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NEUROLOGY
272 terms share this category
Abducens Nerve

The cranial nerve responsible for "leading" the eye "away" from the midline.

  • Ducere (Latin) - To Lead
  • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Cranial Nerve VI
  • Innervates the lateral rectus muscle
  • The abducens nerve or abducens nerve (the sixth cranial nerve, also called the sixth nerve or simply CNVI) is a somatic efferent nerve that, in humans, controls the movement of a single muscle, the lateral rectus muscle of the eye
  • Acetylcholine

    Neurotransmitter that acts in the autonomic and somatic motor nervous system

  • Seen in neuromuscular junction synapses, all parasympathetic synapses, all preganglionic sympathetic synapses, and some postganglionic sympathetic synapses (sweat glands)
  • In brain, involved in plasticity, reward, and arousal
  • Damage to cholinergic neurons involved in Alzheimer's
  • First called Vagusstoff because it was first identified being released from the vagus nerve to slow the heart

  • MedyQuestion
    • A middle-aged woman has blurry and double vision 10 hours after eating preserved vegetables. A few hours after these symptoms she begins to experience dysphagia, xerostomia, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, weakness of the distal muscles, and urinary retention. She is alert and conscious. Which of the following is mechanisms is most likely contributing to her condition?

    USMLE Step 1

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    A quickly onset "sharp" condition of "inflammation" "spread abroad" or all over the "marrow" of the "brain".

    • Acuere (Latin) - To Sharpen, sharply onset
    • Disseminatus (Latin) - To Spread Abroad
    • Enkephalos (Greek) - Brain, WIthin the Head
    • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Commonly seen after an infection
  • Caused by autoimmune white matter demyelination
  • Symptoms include fever, headache, seizures, or coma 1 to 3 weeks after an infection
  • Treatment is corticosteroids
  • Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculopathy

    A quickly onset "sharp" condition in which "many" Schwann cells, or "marrow" of the nerve cells are "set aflame" or destroyed at the "root" of the brain.

    • De (Latin) - Away, Off, Down
    • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
    • Polloi (Greek) - Many
    • Radicula (Latin) - Pertaining to the ROOTS (Root, Language, Definition_1, status, user_id)
    • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
  • Variant of GuillainBarre
  • Symmetric ascending weakness beginning in legs
  • Increased CSF protein with normal cell count
  • Papilledema
  • Associated with Campylobacter jejuni and CMV
  • Discovered by Georges Guillain and Jean Barre in 1916 in two soldiers with ascending paralysis.
  • Adrenoleukodystrophy

    A disease in which there is an accumulation of very long chain fatty acids in the "white" matter of the CNS and inside the organ "near" the "kidneys" adrenal cortex, leading to "bad" "nourishment" of the tissue.

    • Ad (Latin) - Near, At, To Add On
    • Renes (Latin) - Kidneys
    • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
    • Dys (Greek) - Bad, Ill, Abnormal, Evil
    • Trophe (Greek) - Food, Nourishment
  • Peroxisomal beta oxidation problem
  • Xlinked
  • Adrenal insufficiency
  • Progressive demyelination leading to vegetative state
  • Akinesia

    "Without" the ability to "move" voluntarily.

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Kinein (Greek) - Motion, to move
  • Common in severe Parkinson's disease because of a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the direct pathway of movement in the basal ganglia.
  • Med literally without movement
  • Alar plate

    Posterior (dorsal) division of the neural tube which develops into sensory neurons med for it "wing"like appearance.

    • Alaris (Latin) - Wing, armpit, wing of an army
    • Plata (Latin) - Plate, piece of metal
    Amaurosis fugax

    A painless, "fleeting" "darkening" in one eye.

  • Most often caused by a clot originating from the carotid artery
  • Can be due to inflammation of arteries supplying the eye, such as giant cell arteritis
  • Amblyopia

    "Dull" vision in one "eye".

  • Also known as lazy eye
  • Amygdala

    The two "almond shaped" nuclei located in the temporal lobes of the brain.

  • An integral part of the limbic system
  • Help with memory, emotions, and decision making
  • The me is derived from the small almond shaped distribution the amygdala makes up in the brain.
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    A condition in which the "muscle" becomes "without" "nourishment" and atrophied leading to stiffening or "hardening" of the body. med for the "sides" because the weakness begins in your limbs before moving more central.

