance" found in the "intestinal" tract of humans.

      • Enteron (Greek) - Intestine, Small intestint, Piece of Gut, Bowel
      • Virus (Latin) - Poison, poisonous substance
    • Enterovirus
    • R
    • Single stranded
    • Picornaviridae
    • Epiglottitis

      Acute inflammation of the tissue "above" the windpipe and behind the "tongue."

      • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
      • Glossa (Greek) - Tongue
    • Commonly associated with H. influenza Type B
    • Commonly presents as enlarged cherryred epiglottis and arytenoids
    • Thumb print sign on lateral xray
    • George Washington may died of complications from epiglottitis in 1799.
    • Excrescences

      An abnormal "growth", usually "out of" the skin.

      Gynecomastia

      Benign enlargement of "breast" tissue (mammary glands) in men, sometimes to the point of secreting milk

      • Gyne (Greek) - Queen, Woman, female
      • Mazos (Greek) - Breast
    • Seen in Klinefelter's syndrome (XXY) and in men with increased estrogen. Adverse effect of many drugs, especially those inhibiting dopamine/activating prolactin.
    • Associated with spironolactone, digitalis, cimetidine, ketoconazole, alcohol use, and marijuana use
    • Hyperbilirubinemia

      Metabolic condition characterized by an "excess" of the "red" pigment in "bile" found in the "blood".

      • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
      • Bilis (Latin) - Bile, Fluid secreted by liver
      • Rubor (Latin) - Redness
      • Haima (Greek) - Blood
    • Causes of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia include hemolysis, congenital enzyme deficiencies (e.g. Criglerjjar, Gilbert syndrome)
    • Causes of conjugated hyperbilirubinemia include biliary tract obstruction/disease or congenital excretion defects (e.g. Dubin Johnson syndrome, Rotor syndrome)
    • Other causes include hepatitis or cirrhosis
    • Infundibulum

      A Latin word that means funnelshaped cavity or organ

    • Med for its resemblance to a funnel
    • Infusion

      The introducing (or "pouring") of a solution (as of glucose or salt) especially into the body

      Intrarenal azotemia

      Disease "within" the "kidney" that results in the accumulation of "nitrogenous" waste products in the "blood"

      • Intra (Latin) - On the inside, within
      • Renes (Latin) - Kidneys
      • Azote (French) - Nitrogen
      • Haima (Greek) - Blood
    • Caused by damage to the functioning kidney cells in conditions like acute tubular necrosis, glomerulonephritis, ischemia, or autoimmune processes
    • BUN:Cr <20:1 (usually 10:1)
    • Treatment is supportive and always includes avoiding nephrotoxic drugs
    • Megakaryocyte

      "Large" "nutshaped" cell in bone marrow that gives rise to platelets.

      • Megas (Greek) - Great, large, vast
      • Karyon (Greek) - Kernel, nut
      • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
      Metabolic alkalosis

      "Condition" of inadequate "changes" in acidity.

    • Blood pH >7.45, pCO2 is low, and HCO3 is high
    • Can give loop diuretics, vomiting, antacid use, hyperaldosteronism
    • Myofibroblasts

      Cell that mediates "fibers" "going forth" and aiding wound healing in "muscle".

      • Myo (Greek) - Muscle
      • Fibra (Latin) - A fiber, filament, entrail
      • Blaestin (Old English) - To blow, belch forth
    • Proliferative phase, secondary intention
    • Nephrotoxin

      "Poisoning" agent that causes damage to the "kidneys". Can manifest as tubular necrosis, inflammation, or obstruction.

    • Common side effect of medications including NSAIDs and numerous antimicrobials
    • Any renal symptoms following medication use
    • Nonhodgkin lymphoma

      Cancer and "tumors" med after Dr. Thomas Hodgkin. Multiple types of Bcell and Tcell clonal tumors, associated with infections and immunosuppression.

      • Lympha (Latin) - Water, clear water, a goddess of water
      • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
    • Unlike Hodgkin's Lymphoma, NonHodgkin's is not associated with the presence of ReedSternberg cells
    • Noradrenergic

      Used to describe nerves and receptors that "work" when norepinephrine, a neurotransmitter produced "near or above" the "kidneys" in the adrenal glands.

      • Ad (Latin) - Near, At, To Add On
      • Renes (Latin) - Kidneys
      • Ergon (Greek) - Activity, Work
    • Multiple types of adrenergic receptors
    • Oxaloacetate

      Organic compound is an important intermediate of the citric acid cycle and many other biochemical pathways. "Sharp" changes in concentration of this compound can lead to dangerous changes in enzyme activity.

      • Oxys (Greek) - Sharp
    • Also involved in fatty acid synthesis, amino acid synthesis, gluconeogenesis, urea cycle
    • Combines with acetyl CoA to form citrate
    • Paranoid

      A disorder "against" the "mind."

      • Para (Greek) - Along, side, beside, near, against, contrary to
      • Noos (Greek) - Mind
    • Mental disorder where one believes falsely that people are trying to harm oneself
    • Parenchyma

      Functional unit of the organ once believed to be congealed "juice" squeezed from the arteries.

      • Para (Greek) - Along, side, beside, near, against, contrary to
      • Enchyma (Greek) - Infusion or Juice
    • Bulk of an organ, usually comprising the functional parts of the organ
    • In ancient physiology, once believed to be formed from blood strained through and congealed from the capillaries
    • Peritubular capillary beds

      "Hair" like vessels found "around" the "pipes" of the kidney.

      • Peri (Greek) - Around, about, beyond
      • Tubulus (Latin) - A small pipe
      • Capillus (Latin) - Hair
      • Bed (Old English) - Bed
    • Creation of concentration gradients in the kidney
    • Release of erythropoietin in response to hypoxia
    • Function of reabsorption and secretion of electrolytes and other molecules
    • Phalanges

      The bones of the fingers or toes med because of their resemblance to the Greek "line of battle".

      • Phalanx (Latin) - Line of battle in close ranks
    • The most distal set of bones in the toes and fingers.
    • The 2nd5th digits have 3 phalanges each whereas the first digit has only 2.
    • Pharmacodynamics

      The "study of" the "power" of drugs on the body.

    • The study of a drug's various effects on the body.
    • Do not confuse with pharmacokinetics, which is the body's effect on the drug.

    • MedyQuestion
      • A 56-year-old man is brought to the emergency department by neighbors 30 minutes after he began to act very drowsy and confused; quite unlike himself. 5 days prior he had seen his physician, and he was his usual sharp self until he was found wandering around his neighborhood confused. He appears drowsy, but he is awakened by stimuli. He is oriented to self, but not to place or time. He recalls two of three objects after 5 minutes. He says, "Where am I?" He then falls back asleep. Which of the following is the most likely cause of this patient's condition?

      USMLE Step 1

      Postrenal azotemia

      Disease process after or "beyond" the "kidney" that results in the accumulation of "nitrogenous" waste products in the "blood"

      • Post (Latin) - Behind, afterward
      • Renes (Latin) - Kidneys
      • Azote (French) - Nitrogen
      • Haima (Greek) - Blood
    • Caused by backup of urine into the kidney resulting in increased pressure in conditions like enlarged prostate or kidney stones
    • BUN:Cr >20:1
    • Bladder catheters may be inserted into the urinary tract to help
    • Reassortment

      In genetics, the process of "sorting" and mixing genetic material in new combinations

      • Re (Latin) - Again, anew
      • Ad (Latin) - Near, At, To Add On
      • Sorte (Greek) - Sort, Kind
    • Pandemic flu strains, H1N1, genetic shift
    • Chromosomal crossover is an example of reassortment seen in viruses
    • Red hepatization

      Consolidation of tissue into a "liverlike" mass with blood stained exudate

    • Lobar pneumonia
    • Red hepatization often occurs prior to gray hepatization
    • First stage of hepatization (consolidation of tissue into a liverlike mass) with blood stained exudate
    • Sideroblastic anemia

      A condition of being "without" "blood" because "budding" cells contain "constellations" of iron, preventing it from being used in red blood cells.

      • Sidus (Latin) - Constellation
      • Blastos (Greek) - Germ, sprout, bud or budding, immature
      • An (Greek) - Without, not
      • Haima (Greek) - Blood
    • A defect in the enzyme aminolevulinic acid synthase, leading to decreased heme synthesis. Characterized by ringed sideroblasts and increased iron and ferritin levels. Treated with pyridoxine.
    • Defective ALA synthase
    • Ringed sideroblasts
    • Pyridoxine treatment

    • Mnemonics
      These conditions make your red blood cells small really F. A. S. T.
      The Causes of Microcytic Anemia
      Fe (iron) deficiency anemia. Anemia of chronic Disease. Sideroblastic Anemia. Thalassemia
      Sublimation

      A defense mechanism in which socially unacceptable behavior is transformed or "raised" to socially acceptable behavior

    • Mature defense mechanism which is characterized by consciously transforming socially unacceptable impulses to socially acceptable actions. Consciously "raise up" unacceptable feelings to the forefront of your mind in order to use these feelings in a productive manner.
    • Mature defense mechanism
    • Sulcus limitans

      A "trench" or floor of the 4th ventricle in the brain that "limits" the cranial nerve motor nuclei from the sensory nuclei.

      • Sulcus (Latin) - Furrow, trench, ditch, wrinkle
      • Limitem (Latin) - To bound, limit, fix
    • Cranial nerve motor nuclei are medial
    • Sensory nuclei are lateral
    • Talus

      One of the bones found in the "ankle".

      • Talus (Latin) - Ankle, heel
    • Lacks a good blood supply and takes a long time to heal
    • Thelarche

      Secondary "breast" development marking the "beginning" of female puberty

      • Thele (Greek) - Nipple, teat
      • Arkhe (Latin) - Beginning, first of
    • Also referred to as breast bud
    • Tophus formation

      A deposition of monosodium urate crystals in joints that causes it to become hard, large and hot, much like a "volcanic rock".

      • Tophus (Latin) - Loose, porous volcanic rock
      • Forma (Latin) - Form
    • Deposition of monosodium urate crystals with underlying high circulating levels of uric acid
    • Common locations of tophus formation include joints, cartilage, and bones
    • Pathognomonic for gout
    • Med literally loose, porous rocks or stone in Latin
    • Tourette syndrome

      A neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by vocal and physical tics (uncontrolled movements and verbalization).

      • Associated with OCD and ADHD
      • Can be treated with antipsychotics
      • In 1885, Gilles de la Tourette, then a resident under influential French physician JeanMartin Charcot, published an account in Study of a Nervous Affliction describing nine persons with convulsive tic disorder, concluding that a new clinical category should be defined and the eponym was given by Charcot.
      • Velocardiofacial syndrome

        Genetic condition affecting many organs including "heart" and "face."

        • Velum (Latin) - A cloth, covering, curtain, veil
        • Kardia (Greek) - Heart
        • Facialis (Latin) - Of the face
        • Syn (Greek) - With, together
        • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
      • More commonly known as DiGeorge's syndrome. Genetic condition where pharyngeal arch development dysfunction causes varying developmental disruptions of the heart, parathyroid, thymus, palate, eyes, and developmental delay
      • First described in 1978. Word comes from the latin words 'velum' (palate), 'cardia' (heart), 'facies' (face)
      • (Benzathine) Penicillin G/V

        Beta-lactam antibiotic

        • Cillin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
      • Non beta-lactamase producing gram positive cocci (pneumococci, staphylococci, streptococci), few gram negative cocci, gram postive bacilli, anerobes (Clostridium perfringens), and spirochetes( Treponema pallidum)
      • Inhibit the formation of peptidoglycan crosslinks in the bacterial cell wall by binding to enzyme transpeptidase (also known as penicillinbinding proteins (PBP)), thereby creating an imbalance in cell wall production and degradation, causing the cell to rapidly die
      • Requires IV or IM administration due to its sensitivity to stomach acid
      • Methicillin

        Beta-lactam antibiotic

        • Cillin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
      • Previously used to treat infections causes by gram + bacteria including staphlococcus aureus but largely replaced by vancomycin today due to the development of resistant organisms (MRSA).
      • Inhibit the formation of peptidoglycan crosslinks in the bacterial cell wall by binding to enzyme transpeptidase (also known as penicillinbinding proteins (PBP)), there by creating an imbalance in cell wall production and degradation, causing the cell to rapidly die.
      • Ticarcillin

        Beta-lactam antibiotic

        • Cillin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
      • Treatment of gram negative bacteria, expecially pseudonomas aeruginosa
      • Inhibit the formation of peptidoglycan crosslinks in the bacterial cell wall by binding to enzyme transpeptidase (also known as penicillinbinding proteins (PBP)), there by creating an imbalance in cell wall production and degradation, causing the cell to rapidly die.
      • Piperacillin

        Beta-lactam antibiotic

        • Cillin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
      • Extendedspectrum betalactam antibiotic used against pseudonomas aeruginosa
      • Normally used with a betalactamase ihnhibitor ( piperacillin/tazobactam)
      • Inhibit the formation of peptidoglycan crosslinks in the bacterial cell wall by binding to enzyme transpeptidase (also known as penicillinbinding proteins (PBP)), there by creating an imbalance in cell wall production and degradation, causing the cell to rapidly die.
      • Aztreonam

        Beta-lactam antibiotic

        • Bacteria causing severe infections of the uriry tract, lower respiratory tract, skin and stomach.
        • Blocks cell wall systhesis by binding to penicillin binding protein 3 and there by blocking crosslinking
        • Most known as being used as an alternative to penicillin for those who are allergic!
        • Imipenem/Cilastin

          Carbapenem

          • Penem (English) - Medication Naming Convention
        • Susceptible aerobic and aerobic grampositive and gram negatice organisms
        • Imipenem binds to penicillinbinding proteins and inhibits bacterial cellwall synthesis
        • It is rapidly degraded by rel dehydropeptidase I so it is given in combition with cilastatin, a DHPI inhibitor, to increase imipenem's half life and tissue penetration.
        • Meropenem

          Carbapenem

          • Penem (English) - Medication Naming Convention
        • Grampositive, gramnegative( including Pseudomos) and anerobic bacteria
        • Complicated skininfections, intraabdomila infections and bacterial meningitis
        • Inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis, however it is highly resistant to degradation by betalactamases or cephalosporises
        • Unlike imipenem, it is not degraded by DHPI so can be given without cisplastin

        • Mnemonics
          Uh Oh! Erta' Betta' Geta' 'nother antibiotic!
          -Penem that does not work for Pseudomonas Treatment
          Ertapenem is the only -penem that does not have Pseudomonas coverage
          Bacitracin

          Antibiotic

          • Effective against grampositives and gramnegatives, especially those that cause skin infections causes by small cuts or burns
          • Interferes with the dephosphorylation of the 55 carbon, biphosphate lipid transport molecule C55isoprenyl pyrophosphate, which carries the building blocks of the peptidoglycan bacterial cell wall.
          • Vancomycin

            Aminoglycoside antiobiotic

            • Micin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
          • First line treatment fro complication skin infections, blood stream infections, endocarditis, bone and joint infections, and meningitis causes
          • Oral administration is tx for Clostridum difficile intestil infection
          • Effective only against gram positive organisms ( not gram )
          • Inhibits cell wall synthesis in Grampositive bacteria by forming hydrogen bonds with termil DalanylD alanine residues of M/Gpeptides (backbone strands of cell wall), there by inhibiting the backbone polloimers from crosslinking with each other.

          • MedyQuestion
            • A 66 year old man with medical history significant for hypertension and type II diabetes currently being hospitalized for pneumonia begins to develop foul smelling, watery diarrhea on the fourth day of his hospitalization. The patient is started on oral metronidazole and C.diff stool samples are sent. After 3 days on metronidazole, the diarrhea persists. What drug and through which route should it be administered to treat this patient?

            USMLE Step 1

            Quinupristin

            Streptogramin antibiotics

            • Pristin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
          • Grampositive bacteria, atypicals, often combined with dalfopristin to treat infections by staphylococci and by vancomycinresistant Enterococcus faecium
          • Protein synthesis inhibitor
          • Binds to a site nearby the 23S site on the 50S ribosomal subunit and prevents elongation of the polloipeptide
          • Synergistic with dalfopristine (trade me Synercid)
          • Dalfopristin

            Streptogramin antibiotics

            • Pristin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
          • Often combined with quinupristin to treat infections by staphylococci and by vancomycinresistant Enterococcus faecium
          • Binds to the 23S portion of the 50S ribosomal subunit, and changes its conformation. This enhances the affinity for quinupristin binding
          • Also inhibits peptidyl transfer
          • Synergistic with Quinupristin (trade me Synercid)
          • Linezolid

            Oxazolidinone antibiotics

            • Grampositive bacteria including spreptococci, vancomycinresistant enterococci (VRE), methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
            • (drug of last resort)
            • Protein synthesis inhibitor
            • Prevents the formation of the initiation complex during protein systhesis by binding to the 23S portion of the 50S subunit
            • Cross resistance with other drus is rare due to its unique MOA
            • Oxacillin

              Penicillin antibiotic

              • Cillin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
            • Penicillin resistant Staphlococcus aureus, similar to methicillin
            • First line tx for staph edocarditis in patients without artificial heart valves.
            • Peniciliseresistant Blactam, inhibit the formation of peptidoglycan crosslinks in the bacterial cell wall by binding to enzyme transpeptidase (also known as penicillinbinding proteins (PBP)), there by creating an imbalance in cell wall production and degradation, causing the cell to rapidly die
            • Nafcillin

              Penicillin antibiotic

              • Cillin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
            • Infections causes by penicillin resistant Staphlococcus aureus and other resistant gram positive bacteria (not including MRSA), clinically equivilant to oxacillin
            • First line tx for staph edocarditis in patients without artificial heart valves.
            • Peniciliseresistant Blactam, inhibit the formation of peptidoglycan crosslinks in the bacterial cell wall by binding to enzyme transpeptidase (also known as penicillinbinding proteins (PBP)), there by creating an imbalance in cell wall production and degradation, causing the cell to rapidly die
            • Dicloxacillin