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Mus (Greek) - Muscle, mouse
    • Trophe (Greek) - Food, Nourishment
    • Latus (Latin) - The side
    • Skleroun (Greek) - To Harden
  • An upper and lower motor neuron disease in which the person ultimately loses the ability to control their muscles leading to atrophy, paralysis, and ultimate death
  • Differentiated from multiple sclerosis by the fact that there is no loss of sensation
  • Characterized by spasticity, muscle weakness, dysphagia and problems breathing
  • Most common cause of death is respiratory failure due to ability to contract the diaphragm or pneumonia.
  • Known more commonly as Lou Gehrig's Disease because of its history of debilitating and ultimately leading to the death of hall of fame baseball player Lou Gehrig.
  • Analgesia

    To be "without" "feeling pain".

    • An (Greek) - Without, not
    • Algein (Greek) - To feel pain
  • COX2 inhibitors
  • Opioids including heroin
  • Painkillers
  • Opium is the oldest known algesic derived from the poppy plant. Homer in the Iliad refers to opium as the bringer of sleep and forgetfulness .
  • Anencephaly

    To be "without" a "head or brain".

    • An (Greek) - Without, not
    • En (Greek) - Within
    • Kephale (Greek) - Head
  • Neural tube defect cranially is often times preventable with folic acid gestational treatment
  • High levels of AFP are indicative of neural tube defects (due to leakage from the fetus)
  • From Latin literally meaning without head, this condition is often times confused with acrania, a condition in which non of the skull develops including facial features.
  • Anesthesia

    To be "without" "sensation", or numb.

    Anopia

    To be "without" "sight".

    • An (Greek) - Without, not
    • Opsis (Greek) - Sight, eye
  • Basal hemianopia is when vision is lost on this medial aspect of both eyes
  • Bitemporal hemianopia is when vision is lost on the lateral aspect of both eyes
  • Antalgic gait

    A "walking" pattern developed in order to be "without" "pain" when one walks.

    • Anti (Greek) - Against, opposite, opposed to
    • Algein (Greek) - To feel pain
    • Gate (Middle English) - A going or walking
  • Associated with pelvic girdle pain and osteoarthritis
  • Aqueductal stenosis

    A "condition" in which there is a "growing" of the cell that "leads or conducts" "water" or cerebrosis fluid from the 3rd to the 4th ventricle of the brain.

    • Aqua (Latin) - Water
    • Ductus (Latin) - A Leading, Conducting, or Aqueduct
    • Stenos (Greek) - Narrow
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Blockage of the aqueduct of Sylvius can lead to hydrocephalus, specifically as a common cause of congenital and/or obstructive hydrocephalus
  • Symptoms include: headache, nausea and vomiting, cognitive difficulty, sleepiness, seizures, balance and gait disturbances, visual abnormalities, and incontinence
  • Asterixis

    A motor disorder in which the hand is "not" able to keep a "fixed position" when extended and as a result, flaps up and down.

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Sterixis (Greek) - Fixed position
  • This occurs secondary to hepatic encephalopathy due to high levels ammonia in the brain from liver damage
  • The sign is elicited when the patient upper palm and fingers and pushed backwards towards the wrist and let go, leading to a flapping motion of the hand
  • Late stage sign of excess ammonia in the blood
  • Astigmatism

    A condition in which a person's vision is "not" on "point".

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Stigma (Greek) - A point, spot, puncture
  • It is a type of refractive error of the eye causing blurred vision, squinting, eye strain, fatigue and headaches
  • Astrocyte

    A "Star"shaped "cell" of the brain.

    • Astro (Greek) - Star
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Glial cells that support neurons of the brain and spinal cord
  • They are the most abundant cell of the human brain
  • Functions include physical support, repair, potassium metabolism, removal of excess neurotransmitter, part of blood brain barrier
  • Contributes to glial scar
  • Marker: GFAP
  • Derived from neuroectoderm.
  • Athetosis

    A "condition" in which the fingers, hands, toes and feed, become "without position" leading to writing movements.

    • Athetos (Greek) - Without position
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Athetosis is a symptom primarily caused by degeneration of the basal ganglia and commonly associated with Huntington's Disease.
  • Basal ganglia

    The "nerve bundle" of the brain responsible for the "foundation" of movement.