              Penicillin antibiotic

              • Cillin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
            • Skin infections and cellulitis causes by beta-lactamase producing Staphyloccus aureus, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, endocarditis
            • Similar to flucloxacillin
            • Inhibit the formation of peptidoglycan crosslinks in the bacterial cell wall by binding to enzyme transpeptidase (also known as penicillinbinding proteins (PBP)), there by creating an imbalance in cell wall production and degradation, causing the cell to rapidly die.
            • Amoxicillin

              Penicillin antibiotic

              • Cillin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
            • Acute otitis media, streptococcal pharyngitis, pneumonia, skin infections, uriry tract infections, salmonella, lyme disease, and chlamydia
            • Inhibit the formation of peptidoglycan crosslinks in the bacterial cell wall by binding to enzyme transpeptidase (also known as penicillinbinding proteins (PBP)), there by creating an imbalance in cell wall production and degradation, causing the cell to rapidly die
            • Often given with clavulanic acid, a Blactamase inhibitor, to reducing its susceptibility to degradation to Blactamases.
            • Ampicillin

              Penicillin antibiotic

              • Cillin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
            • Gram postive bacteria: Streptococcus pneumonia, Strep pyogens, Staph aureus. Gram negative bacteria: Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenza, and Enterobacteriaceae.
            • Irreversible inhibitor of transpeptidase, which bacteria need to make cell walls.
            • Clavulanic Acid

              Beta lactamase inhibitor

              • Bacteria that have beta lactamase
              • Blocks the action of beta lactamase produced by bacteria to confer resistance
              • Often given with amoxicillin (trade me Augmentin)
              • Sulbactam

                Beta lactamase inhibitor

                • Bactam (English) - Medication Naming Convention
              • Pseudomos aeruginosa, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, and Serratia.
              • Irreversibly inhibits beta lactamase preventing degradation of enzyme
              • Tazobactam

                Beta lactamase inhibitor

                • Bactam (English) - Medication Naming Convention
              • Nosocomial pneumonia caused by Pseudomos aeruginosa
              • Inhibits the action of betalactamases in bacteria.
              • Cefazolin

                First generation cephalosporins

                • Bone, joint, lung, stomach, blood, heart valves, UTI infections. Used against staphylocci and streptococci, and MSSA
                • The most common use of this medication is the treatment of cellulitis caused by sensitive staph and strep species
                • Cefazolin, brand name ancef, is IV, whereas it's counterpart for outpatient use, cephalexin, is PO
                • Commonly used pre and introperatively to prevent wound infectons by skin flora
                • Disrupts synthesis of peptidoglycan layer of bacteria cell walls by mimicing the DAlaDAla site, thus irreversibly inhibiting PBP crosslinking of peptidoglycan.

                • Medytoons
                  Cephalexin

                  First generation cephalosporins

                  • Otitis media, streptococcal pharyngitis, bone and joint infections, pneumonia, cellulitis, and UTIs
                  • Disrupts synthesis of peptidoglycan layer of bacteria cell walls by mimicing the DAlaDAla site, thus irreversibly inhibiting PBP crosslinking of peptidoglycan.

                  • Medytoons
                    Cefoxitin

                    Second generation cephalosporin

                    • Staphylococci, Enterococci, Streptococci and other gram positive and gram negative bacteria.
                    • Disrupts synthesis of peptidoglycan layer of bacteria cell walls by mimicing the DAlaDAla site, thus irreversibly inhibiting PBP crosslinking of peptidoglycan.
                    • Cefaclor

                      Second generation cephalosporin

                      • Septicaemia, meningitis, pneupmonia, biliary tract infections, peritonitis, and UTIs.
                      • Disrupts synthesis of peptidoglycan layer of bacteria cell walls by mimicing the DAlaDAla site, thus irreversibly inhibiting PBP crosslinking of peptidoglycan.
                      • Cefuroxime

                        Second generation cephalosporin

                        • Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Lyme disease
                        • Disrupts synthesis of peptidoglycan layer of bacteria cell walls by mimicing the DAlaDAla site, thus irreversibly inhibiting PBP crosslinking of peptidoglycan.
                        • Ceftriaxone

                          Third generation cephalosporin

                          • Broad spectrum against gram postive and gram negative bacteria. Used for bacterial meningitis caused by pneumococci, meningococci, and Haemophilus influenzae, also treats enteric gram negative rods
                          • Disrupts synthesis of peptidoglycan layer of bacteria cell walls by mimicing the DAlaDAla site, thus irreversibly inhibiting PBP crosslinking of peptidoglycan.
                          • Cefotaxime

                            Third generation cephalosporin

                            • Lower respiratory tract infection caused by S. pneumoniae, uriry tract infection casue by E.coly, S. epidermidis, P. mirabilis, and gonorrhea, PED, endometritis, bacteremia, peritonitis, bone and joint infection by S. aureus and streptococcus spp. and CNS infections by N. meningitidis, H. influenzae, and S. pneumoniae
                            • Disrupts synthesis of peptidoglycan layer of bacteria cell walls by mimicing the DAlaDAla site, thus irreversibly inhibiting PBP crosslinking of peptidoglycan.
                            • Ceftazidime

                              Third generation cephalosporin

                              • Lower respiratory tract, skin, uriry tract, blood stream, joint, abdomil infections, and meningitis, Pseudomos aeruginosa, gram negative, aerobic infections
                              • Disrupts synthesis of peptidoglycan layer of bacteria cell walls by mimicing the DAlaDAla site, thus irreversibly inhibiting PBP crosslinking of peptidoglycan.
                              • Cefepime

                                Fourth generation cephalosporin

                                • Moderate to severe nosocomial pneumonia, febrile neutropenia empirical treatment, infections from multiple drug resistant organisms like Pseudomos, S. aureus, Enterobacteriae and multi drug resistant S. pneumonia
                                • Block cell wall synthesis by inhibiting peptidoglycan cross linking, less susceptible to penicillises
                                • Gentamicin

                                  Aminoglycoside

                                  • Severe gram negative infections
                                  • Bind to 30S rR subunit and prevent formation of the initiation complex which is required for translation
                                  • Neomycin

                                    Aminoglycoside

                                    • Neosporin, preventative therapy for hepatic encephalogpathy and hypercholesterolemia
                                    • Bind to 30S rR subunit and prevent formation of the initiation complex which is required for translation
                                    • Amikacin

                                      Aminoglycoside

                                      • Severe hospital acquired infections with multi drug resistant organisms
                                      • Bind to 30S rR subunit and prevent formation of the initiation complex which is required for translation
                                      • Tobramycin

                                        Aminoglycoside

                                        • Bacterial eye infections and infections with Pseudomos
                                        • Bind to 30S rR subunit and prevent formation of the initiation complex which is required for translation
                                        • Streptomycin

                                          Aminoglycoside

                                          • Infective endocarditis, tuberculosis and plague
                                          • Bind to 30S rR subunit and prevent formation of the initiation complex which is required for translation
                                          • Tetracycline

                                            Tetracycline

                                            • Cycline (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                          • Infections from intracellular organisms like Rickettsia, Chlamydia. Also infections with Mycoplasma pneumonia and Borrelia burgdorferi
                                          • Bind to 30S rR subunit and prevent binding of aminoacyltR to the R
                                          • Doxycycline

                                            Tetracycline

                                            • Cycline (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                          • Infections with intracellular organisms and chronic prostatitis, sinusitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, rosacea and acne
                                          • Bind to 30S rR subunit and prevent binding of aminoacyltR to the R
                                          • Demeclocycline

                                            Tetracycline

                                            • Cycline (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                          • Lyme disease, bronchitis, hypotremia due to syndrome of ippropriate antidiuretic hormone
                                          • Bind to 30S rR subunit and prevent binding of aminoacyltR to the R
                                          • Minocycline

                                            Tetracycline

                                            • Cycline (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                          • More penetration into the brain and prostate compared to other tetracyclines
                                          • Bind to 30S rR subunit and prevent binding of aminoacyltR to the R
                                          • Azithromycin

                                            Macrolide

                                            • Atypical pneumonias caused by Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, Legionella
                                            • STDs caused by Gonorrhea and Chlamydia
                                            • Infections from gram positive cocci
                                            • Bind to 23S rR of the 50S subunit and prevent translocation of the ribosome
                                            • Clarithromycin

                                              Macrolide

                                              • Respiratory infections, skin infections, Lyme disease and Helicobactor pylori infections
                                              • Bind to 30S rR subunit and prevent binding of aminoacyltR to the R
                                              • Erythtromycin

                                                Macrolide

                                                • Respiratory infections from atypical organisms, neotal conjunctivitis due to chlamydia or gonorrhea
                                                • Bind to 30S rR subunit and prevent binding of aminoacyltR to the R
                                                • Chloramphenicol

                                                  • Meningitis
                                                  • Binds to 50S subunit and blocks peptidyltransferase
                                                  • Clindamycin

                                                    • Aerobic infections above the diaphragm like lung abscesses, aspiration pneumonia and oral aerobic infections
                                                    • Binds to 50S subunit and prevents peptide transfer
                                                    • Sulfamethoxazole (SMX)

                                                      Sulfomide

                                                      • Drug of choice for Pneumocystic pneumonia, also used to treat uriry tract infections, toxoplasmosis
                                                      • Paraaminobenzoic acid alogs that prevent synthesis of folic acid by inhibiting dihydropteroate synthetase
                                                      • Sulfisoxazole

                                                        Sulfomide

                                                        • Used in combition with erythromycin to treat eat infections
                                                        • Paraaminobenzoic acid alogs that prevent synthesis of folic acid by inhibiting dihydropteroate synthetase
                                                        • Sulfadiazine

                                                          Sulfomide

                                                          • Given with pyrimethamine to treat toxoplasmosis
                                                          • Paraaminobenzoic acid alogs that prevent synthesis of folic acid by inhibiting dihydropteroate synthetase
                                                          • Trimethoprim

                                                            • Used in combition with sulfomides to treat uriry tract infections, Shigella, Salmonella, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia
                                                            • Prevents synthesis of folic acid by inhibiting dihydrofolate reductase
                                                            • Ciprofloxacin

                                                              Fluoroquinolone

                                                              • Floxacin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                            • Gastroenteritis, malignt otitis exter, cellulitis, anthrax, uriry tract infections, chancroid
                                                            • Inhibit D topoisomerase II

                                                            • MedyQuestion
                                                              • A 72 year old man presents to the emergency with abdominal pain that began abruptly last night that woke him from sleep. He had one bloody bowel movement. The pain is localized to the left lower quadrant. Ct scan of the pelvis demonstrates diverticulitis. What 2 antibiotics should be started?

                                                              USMLE Step 1

                                                              Norfloxacin

                                                              Fluoroquinolone

                                                              • Floxacin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                            • Uriry tract infections and prostatitis
                                                            • Inhibit D gyrase and topoisomerase IV on D
                                                            • Levofloxacin

                                                              Fluoroquinolone

                                                              • Floxacin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                            • Respiratory tract infections, uriry tract infections, prostatis, endocarditis, meningitis, traveler's diarrhea
                                                            • Inhibit D gyrase and topoisomerase IV on D
                                                            • Ofloxacin

                                                              Fluoroquinolone

                                                              • Floxacin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                            • Chronic bronchitis, community acquired pneumonia, acute pelvic inflammatory disease, nongonococcal uveitis and cervicitis
                                                            • Inhibit D gyrase and topoisomerase IV on D
                                                            • Sparfloxacin

                                                              Fluoroquinolone

                                                              • Floxacin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                            • Respiratory tract infections caused by bacteria
                                                            • Inhibit D gyrase and topoisomerase IV on D
                                                            • Moxifloxacin

                                                              Fourth generation fluoroquinolone

                                                              • Floxacin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                            • Bacterial pneumonia, bronchitis, skin, sinus and abdomil bacterial infections
                                                            • Inhibit D gyrase and topoisomerase IV on D
                                                            • Gatifloxacin

                                                              Fourth generation fluoroquinolone

                                                              • Floxacin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                            • Bacterial conjunctivitis (pink eye)
                                                            • Inhibit D gyrase and topoisomerase IV on D
                                                            • Enoxacin

                                                              Second generation fluoroquinolone

                                                              • Floxacin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                            • Uriry tract infection and gonorrhea
                                                            • Bind and inhibit topoisomerase II which is responsible for preventing supercoiling of the D
                                                            • Lidixic acid

                                                              First generation fluoroquinolone

                                                              • Uriry tract infections with Escherichia coli, Shigella, Proteus, Enterobacter, and Klebsiella
                                                              • Bind and inhibit topoisomerase II which is responsible for preventing supercoiling of the D
                                                              • Metronidazole

                                                                Nitroimidazole

                                                                • Bacterial infections such as trichomoniasis, giardiasis, amoebiasis, bacterial vaginosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, pseudomembranous colitis, aspiration pneumonia, rosacea, lung abscess, gingivitis, and certain aerobic organisms. Can also be used to treat Helicobacter pylori.
                                                                • Inhibits nucleic acid synthesis in aerobic cells.

                                                                • MedyQuestion
                                                                  • A 66 year old man with medical history significant for hypertension and type II diabetes currently being hospitalized for pneumonia begins to develop foul smelling, watery diarrhea on the fourth day of his hospitalization. The patient is started on oral metronidazole and C.diff stool samples are sent. After 3 days on metronidazole, the diarrhea persists. What drug and through which route should it be administered to treat this patient?

                                                                  USMLE Step 1

                                                                  • A 72 year old man presents to the emergency with abdominal pain that began abruptly last night that woke him from sleep. He had one bloody bowel movement. The pain is localized to the left lower quadrant. Ct scan of the pelvis demonstrates diverticulitis. What 2 antibiotics should be started?

                                                                  USMLE Step 1

                                                                  Isoniazid

                                                                  Antimycobacterial

                                                                  • Tuberculosis
                                                                  • Needs to be activated by bacterial catalaseperoxidase enxyme, KatG. Blocks fatty acid synthase.

                                                                  • Medytoons
                                                                    Rifampin

                                                                    Antibiotic rifamycin class

                                                                    • Tuuberculosis, MRSA, Listeria, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Haemophilis influenza, Legionella pneumonia
                                                                    • Inhibits D dependent R synthesis by inhibiting bacterial D dependent R polloimerase

                                                                    • Medytoons
                                                                      Pyrazimide

                                                                      Antimycobacterial

                                                                      • Tuberculosis
                                                                      • Pyrazimidase converts the prodrug pyrazimide to the active form pyrazinoic acid. Pyrazinoic acid builds up in the cells and distrupts the membrane potential and energy production. It may also interfere with fatty acid synthase.

                                                                      • Medytoons
                                                                        Ethambutol

                                                                        Bacteriostatic antimycobacterial

                                                                        • Tuberculosis
                                                                        • Blocks the formation of cell wall

                                                                        • Medytoons
                                                                          Amphotericin B

                                                                          Polloiene antifungal drug

                                                                          • Treats thrush, cryptococcal meningitis, parasitic protozoan infections such as visceral leishmaniasis, and primary amoebic meningoencephalitits
                                                                          • Binds ergosterol, which is a component of the cell membranes of fungi and it fomrs a transmembrane channel that leaks out potassium, sodium, hydrogen, and chloride ions.
                                                                          • Nystatin

                                                                            Polloiene antifungal drug

                                                                            • Candidiasis, oral candidiasis, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, vulvovagil candidiasis
                                                                            • Binds ergosterol, which is a component of the cell membranes of fungi and it fomrs a transmembrane channel that leaks out potassium, sodium, hydrogen, and chloride ions.

                                                                            • MedyQuestion
                                                                              • A 21-year-old female presents to the doctor’s office with a 3-day history of sore throat. She is currently taking an inhaled corticosteroid for her asthma. Her temperature is 99.4°F. A KOD prep taken from a sample of one of the plaques shows budding year. An illustration of her tongue is shown. Which is the most likely course of pharmacotherapy that the doctor will prescribe for this patient.

                                                                              USMLE Step 1

                                                                              Flucozole

                                                                              Triazole antifungal

                                                                              • Azole (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                            • Candidiasis, tinea corporis, tinea cruris, tinea pedis, onychomycosis, cryptococcal meningitis, coccidioidomycosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis
                                                                            • Inhibitis cytochrome P450 enzyme 14 aplhademethylase.
                                                                            • Ketocozole

                                                                              Imidazole antifungal

                                                                              • Azole (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                            • Athlete's foot, ringworm, candidiasis, jock itch, and intea versicolor, candida, histoplasma, coccidiodes, and blastomyces
                                                                            • Inhibits ergosterol synthesis
                                                                            • Clotrimazole

                                                                              Antifungal

                                                                              • Azole (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                            • Vulvovagil candidiasis, yeast infection, oropharyngeal candidiasis
                                                                            • Alters the permeability of the fungal cell wall. Binds phospholipids, and inhibits ergosterol synthesis.
                                                                            • Micozole

                                                                              Imidazole antifungal

                                                                              • Azole (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                            • Athlete's foot, ringworm, jock itch
                                                                            • Itracozole

                                                                              Triazole antifungal

                                                                              • Azole (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                            • Aspergillus, blastomycosis, sporotrichosis, histoplasmosis, onychomycosis
                                                                            • Inhibits ergosterol synthesis and inhibits cytochrome P450
                                                                            • Voricozole

                                                                              Triazole antifungal

                                                                              • Azole (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                            • Candidiasis, aspergillosis
                                                                            • Flucytosine

                                                                              Fluorited pyrimidine alogue, antimycotic drug

                                                                              • Candida, cryptococcus neoformans, chromomycosis
                                                                              • Converted to cytostatic fluorouracil which interacts with 5fluorouridinetriphosphate with R synthesis and building of essentail proteins. It also inhibits D synthesis in fungi by being converted to 5fluorodeoxyuridinemonophosphate
                                                                              • Caspofungin

                                                                                Lipopeptide antifungal

                                                                                • Aspergillus, candida
                                                                                • Micafungin