  • Primary function is likely to control and regulate activities of the motor and premotor cortical areas so that voluntary movements can be performed smoothly
  • Damage occurs in Parkinson disease resulting in tremor at rest, chorea and athetosis
  • First atomical identification of distinct subcortical structures was published by Thomas Willis in 1664.
  • Basal plate

    The "flat" part of the developing nervous system that serves as the "foundation" for the formation of the primary motor neurons

    • Basal (Latin) - Foundation
    • Plata (Latin) - Plate, piece of metal
  • In the developing nervous system, located ventrally and contains primarily motor neurons
  • Differentiation of neurons in the basal plate is under the influence of the protein Sonic hedgehog
  • Bradykinesia

    Abnormal "slowness" of "movement".

  • Parkinson's disease presents with triad of bradykinesia: resting tremor and rigidity
  • Also seen in neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
  • Cataract

    Painless clouding of the lens that leads to decrease in vision; the white opacities resemble the bottom of a "waterfall"

    • Katarhaktes (Greek) - Waterfall, broken water; a kindof portcullis
  • Most commonly due to aging
  • Seen in congenital rubella along with patent ductus arteriosus and deafness
  • Large amounts of galactitol in galactosis deficiency
  • Classic galactosemia, galactosis deficiency, diabetes, sorbitol, chronic steroid use
  • Caudate

    "Tail"like structure of basal ganglia and is responsible for voluntary movement

  • Degenerated in Huntington's disease
  • Huntington's
  • Cavernous sinus

    Large network of "bent and folded" veins that occupy "hollow spaces" on both sides of the pituitary gland

    • Cavus (Latin) - Hollow, Space
    • Sinus (Latin) - Bend, fold, curve, a bent surface; a bay, bight, gulf; a fold in land; hollow curve or cavity in the body
  • Contain CN III, IV, V1, V2, VI and internal carotid artery
  • CN VI is closest to internal carotid artery and runs through the middle rather than lateral wall like all the other nerves
  • Rupture of internal carotid artery can lead to arteriovenous fistulas
  • Central pontine myelinolysis

    A "destruction" of cells that make up the coating of nerves, located in the center of the brainstem or "bridge" to the "brain."

    • Centrum (Latin) - Center
    • Pons (Latin) - Bridge
    • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
    • Lysis (Greek) - Destruction, A loosening, setting free, releasing, dissolution
  • Hyponatremia, rapid correction, paralysis
  • Rapid correction (rapid rise in serum tonicity) of hyponatremia can cause damage to the myelin sheath of nerve cells in the pons resulting in acute paralysis, dysphagia, and dysarthria.
  • Osmotic demyelination syndrome is similar to Central pontine myelinolysis except it includes areas outside the pons.
  • Central scotoma

    A loss of vision or "darkening" in "central" area of the visual field.

  • Loss of central vision, vascular lesion, glaucoma, AMD
  • Can be unilateral or bilateral depending on the location of the lesion.
  • Cerebellum

    A "small brain" responsible for coordinated movement.

  • Motor control, coordination
  • Posterior region of the brain tucked underneath the cerebral hemispheres involved in motor control, some cognitive functions such as attention and language, and regulating fear and pleasure responses
  • The cerebellum does not initiate movements but contributes to coordination, precision, and accurate timing.
  • Due to its distinctive appearance, early atomists recognized the cerebellum, however, people such as Aristotle did not consider it part of the brain (encephalon brain proper) and med it proencephalon (sameasbrain).
  • Choledocolithiasis

    A "condition" in which a "stone" blocks the flow of "bile" in the common bile duct, the place where "two" vessels, the common hepatic duct and the cystic duct meet.

  • Think obstruction (choledocholithiasis, biliary atresia, etc.) with conjugated hyperbilirubinemia
  • Can cause abdominal and upper right quadrant pain
  • Increased alkphos on labs
  • Chorea

    An involuntary movement of the hands or feet, similar to uncontrolled "dancing."

  • Movement disorder, involuntary, dancing
  • Chorea can be caused by Huntington's disease, rheumatic fever, CreutzfeldJacob disease, Wilson's disease, and certain drugs. The St. Vitus dance in the 15th century was a mass hysteria characterized by uncontrolled dancing
  • Cingulate gyrus

    A part of the brain shaped like the upper half of a "ring" or "circle" that functions in emotions, learning and memory.