                                                                                  Echinocandin antifungal

                                                                                  • Candidemia, acute dissemited candidiasis, candia peritonitis, and esophageal candidiasis
                                                                                  • Inhibits 1,3betaDglucan synthase which decreases 1,3betaDglucan which is a polloisaccharide present in candida cell walls.
                                                                                  • Terbifine

                                                                                    Allylamine antifungal

                                                                                    • Fungal il infections, athlete's foot, tinea versicolor, tinea captis, mucocutaneous candidiasis
                                                                                    • Inhibits synthesis of ergosterol by inhibiting squalene epoxidase.
                                                                                    • Griseofulvin

                                                                                      Antifungal

                                                                                      • Tinea captitis, athlete's foot
                                                                                      • Binds tubulin, and inhibits mitosis
                                                                                      • Pyrimethamine

                                                                                        Antimalarial

                                                                                        • Plasmodium falciparum, plasmodium vivax
                                                                                        • Blocks tetrahydrofolic acid synthesis by inhibiting dihydrofolate reductase
                                                                                        • Nifurtimox

                                                                                          • Chagas disease, african trypanosomiasis
                                                                                          • It is a 5nitrofuran
                                                                                          • Sodium Stiboglucoste

                                                                                            Pentavalent antimonials

                                                                                            • Leishmaniasis
                                                                                            • Chloroquine

                                                                                              4aminoquinoline

                                                                                              • Malaria
                                                                                              • Chloroquine binds heme forming the hemechloroquine complex, which is toxic to the cell and distrupts membrane function.
                                                                                              • Mebendazole

                                                                                                • Pinworm, roundworm, tapeworm, hookworm,whipworms
                                                                                                • Inhibits the synthesis of microtubules in parasites
                                                                                                • Pyrantel Pamoate

                                                                                                  Deworming agent

                                                                                                  • Hookworms, roundworms
                                                                                                  • Depolarizes neuromuscular blocking agent leading to contraction and paralysis of worms
                                                                                                  • Ivermectin

                                                                                                    Antiparasitic

                                                                                                    • Broad spectrum antiparasitic drug
                                                                                                    • Increases inhibitory neurotrasmission such as glutamate gated chloride channels
                                                                                                    • Diethylcarbamazine

                                                                                                      Antihelmintic

                                                                                                      • Lymphatic filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, Brugia timori, loa loa
                                                                                                      • Inhibits arachidonic acid metabolism increasing damage by immune attack
                                                                                                      • Praziquantel

                                                                                                        Antihelmintic

                                                                                                        • Echinococcus, cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium, taeniasis, tococariasis, schistosomiasis
                                                                                                        • Increases permeability of calcium ions leading to contraction of the parasites and thus paralysis
                                                                                                        • Zamivir

                                                                                                          Antiviral

                                                                                                          • Treatment and prevention of Influenza A and B.
                                                                                                          • Inhibit influenza neuraminidase, decreasing the release of progeny virus.
                                                                                                          • Oseltamivir

                                                                                                            Antiviral

                                                                                                            • Treatment and prevention of Influenza A and B.
                                                                                                            • Inhibit influenza neuraminidase, decreasing the release of progeny virus.
                                                                                                            • Ribavirin

                                                                                                              Antiviral

                                                                                                              • RSV, chronic Hepatitis C
                                                                                                              • Inhibits synthesis of guanine nucleotides by competitively inhibiting IMP dehydrogese
                                                                                                              • Acyclovir

                                                                                                                Antiviral

                                                                                                                • Clovir (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                                              • HSV and VZV. Weak activity against EBV. No activity against CMV. Used for HSVinduced mucocutaneous and genital lesions as well as for encephalitis. Prophylaxis in immunocompromised patients. No effect on latent forms of HSV and VZV. Valacyclovir, a prodrug of acyclovir, has better oral bioavailability. For herpes zoster, use a related agent, famciclovir.
                                                                                                              • Monophosphorylated by HSV/VZV thymidine kise and not phosphorylated in uninfected cells, meaning few adverse effects. Guanosine alog. Triphosphate formed by cellular enzymes. Preferentially inhibits viral D polymerase by chain termition.
                                                                                                              • Ganciclovir

                                                                                                                Antiviral

                                                                                                                • Clovir (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                                              • CMV, especially in immunocompromised patients. Valganciclovir, a prodrug of ganciclovir, has better oral bioavailability.
                                                                                                              • 5′monophosphate formed by a CMV viral kise. Guanosine alog. Triphosphate formed by cellular kises. Preferentially inhibits viral D polymerase.
                                                                                                              • Foscarnet

                                                                                                                Antiviral

                                                                                                                • CMV retinitis in immunocompromised patients when ganciclovir fails
                                                                                                                • Acyclovirresistant HSV.
                                                                                                                • Viral D polymerase inhibitor that binds to the pyrophosphatebinding site of the enzyme. Does not require activation by viral kise.
                                                                                                                • Cidofovir

                                                                                                                  Antiviral

                                                                                                                  • CMV retinitis in immunocompromised patients
                                                                                                                  • Acyclovirresistant HSV. Long halflife.
                                                                                                                  • Preferentially inhibits viral D polymerase. Does not require phosphorylation by viral kise.
                                                                                                                  • Lopivir

                                                                                                                    Protease Inhibitor

                                                                                                                    • Vir (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                                                  • Used in HAART for AIDSdefining illness
                                                                                                                  • Assembly of virions depends on HIV1 protease (pol gene), which cleaves the polypeptide products of HIV mR into their functiol parts. Thus, protease inhibitors prevent maturation of new viruses.
                                                                                                                  • Atazavir

                                                                                                                    Protease Inhibitor

                                                                                                                    • Vir (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                                                  • Used in HAART for AIDSdefining illness
                                                                                                                  • Assembly of virions depends on HIV1 protease (pol gene), which cleaves the polypeptide products of HIV mR into their functiol parts. Thus, protease inhibitors prevent maturation of new viruses.
                                                                                                                  • Daruvir

                                                                                                                    Protease Inhibitor

                                                                                                                    • Vir (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                                                  • Used in HAART for AIDSdefining illness
                                                                                                                  • Assembly of virions depends on HIV1 protease (pol gene), which cleaves the polypeptide products of HIV mR into their functiol parts. Thus, protease inhibitors prevent maturation of new viruses.
                                                                                                                  • Fosamprevir

                                                                                                                    Protease Inhibitor

                                                                                                                    • Vir (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                                                  • Used in HAART for AIDSdefining illness
                                                                                                                  • Assembly of virions depends on HIV1 protease (pol gene), which cleaves the polypeptide products of HIV mR into their functiol parts. Thus, protease inhibitors prevent maturation of new viruses.
                                                                                                                  • Saquivir

                                                                                                                    Protease Inhibitor

                                                                                                                    • Vir (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                                                  • Used in HAART for AIDSdefining illness
                                                                                                                  • Assembly of virions depends on HIV1 protease (pol gene), which cleaves the polypeptide products of HIV mR into their functiol parts. Thus, protease inhibitors prevent maturation of new viruses.
                                                                                                                  • Ritovir

                                                                                                                    Protease Inhibitor

                                                                                                                    • Vir (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                                                  • Used in HAART for AIDSdefining illness
                                                                                                                  • Assembly of virions depends on HIV1 protease (pol gene), which cleaves the polypeptide products of HIV mR into their functiol parts. Thus, protease inhibitors prevent maturation of new viruses.
                                                                                                                  • Indivir

                                                                                                                    Protease Inhibitor

                                                                                                                    • Vir (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                                                  • Used in HAART for AIDSdefining illness
                                                                                                                  • Assembly of virions depends on HIV1 protease (pol gene), which cleaves the polypeptide products of HIV mR into their functiol parts. Thus, protease inhibitors prevent maturation of new viruses.
                                                                                                                  • Tenofovir

                                                                                                                    NRTI

                                                                                                                    • Used in HAART for AIDSdefining illness
                                                                                                                    • Competitively inhibit nucleotide binding to reverse transcriptase and termite the D chain (lack a 3′ OH group). Tenofovir is a nucleoTide and does not need to be phosphorylated to be active.
                                                                                                                    • Emtricitabine

                                                                                                                      NRTI

                                                                                                                      • Used in HAART for AIDSdefining illness
                                                                                                                      • Competitively inhibit nucleotide binding to reverse transcriptase and termite the D chain (lack a 3′ OH group). A nucleoside that needs to be phosphorylated to be active.
                                                                                                                      • Abacavir

                                                                                                                        NRTI

                                                                                                                        • Used in HAART for AIDSdefining illness
                                                                                                                        • Competitively inhibit nucleotide binding to reverse transcriptase and termite the D chain (lack a 3′ OH group). A nucleoside that needs to be phosphorylated to be active.
                                                                                                                        • Lamivudine

                                                                                                                          NRTI

                                                                                                                          • Used in HAART for AIDSdefining illness
                                                                                                                          • Competitively inhibit nucleotide binding to reverse transcriptase and termite the D chain (lack a 3′ OH group). A nucleoside that needs to be phosphorylated to be active.
                                                                                                                          • Zidovudine (AZT)