  • Corpus callosum, emotion, motivation
  • Lies above the corpus callosum and functions in emotion formation and processing, learning, and memory
  • Therefore, it is very important in linking behavioral outcomes to motivation.
  • Cingulate herniation

    The movement or "rupture" of an inner, central and "girdle" like part of the brain into another area that occurs as a result of high pressures within the skull cavity and can lead to coma and death.

  • Flax cerebra, cingulate gyros, swelling of cerebral hemispheres
  • The most common type of herniation where the innermost part of the frontal lobe is pushed under part of the falx cerebri (separates the cerebral hemispheres), usually occurring when swelling of the cerebral hemispheres pushes the cingulate gyrus by the falx cerebri
  • Cingulate herniation is thought to be a precursor to other types of herniation.
  • Cochlea

    A spiralshaped cavity resembling a "snail shell" located in the inner ear that functions in hearing .

  • Auditory portion of the inner ear
  • Organ of Corti (the sensory organ of hearing).
  • The coiled form of the cochlea is unique to mammals, while nonmammalian vertebrates possess a blindended tube called the cochlear duct. The difference in shape evolved in parallel with the differences in frequency range of hearing between mammalian and nonmammalian vertebrates, with mammals able to hear at much higher frequencies.
  • Craniopharyngioma

    A benign "mass" in the "head" or "throat".

    • Kranion (Greek) - Head, Skull
    • Pharynx (Greek) - Throat, windpipe
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Aka Rathke pouch tumors, hypophyseal duct tumors, pituitary gland
  • A typically benign brain tumor derived from the pituitary gland embryonic tissue
  • It is most common is childhood and adolescence and then again common in 50 60 year olds.
  • Cyclopia

    A congenital condition in which there is one "circular" "eye".

    • Cyclo (Greek) - Wheel, Circular
    • Opia (Greek) - Eye, face
  • Single orbit, birth defect, holoprosencephaly
  • Rare fetal malformation characterized by failure of the prosencephalon to properly divide the orbits of the eye into two cavities
  • A rare form of holoprosencephaly
  • Cycloplegia

    A condition in which the smooth "wheel"like or circular muscle of the eye, (ciliary muscle), because "stricken" or paralyzed.

  • Paralysis of the ciliary muscle of the eye
  • Causes the eye to be unable to accomadate to view objects at varying distances
  • Delerium Tremens

    A condition caused by the withdrawl of alcohol that classicly presents with a "deviation away" from normal brain functioning and violent "trembling" or shaking.

  • Commonly referred to as DT's
  • A potentially deadly withdrawl condition that occurs between 2 and 3 days after the cessation of alcohol in a chronic alcoholic
  • Symptoms include confusion, agitation, visual and tactile hallucinations (things crawling on the skin) and high blood pressure
  • Patients often die from seizures and exceedingly high body temperatures
  • Dementia

    A condition in which an individual is literally "out of his mind".

    • Dementia (Latin) - Madness, Insanity, Literally being Out of One's Mind
  • Declining mental ability and memory
  • Alzheimer's disease
  • A decline in mental ability in which one's memory and thinking can be effected. A common example is Alzheimer's disease.
  • Dementia Pugilistica

    A type of "madness" or loss of brain function commonly seen in "boxers" due to repeated head trauma.

    • Dementia (Latin) - Madness, Insanity, Literally being Out of One's Mind
    • Pugil (Latin) - Boxer
  • A type of dementia commonly seen secondary to repeated concussions
  • Seen in professional wrestlers, boxers and hockey players due to repeated head trauma
  • Characteristically obtain features of parkinsonism as well as memory issues, lack of coordination and decreasing mental ability
  • One of the most famous cases of this condition can be seen in Muhammad Ali
  • Dentate nucleus

    A part of the cerebellum med for its "toothed," or ridged appearance.

  • White matter
  • Motor & nonmotor functions
  • Cerebellum
  • A nucleus of the cerebellum located in deep white matter and connects the cerebellum to the rest of the brain. Important for movement and nonmotor functions.
  • Diastole

    The period of time in which the ventricles of the heart are "made ready" to have blood pass "through" or into the them.

    • Dia (Greek) - Through, completely
    • Stellein (Greek) - To make ready, set, arrange, to place
  • When the muscles of the heart relax, allowing for filling of the ventricles
  • During this time, the mitral and tricuspid valves are open
  • Most of the diastolic filling is done by gravity, and not through pumping of the atriua
  • Dilator

    A pharmacological treatment used to induce "dilation" or ballooning.

    • Dilatare (Latin) - To Spread Out, to Widen
  • Dilation
  • Dolor

    "Pain".

  • One of the main characteristics of inflammation, along with rubor (redness), calor (heat), tumor (swelling), and functio laesa (loss of function).
  • Dupuytren’s contracture

    A thickening and "drawing together" of the palmar fascia causing contraction that can lead over time that can cause permanent flexion of the fingers

  • Commonly seen in the 4th and 5th digits
  • Do not confuse with ulnar nerve damage causing the "hand of benediction"
  • Dura mater

    The "hard" outermost "mother," or covering of the brain.

  • The outermost covering of the brain and spinal cord
  • Covers the arachnoid mater and pia mater
  • Is the hardest of the three layers covering the brain because of its proximity to the skull

  • Mnemonics
    The layers that PAD the brain
    Meninges:layers in order
    Piamater, Arachnoid, Dura
    Dysthymia

    A less severe form of depression, which has less severe symptoms but lasts for a longer period of time. Think "bad state of mind/spirit".

    • Dys (Greek) - Bad, Ill, Abnormal, Evil
    • Thymos (Greek) - Mood, Emotion, Spirit
  • Depression
  • Echinococcus Granulosus

    A cestode (tapeworm) which can cause hydatid disease in humans (cysts in the liver, lung and brain). AKA hydatid worm, their body segments have a tough outer shell of tegument that resembles a "prickly berry".

    • Echinos (Greek) - Pickly Husk
    • Coccus (Latin) - Berry shaped, spherical
    • Granum (Latin) - Grain, seed
  • Echinococcus' main target (primary host) is the small intestine of dogs, and they use sheep as intermediate hosts. Humans are considered a dead end host.
  • Efferent

    A vessel that "carries" something "out of" or away from.

    • Ex (Latin) - Out of
    • Ferre (Latin) - To bear, to carry
  • General principle in all of medicine: efferent describes moving away and afferent describes something moving towards
  • E.g.. Motor efferent carry signals from the nervous system to an effector organ. Afferent sensory nerves carry sensations towards the nervous system
  • Elliptocyte

    A red blood "cell" that "falls short" of forming into a normal round cell and instead is oval shaped or elongated.

    • Ellipsis (Latin) - A Falling Short, Defecit
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Red blood cell
  • Oval
  • Elongated
  • Ovalocyte
  • Endomysium

    Layer of connective "tissue" that encircles individual "muscle" fibers "within" small bundles.

    • Endon (Greek) - Within, Inside, Interl
    • My (Greek) - Muscle
    • Ium (Greek) - Structure, tissue
  • Muscle fibers
  • Connective tissue
  • Endotoxin

    "Poison" found "within" gram negative bacteria that leads to an immune response by the host.

    • Endon (Greek) - Within, Inside, Interl
    • Toxikon (Greek) - Poison
  • Gram negative bacteria
  • Immune response
  • Toxin
  • Eosinophilic granuloma

    "Seed"like lesions on the skin composed of "dawn" colored cells.

    • Eos (Greek) - Dawn
    • Philein (Greek) - To love
    • Granum (Latin) - Grain, seed
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Benign form of Langerhans cell histiocytosis
  • May present as lytic bone lesions that could potentially cause bone pain and fracture
  • Presents in cats as skin diseases
  • Ependymal cells

    "Cells" that line the "upper" portion of the body in the head and spinal cord.

    • Ependyma (Greek) - An Upper Garment
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Produce cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
  • Epididymis

    A tightlycoiled tube "upon" the "testicle" that connects the efferent duct of the testicle to the vas deferens.

    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Didumos (Greek) - Testicle
  • Site of sperm storage and maturation
  • Epiglottitis

    Acute inflammation of the tissue "above" the windpipe and behind the "tongue."