                                                                                                                            NRTI

                                                                                                                            • ZDV is used for general prophylaxis and during pregncy to lower risk of fetal transmission.
                                                                                                                            • Competitively inhibit nucleotide binding to reverse transcriptase and termite the D chain (lack a 3′ OH group). A nucleoside that needs to be phosphorylated to be active.
                                                                                                                            • Didanosine

                                                                                                                              NRTI

                                                                                                                              • Used in HAART for AIDSdefining illness
                                                                                                                              • Competitively inhibit nucleotide binding to reverse transcriptase and termite the D chain (lack a 3′ OH group). A nucleoside that needs to be phosphorylated to be active.
                                                                                                                              • Stavudine

                                                                                                                                NRTI

                                                                                                                                • Used in HAART for AIDSdefining illness
                                                                                                                                • Competitively inhibit nucleotide binding to reverse transcriptase and termite the D chain (lack a 3′ OH group). A nucleoside that needs to be phosphorylated to be active.
                                                                                                                                • Nevirapine

                                                                                                                                  NNRTI

                                                                                                                                  • Used in HAART for AIDSdefining illness
                                                                                                                                  • Bind to reverse transcriptase at site different from NRTIs. Do not require phosphorylation to be active or compete with nucleotides.
                                                                                                                                  • Efavirenz

                                                                                                                                    NNRTI

                                                                                                                                    • Used in HAART for AIDSdefining illness
                                                                                                                                    • Bind to reverse transcriptase at site different from NRTIs. Do not require phosphorylation to be active or compete with nucleotides.
                                                                                                                                    • Delaviridine

                                                                                                                                      NNRTI

                                                                                                                                      • Used in HAART for AIDSdefining illness
                                                                                                                                      • Bind to reverse transcriptase at site different from NRTIs. Do not require phosphorylation to be active or compete with nucleotides.
                                                                                                                                      • Raltegravir

                                                                                                                                        Integrase Inhibitors

                                                                                                                                        • Used in HAART for AIDSdefining illness
                                                                                                                                        • Inhibits HIV genome integration into host cell chromosome by reversibly inhibiting HIV integrase.
                                                                                                                                        • IFNalpha

                                                                                                                                          Antiviral

                                                                                                                                          • Chronic hepatitis B and C, Kaposi sarcoma, hairy cell leukemia, condyloma acumitum, rel cell carcinoma, malignt melanoma.
                                                                                                                                          • Glycoproteins normally synthesized by virusinfected cells, exhibiting a wide range of antiviral and antitumoral properties.
                                                                                                                                          • IFNbeta

                                                                                                                                            Antiviral

                                                                                                                                            • Multiple sclerosis.
                                                                                                                                            • Glycoproteins normally synthesized by virusinfected cells, exhibiting a wide range of antiviral and antitumoral properties.
                                                                                                                                            • IFNgamma

                                                                                                                                              Antiviral

                                                                                                                                              • Chronic granulomatous disease.
                                                                                                                                              • Glycoproteins normally synthesized by virusinfected cells, exhibiting a wide range of antiviral and antitumoral properties.
                                                                                                                                              • Cyclosporine

                                                                                                                                                Immunomodulator

                                                                                                                                                • Immunosuppressant in transplant patients
                                                                                                                                                • GVHD
                                                                                                                                                • Rheumatoid arthritis
                                                                                                                                                • Cyclosporine binds cyclophilin in T cells and this complex inhibits calcineurin > decreasing IL2 production > decreased T cell activation
                                                                                                                                                • Tacrolimus (FK506)

                                                                                                                                                  Immunomodulator

                                                                                                                                                  • Immunosuppressant in transplant patients
                                                                                                                                                  • Tacrolimus binds FKBP12 and this complex inhibits calcineurin > decreasing IL2 production > decreased T cell activation
                                                                                                                                                  • Sirolimus (Rapamycin)

                                                                                                                                                    Immunomodulator

                                                                                                                                                    • Immunosuppressant in transplant patients
                                                                                                                                                    • Sirolimus binds FKBP12 and this complex inhibits mTOR > decreased T cell activation and production
                                                                                                                                                    • Azathioprine

                                                                                                                                                      Immunomodulator

                                                                                                                                                      • Immunosuppressant in autoimmune diseases (SLE, IBD, RA, ITP, MS)
                                                                                                                                                      • Antimetabolite that is a precursor of 6MP > intereferes with nucleic acid synthesis and metabolism
                                                                                                                                                      • MuromobCD3 (OKT3)

                                                                                                                                                        Immunomodulator

                                                                                                                                                        • Immunosuppressant in transplant patients
                                                                                                                                                        • Monoclol antibody > binds to CD3 on T cells > blocks T cell interaction and sigl transduction
                                                                                                                                                        • Aldesleukin (interleukin2)

                                                                                                                                                          Recombint Cytokines

                                                                                                                                                          • Rel cell carcinoma, metastatic melanoma
                                                                                                                                                          • Like IL2, this drug allows for the differentiation of T cells into effector T cells
                                                                                                                                                          • Epoetin alfa (erythropoietin)

                                                                                                                                                            Recombint Cytokines

                                                                                                                                                            • Anemias
                                                                                                                                                            • Like EPO, this drug stimulates erythropoiesis
                                                                                                                                                            • Filgrastim (GCSF)

                                                                                                                                                              Recombint Cytokines

                                                                                                                                                              • Recovery of bone marrow
                                                                                                                                                              • GCSF alog > stimulates proliferation of granulocytes
                                                                                                                                                              • Sargramostim (GCSF)

                                                                                                                                                                Recombint Cytokines

                                                                                                                                                                • Recovery of bone marrow
                                                                                                                                                                • GMCSF alog > stimulates granulocyte and macrophage proliferation
                                                                                                                                                                • IFN alpha

                                                                                                                                                                  Recombint Cytokines

                                                                                                                                                                  • Hep B+C, Kaposi's sarcoma, leukemias, malignt melanoma
                                                                                                                                                                  • Interferes with viruses and activates NK cells
                                                                                                                                                                  • Inhibits viral protein synthesis
                                                                                                                                                                  • Warns uninfected cells of upcoming attack
                                                                                                                                                                  • IFNbeta

                                                                                                                                                                    Recombint Cytokines

                                                                                                                                                                    • Multiple Sclerosis
                                                                                                                                                                    • Interferes with viruses and activates NK cells
                                                                                                                                                                    • Inhibits viral protein synthesis
                                                                                                                                                                    • Warns uninfected cells of upcoming attack
                                                                                                                                                                    • IFNgamma

                                                                                                                                                                      Recombint Cytokines

                                                                                                                                                                      • CGD
                                                                                                                                                                      • Interferes with viruses and activates NK cells
                                                                                                                                                                      • Increases MHCI,II expression and antigen presentation in all cells
                                                                                                                                                                      • Warns uninfected cells of upcoming attack
                                                                                                                                                                      • Oprelvekin (interleukin11)

                                                                                                                                                                        Recombint Cytokines

                                                                                                                                                                        • Thrombocytopenia
                                                                                                                                                                        • IL11 alog > stimulates proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells and megakaryocytes
                                                                                                                                                                        • Thrombopoietin

                                                                                                                                                                          Recombint Cytokines

                                                                                                                                                                          • Thrombocytopenia
                                                                                                                                                                          • A glycoprotein hormone that is used to stimulate megakaryocyte growth and development (platelets)
                                                                                                                                                                          • Digoxin Immune Fab

                                                                                                                                                                            Therapeutic Antibodies

                                                                                                                                                                            • Antidote for digoxin toxicity
                                                                                                                                                                            • Binds digoxin > digoxin can no longer bind to action sites on target cells
                                                                                                                                                                            • Infliximab

                                                                                                                                                                              Therapeutic Antibodies

                                                                                                                                                                              • Ximab (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                                                                                                            • Crohn's, RA, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis
                                                                                                                                                                            • Monoclol antibody (chimeric) > blocks TNFalpha
                                                                                                                                                                            • Adalimumab

                                                                                                                                                                              Therapeutic Antibodies

                                                                                                                                                                              • Umab (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                                                                                                            • Crohn's, RA, psoriatic arthritis
                                                                                                                                                                            • Monoclol antibody (human) > blocks TNFalpha
                                                                                                                                                                            • Abciximab

                                                                                                                                                                              Therapeutic Antibodies

                                                                                                                                                                              • Ximab (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                                                                                                            • Prevent cardiac ischemia
                                                                                                                                                                            • Monoclol antibody > blocks glycoprotein IIb/IIIa > blocks platelet aggregation
                                                                                                                                                                            • Trastuzumab (Herceptin)

                                                                                                                                                                              Therapeutic Antibodies

                                                                                                                                                                              • Zumab (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                                                                                                            • Block HER2overexpression in breast cancers
                                                                                                                                                                            • Monoclol antibody > blocks HER2/neu receptor > decrease breast cancer progression
                                                                                                                                                                            • Rituximab