    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Glossa (Greek) - Tongue
  • Commonly associated with H. influenza Type B
  • Commonly presents as enlarged cherryred epiglottis and arytenoids
  • Thumb print sign on lateral xray
  • George Washington may died of complications from epiglottitis in 1799.
  • Epinephrine

    Catecholamine that acts as both a hormone and a neurotransmitter produced "around or near" the "kidneys".

    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
  • Secreted by adrenal gland medulla and sympathetic nerve fibers
  • Treats aphylaxis, open angle glaucoma, and hypotension
  • Stimulates glycogenolysis
  • Inhibits glycogenesis
  • Fanconi syndrome (vs Fanconi anemia)

    Proximal renal tubule defect causing urine excretion of glucose, amino acids, uric acid, phosphate, and bicarbonate. inherited or from drugs/heavy metals. Distinct from Fanconi anemia

    • Renal tubular acidosis
    • The syndrome and anemia were both named after Guido Fanconi, a Swiss pediatrician
    • Fasciculation

      Small, involuntary twitch of a "little bundle" of muscles.

    • Lower motor neuron sign
    • Fasciculus cuneatus

      "Bundle" of nerves shaped like a "wedge" in the spinal cord that carries dorsal column innervation to the upper body and arms.

    • Associated with BrownSequard syndrome, tertiary syphilis, and pernicious anemia
    • Lateral to fasciculus gracilis
    • Fibromuscular dysplasia

      A "bad" "formation" of the "small fibers" that compose "muscle" tissue.

      • Fibra (Latin) - A fiber, filament, entrail
      • Mus (Greek) - Muscle, mouse
      • Dys (Greek) - Bad, Ill, Abnormal, Evil
      • Plasis (Greek) - Molding, Formation
    • Commonly seen in young women, and it can be a cause of secondary hypertension (i.e. a curable form of hypertension)
    • Primary (or essential) hypertension is much more common than secondary hypertension
    • Follicular lymphoma

      A "mass" of cells usually found in the "clear" liquid of the blood found within "little bags" of the lymph nodes

      • Folliculus (Latin) - Little bag
      • Lympha (Latin) - Water, clear water, a goddess of water
      • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
    • Bcl2 overexpression
    • May present as painless lymphadenopathy
    • Foramen ovale

      An "eggshaped" "hole" in the fetal heart which shunts blood from the right to left atrium

      • Foramen (Latin) - Hole, opening, aperture, orifice
      • Ovalis (Latin) - Eggshaped
    • Normally closes at birth to form fossa ovalis
    • Patent foramen ovale may cause paradoxical embolism
    • Foramen primum

      The "first" fetal interatrial heart "opening".

      • Foramen (Latin) - Hole, opening, aperture, orifice
      • Primus (Latin) - First, the first part
    • Found between the endocardial cushions and the growing septum primum that eventually closes prior to the completion of fetal heart development.
    • Foramen secundum

      The "second" fetal interatrial heart "opening"

      • Foramen (Latin) - Hole, opening, aperture, orifice
      • Secundus (Latin) - Next, following, second
    • Found within the growing septum primum, eventually closing prior to the completion of fetal heart development
    • Maintains left to right shunt in the fetal heart
    • Becomes foramen ovale as septum secundum grows over foramen secundum.
    • Foramen spinosum

      A "hole" located anterior to the "spine" of the sphenoid bone through which the middle meningeal artery, middle meningeal vein, and the meningeal branch of the mandibular nerve travel

      Frontal bone

      The anterior "bone" of the cranium that covers the "forehead".

      • Frontalis (Latin) - Brow, forehead
      • Ban (Old English) - Bone, tusk
      Galactorrhea

      The spontaneous "flow" of "milk" from the breast that is unassociated with childbirth or nursing

    • Possible causes include prolactinoma, antipsychotics, and cimetidine
    • Commonly seen with pituitary adenoma due to the overproduction of prolactin
    • Glanzmann thrombasthenia

      A very rare disorder of platelets that involves low levels of GPIIb/IIIA

      • Thrombos (Greek) - Clump of blood, clot of blood
      • Athenia (Greek) - Want of strenght weakness, feebleness, sickness, a sickness, a disease
    • Autosomal recessive disorder
    • Decreased binding of fibrinogen
    • Increased bleeding time
    • Nose bleeds, easy bruising, menorrhagia, and GI bleeds
    • Understanding of this disease and the GPIIb/IIIa receptor is what led to the development of a variety of antiplatelet drugs that act on this location.
    • Glaucoma

      An occular condition characterized by the development of "blueish grey" "mass" like appearance in the eye.