                                                                                                                                                                              Therapeutic Antibodies

                                                                                                                                                                              • Ximab (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                                                                                                            • Bcell nonHodgkin's lymphoma
                                                                                                                                                                            • Monoclol antibody (chimeric) > binds to CD20 and blocks B cells
                                                                                                                                                                            • Omalizumab

                                                                                                                                                                              Therapeutic Antibodies

                                                                                                                                                                              • Zumab (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                                                                                                            • Severe asthma
                                                                                                                                                                            • Humanized antibody > decreased sensitivity to allergens
                                                                                                                                                                            • Nifedipine

                                                                                                                                                                              Calcium Channel Blocker

                                                                                                                                                                              • HTN
                                                                                                                                                                              • Blocks Ca2+ channel > inhibits vascular smooth muscle and myocardial muscle contraction > peripheral vasodilation and decreased myocardial contractility
                                                                                                                                                                              • Verapamil

                                                                                                                                                                                Calcium Channel Blocker

                                                                                                                                                                                • HTN
                                                                                                                                                                                • SVTs
                                                                                                                                                                                • Blocks Ca2+ channel > inhibits vascular smooth muscle and myocardial muscle contraction > peripheral vasodilation and decreased myocardial contractility
                                                                                                                                                                                • Diltiazam

                                                                                                                                                                                  Calcium Channel Blocker

                                                                                                                                                                                  • HTN
                                                                                                                                                                                  • SVTs
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Blocks Ca2+ channel > inhibits vascular smooth muscle and myocardial muscle contraction > peripheral vasodilation and decreased myocardial contractility
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Amlodipine

                                                                                                                                                                                    Calcium Channel Blocker

                                                                                                                                                                                    • HTN
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Blocks Ca2+ channel > inhibits vascular smooth muscle and myocardial muscle contraction > peripheral vasodilation and decreased myocardial contractility
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Hydralazine

                                                                                                                                                                                      Arteriolar Vasodilator

                                                                                                                                                                                      • HTN
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Heart failure
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Directly relaxes arteriolar smooth muscle by increasing cGMP > decreasing blood pressure (reduces afterload)
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Nitroprusside

                                                                                                                                                                                        Mixed Vasodilator

                                                                                                                                                                                        • Acute HTN
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Severe heart failure
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Cardiogenic shock
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Turns into nitric oxide > stimulates guanylate cyclase > increases cGMP > smooth muscle relaxation of veins and arteries > decreases blood pressure (afterload and preload)
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Nicardipine

                                                                                                                                                                                          Calcium Channel Blocker

                                                                                                                                                                                          • HTN
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Blocks Ca2+ channel > inhibits vascular smooth muscle and myocardial muscle contraction > peripheral vasodilation and decreased myocardial contractility
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Clevidipine

                                                                                                                                                                                            Calcium Channel Blocker

                                                                                                                                                                                            • HTN
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Blocks Ca2+ channel > inhibits vascular smooth muscle and myocardial muscle contraction > peripheral vasodilation and decreased myocardial contractility
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Labetalol

                                                                                                                                                                                              Mixed Alpha/Beta Antagonist

                                                                                                                                                                                              • HTN
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Preeclampsia
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Blocks alpha and beta adrenergic receptors
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Fenoldopam

                                                                                                                                                                                                Selective D1 receptor partial agonist

                                                                                                                                                                                                • Postop HTN, IV for hypertensive crisis, HTN in patients with rel insufficiency
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Activates peripheral D1 receptors> activates adenyl cyclase > increased cAMP> relaxation of smooth muscle/ vasodilation > reduced blood pressure
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Promotes sodium excretion via dopamine receptors in the kidney
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Nitroglycerin

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Vasodilator/ Nitrate

                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Angina, acute corory syndrome, pulmory edema
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogese converts it into nitric oxide > NO stimulates guanylate cyclase > increases cGMP > activates protein kise G > intracellular calcium concentration decreases > decreases myosin light chain kise activity > decreases crossbridge cycling > relaxation of smooth muscle/ vasodilation
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Dilates vens >> arteries
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Decreases preload
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Isosorbine dinitrate

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Vasodilator/ Nitrate

                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Angi, acute corory syndrome, pulmory edema
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Converted to nitric oxide > relaxes smooth muscle > vasodilation of veins >> arteries > reduces preload, afterload, myocardial oxygen demand
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Lovastatin

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Statin/Lipid lowering agent

                                                                                                                                                                                                      • High cholesterol
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Competitively inhibits HMGCoAreductase > blocks the rate limiting step in cholesterol synthesis
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Decrease LDL and triglycerides, increase HDL
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Pravastatin

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Statin/Lipid lowering agent

                                                                                                                                                                                                        • High cholesterol
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Competitively inhibits HMGCoAreductase > blocks the rate limiting step in cholesterol synthesis
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Decrease LDL and triglycerides, increase HDL
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Simvastatin

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Statin/Lipid lowering agent

                                                                                                                                                                                                          • High cholesterol
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Competitively inhibits HMGCoAreductase > blocks the rate limiting step in cholesterol synthesis
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Decrease LDL and triglycerides, increase HDL
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Atorvastatin

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Statin/Lipid lowering agent

                                                                                                                                                                                                            • High cholesterol
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Competitively inhibits HMGCoAreductase > blocks the rate limiting step in cholesterol synthesis
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Decrease LDL and triglycerides, increase HDL
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Rosuvastatin

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Statin/Lipid lowering agent

                                                                                                                                                                                                              • High cholesterol
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Competitively inhibits HMGCoAreductase > blocks the rate limiting step in cholesterol synthesis
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Decrease LDL and triglycerides, increase HDL
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Niacin (Vitamin B3)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Lipid lowering agent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                • High cholesterol
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Inhibits lipolysis in adopose tissue
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Reduces hepatic VLDL synthesis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Decreases LDL, increases HDL, decreases triglycerides
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Cholestyramine

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Bile Acid Resin/Lipid lowering agent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • High cholesterol
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Prevent intestil reabsorption of bile acids > liver must use cholesterol to make more
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Decreases LDL, slightly increases HDL and triglycerides
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Colestipol

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Bile Acid Resin/Lipid lowering agent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • High cholesterol
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Prevent intestil reabsorption of bile acids > liver must use cholesterol to make more
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Decreases LDL, slightly increases HDL and triglycerides
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Colesevelam

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Bile Acid Resin/Lipid lowering agent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • High cholesterol
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Prevent intestil reabsorption of bile acids > liver must use cholesterol to make more
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Decreases LDL, slightly increases HDL and triglycerides
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Ezetimibe

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Cholesterol absorption blocker/Lipid lowering agent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • High cholesterol
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Prevents cholesterol absorption at small intestine brush border
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Decreases LDL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Gemfibrozil

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Fibrates/Lipid lowering agent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Fibrate (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • High cholesterol
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Upregulate lipoprotein lipase > increase triglyceride clearance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Activates PPARalpha to induce HDL synthesis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Clofibrate

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Fibrates/Lipid lowering agent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Fibrate (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • High cholesterol
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Upregulate lipoprotein lipase > increase triglyceride clearance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Activates PPARalpha to induce HDL synthesis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Bezafibrate

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Fibrates/Lipid lowering agent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Fibrate (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • High cholesterol
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Upregulate lipoprotein lipase > increase triglyceride clearance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Activates PPARalpha to induce HDL synthesis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Fenofibrate

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Fibrates/Lipid lowering agent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Fibrate (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • High cholesterol
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Upregulate lipoprotein lipase > increase triglyceride clearance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Activates PPARalpha to induce HDL synthesis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Digoxin

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Cardiac glycoside

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • CHF, atrial fibrillation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Direct inhibition of +/K+ ATPase > leads to indirect inhibition of + / Ca2+ exchanger > increases intracellular calcium concentration > increases contractility
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Stimulates vagus nerve to decrease conduction at AV node and depress SA node > decrease heart rate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Quinidine

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Class IA antiarrhythmic Na Channel Blocker

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, reentrant and ectopic SVT and VT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Increase action potential duration, increase effective refractory period, increase QT interval
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Procaimide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Class IA antiarrhythmic Na Channel Blocker

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, reentrant and ectopic SVT and VT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Increase action potential duration, increase effective refractory period, increase QT interval
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Disopyramide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Class IA antiarrhythmic Na Channel Blocker

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, reentrant and ectopic SVT and VT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Increase action potential duration, increase effective refractory period, increase QT interval
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Lidocaine

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Class IB antiarrhythmic Na Channel blocker

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Acute ventricular arryhthmias (especially postMI), digitalis induced arrhythmias
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Decrease action potential duration
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Preferentially affect ischemic or depolarized purkinje and ventricular tissue
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Mexiletine

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Class IB antiarrhythmic Na Channel blocker

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Acute ventricular arryhthmias (especially postMI), digitalis induced arrhythmias
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Decrease action potential duration
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Preferentially affect ischemic or depolarized purkinje and ventricular tissue
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Flecanide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Class IC antiarrhythmic Na Channel Blocker

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • SVTs (including atrial fibrillation)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Significantly prolongs refractory period in AV node
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Minimal effect on action potential duration
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Propafenone

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Class IC antiarrhythmic Na Channel Blocker

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • SVTs (including atrial fibrillation)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Significantly prolongs refractory period in AV node
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Minimal effect on action potential duration
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Metoprolol

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Class II antiarrhythmic Beta Blocker

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Olol (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • SVT, slows ventricular rate during atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Decreases SA and AV nodal activity by decreasing cAMP and calcium currents
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Suppresses abnormal pacemakers by decreasing the rate of depolariztion

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Mnemonics
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The BP beta B.E.A.M.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The Beta 1 Selective Beta Blockers (located on the heart) that, as a result, slow the heart rate by blocking stimulation of the beta receptor
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Betaxolol Esmolol Atenolol Metoprolol
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Propranolol

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Class II antiarrhythmic Beta Blocker

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Olol (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • SVT, slows ventricular rate during atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Decreases SA and AV nodal activity by decreasing cAMP and calcium currents
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Suppresses abnormal pacemakers by decreasing the rate of depolariztion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Esmolol

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Class II antiarrhythmic Beta Blocker

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Olol (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • SVT, slows ventricular rate during atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Decreases SA and AV nodal activity by decreasing cAMP and calcium currents
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Suppresses abnormal pacemakers by decreasing the rate of depolariztion

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Mnemonics
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The BP beta B.E.A.M.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The Beta 1 Selective Beta Blockers (located on the heart) that, as a result, slow the heart rate by blocking stimulation of the beta receptor
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Betaxolol Esmolol Atenolol Metoprolol
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Atenolol

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Class II antiarrhythmic Beta Blocker

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Olol (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • SVT, slows ventricular rate during atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Mnemonics
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The BP beta B.E.A.M.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The Beta 1 Selective Beta Blockers (located on the heart) that, as a result, slow the heart rate by blocking stimulation of the beta receptor
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Betaxolol Esmolol Atenolol Metoprolol
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Timolol

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Class II antiarrhythmic Beta Blocker

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Olol (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • SVT, slows ventricular rate during atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Amiodarone

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Class III antiarrhythmic K Channel Blockers

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Used when other antiarrhthymics fail
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • K channel blocker. Increases AP duration, Increase effective refractory period, Increase QT interval.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Ibutilide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Class III antiarrhythmic K Channel Blockers

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Used when other antiarrhthymics fail
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • K channel blocker. Increases AP duration, Increase effective refractory period, Increase QT interval.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Dofetilide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Class III antiarrhythmic K Channel Blockers

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Used when other antiarrhthymics fail
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • K channel blocker. Increases AP duration, Increase effective refractory period, Increase QT interval.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Sotalol

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Class III antiarrhythmic K Channel Blockers

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Used when other antiarrhthymics fail
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • K channel blocker. Increases AP duration, Increase effective refractory period, Increase QT interval.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Adenosine

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Antiarrhythmic

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • DOC in diagnosing/abolishing supraventricular tachycardia.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Very short acting drug that increase the K+ flow out of the cell, thus hyperpolarizing the cell and decreasing the flow of Ca2+ ions.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Mg2+

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Antiarrhythmic

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Effective in torsades de pointes and digoxin toxicity.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Lispro

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Insulin Rapid Acting

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Type 1 DM, Type 2 DM, gestatiol diabetes, lifethreatening hyperkalemia, stressinduced hyperglycemia.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Bind insulin receptor (tyrosine kise activity). Increases glucose stored as glycogen in liver, increases glycogen and protein synthesis in the muscle, and aids TG storage in visceral fat
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Aspart

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Insulin rapid Acting

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Type 1 DM, Type 2 DM, gestatiol diabetes, lifethreatening hyperkalemia, stressinduced hyperglycemia.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Bind insulin receptor (tyrosine kise activity). Increases glucose stored as glycogen in liver, increases glycogen and protein synthesis in the muscle, and aids TG storage in visceral fat
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Glulisine

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Insulin Rapid Acting

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Type 1 DM, Type 2 DM, gestatiol diabetes, lifethreatening hyperkalemia, stressinduced hyperglycemia.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Bind insulin receptor (tyrosine kise activity). Increases glucose stored as glycogen in liver, increases glycogen and protein synthesis in the muscle, and aids TG storage in visceral fat
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Regular

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Insulin Short Acting

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Type 1 DM, Type 2 DM, gestatiol diabetes, lifethreatening hyperkalemia, stressinduced hyperglycemia.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Bind insulin receptor (tyrosine kise activity). Increases glucose stored as glycogen in liver, increases glycogen and protein synthesis in the muscle, and aids TG storage in visceral fat
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • NPH

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Insulin Intermediate Acting

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Type 1 DM, Type 2 DM, gestatiol diabetes, lifethreatening hyperkalemia, stressinduced hyperglycemia.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Bind insulin receptor (tyrosine kise activity). Increases glucose stored as glycogen in liver, increases glycogen and protein synthesis in the muscle, and aids TG storage in visceral fat
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Glargine

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Insulin Long Acting

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Type 1 DM, Type 2 DM, gestatiol diabetes, lifethreatening hyperkalemia, stressinduced hyperglycemia.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Bind insulin receptor (tyrosine kise activity). Increases glucose stored as glycogen in liver, increases glycogen and protein synthesis in the muscle, and aids TG storage in visceral fat
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Detemir

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Insulin Long Acting

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Type 1 DM, Type 2 DM, gestatiol diabetes, lifethreatening hyperkalemia, stressinduced hyperglycemia.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Bind insulin receptor (tyrosine kise activity). Increases glucose stored as glycogen in liver, increases glycogen and protein synthesis in the muscle, and aids TG storage in visceral fat
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Metformin

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Biguanides

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 1st line for Type 2 DM. Oral.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Decrease gluconeogenesis, Increase glycolysis, Increase peripheral glucose uptake (insulin sensitivity)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Tolbutamide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Sulfonylureas

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Stimulate release of endogenous insulin in type 2 DM. Requires islet function, so useless in type 1 DM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Close K+ channel in Betacell membrane in the islets, so cell depolarizes > triggering of insulin release via increase Ca2+ influx
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Chlorpropamide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Sulfonylureas

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Stimulate release of endogenous insulin in type 2 DM. Requires islet function, so useless in type 1 DM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Close K+ channel in Betacell membrane in the islets, so cell depolarizes > triggering of insulin release via increase Ca2+ influx
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Glyburide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Sulfonylureas

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Stimulate release of endogenous insulin in type 2 DM. Requires islet function, so useless in type 1 DM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Close K+ channel in Betacell membrane in the islets, so cell depolarizes > triggering of insulin release via increase Ca2+ influx
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Glimepiride

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Sulfonylureas

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Stimulate release of endogenous insulin in type 2 DM. Requires islet function, so useless in type 1 DM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Close K+ channel in Betacell membrane in the islets, so cell depolarizes > triggering of insulin release via increase Ca2+ influx
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Glipizide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Sulfonylureas

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Stimulate release of endogenous insulin in type 2 DM. Requires islet function, so useless in type 1 DM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Close K+ channel in Betacell membrane in the islets, so cell depolarizes > triggering of insulin release via increase Ca2+ influx
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Pioglitazone

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Glitazones

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Used as monotherapy in type 2 DM or combined with metformin/sulfonylureas
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Increases insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissue by binding to PPARgamma nuclear transcription regulator.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Rosiglitazone

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Glitazones

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Used as monotherapy in type 2 DM or combined with metformin/sulfonylureas
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Increases insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissue by binding to PPARgamma nuclear transcription regulator.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Acarbose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Alphaglucosidase inhibitors

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Used as monotherapy in type 2 DM or combined with metformin/sulfonylureas
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Inhibit intestil brushborder alphaglucosidase enzymes. This delays sugar hydrolysis and glucose absorption, which will decrease postprandial hyperglycemia.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Miglitol

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Alphaglucosidase inhibitors

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Used as monotherapy in type 2 DM or combined with metformin/sulfonylureas
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Inhibit intestil brushborder alphaglucosidase enzymes. This delays sugar hydrolysis and glucose absorption, which will decrease postprandial hyperglycemia.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Pramlinitide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Amylin alogs

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Type 1 DM, Type 2 DM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Decreases the release of glucagon.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Exetide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          GLP1 alogs

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Type 2 DM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Increase the release of insulin, decrease the release of glucagon.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Liraglutide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            GLP1 alogs

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Type 2 DM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Increase the release of insulin, decrease the release of glucagon.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Ligliptin

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DDP4 inhibitor

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Gliptin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Diabetes mellitus, Type 2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Increases insulin release, decreases glucagon release
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Saxagliptin

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DDP4 inhibitor

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Gliptin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Diabetes mellitus, Type 2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Increases insulin release, decreases glucagon release
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Sitagliptin

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DDP4 inhibitor

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Gliptin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Diabetes mellitus, Type 2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Increases insulin release, decreases glucagon release
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Propylthiouracil

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Thyroid peroxidase inhibitor

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Hyperthyroidism
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Inhibits oxidiation of iodide, inhibits organification of iodine, blocks 5'deiodise to decrease peripheral conversion of T4 to T3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Methimazole

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