      • Glaukos (Greek) - Bluish green, bluish grey
      • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
    • Increased pressure from increased volume of aqueous humor or blocked trabecular meshwork
    • May lead to permanent nerve damage and blindness
    • Differentiated between open and closed angle glaucoma
    • Etymological origin of "glaucoma" was coined to describe cataracts, as the two had not been distinguished yet.
    • Globin

      A "spherical" protein

      • Globus (Latin) - Sphere, globe
    • May bind oxygen and heme
    • Composed primarily of soluble alpha helixes
    • Prominent examples include hemoglobin and myoglobin
    • Globose nucleus

      The deep cerebellar "spherical" shaped "kernel" located between the emboliform nucleus and fastigial nucleus.

      Glossitis

      "Inflammation" of the "tongue"

      • Glossa (Greek) - Tongue
      • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
    • Characterized as strawberry tongue in scarlet fever
    • Associated with irondeficiency anemia, niacin and folate deficiencies, and infection
    • Hallucination

      Visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, or tactile perceptions that occur "unreasonably" in the absence of external stimuli.

      • Alucinari (Latin) - Wander (in the mind), dream, talk unreasobly
    • Symptom of psychosis
    • Sir Thomas Browne invented the word hallucination to describe how the mind wanders.
    • Hansen's Disease

      More commonly called leprosy, a contagious disease that affects the skin, mucous membranes, and nerves, causing discoloration and lumps. In severe cases, it can lead to disfigurement and deformities.

    • May be lepromatous (primarily Th2 response) or tuberculoid (primarily Th1 response)
    • Tuberculoid form treated with dapsone and rifampin, lepromatous form treated with clofazimine, dapsone, and rifampin
    • 1930s: med after Gerhard H. A. Hansen (1841–1912), the Norwegian physician who discovered the causative agent of the disease.
    • Helicase

      An "enzyme" that unwinds "spiral" D at the replication fork.

      • Helix (Greek) - Spiral, coil
      • Ase (English) - Used to form the me of enzymes
    • Helicase was first discovered in E. coli and was known as the D unwinding enzyme.
    • Helper Tlymphocyte

      Subtype of T "cells" that live within the "clear water" of the body, that "support" the stimulation of antibody class switching in B cells and activating cytotoxic T cells. They are produced by the "thymus gland".

      • Helpan (Old English) - To support
      • Thumos (Greek) - Excrescence like a thyme bud, thymus gland
      • Lympha (Latin) - Water, clear water, a goddess of water
      • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Th1 helper Tcells activate macrophages
    • Th1 cells secrete IL2 and IFNgamma
    • Th2 helper Tcells recruit eosinophils for parasite defense and promote IgE Bcell production
    • Th2 cells secrete IL4, IL5, IL10, IL13

    • Mnemonics
      Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas
      The concentrations of the various immune cell types
      Neutrophils (the most), Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Erythrocytes, Basophils (least)
      Hematopoiesis

      "To make blood" from stem cells.

    • Stem cells may undergo myeloid or lymphoid differentiation.
    • Literally named to make blood
    • Hemianopia

      Losing "sight" in "half" of the eyes.

      • Hemi (Greek) - Half
      • Opsis (Greek) - Sight, eye
    • Associated with strokes, tumors, and trauma
    • Hemicorporectomy

      A surgical procedure in which "half" of the "body" is "cut" "out".

    • First stage is to discontinue waste functions
    • Second stage is amputation
    • The first successful hemicorporectomy was done in Minnesota in 1961.
    • Hemiparesis

      A condition in which "half" or "side" of the body experiences a "letting go" of strength" becoming weak and unable to move voluntarily.

      • Hemi (Greek) - Half
      • Para (Greek) - Along, side, beside, near, against, contrary to
      • Hienai (Greek) - Let go
    • Associated with strokes, tumors, infection, multiple sclerosis, and trauma among other things
    • Hereditary telangiectasia

      An "inherited" condition in which a person develops small "dilations" at the "end" of "blood vessels" often found on the skin that blanch with pressure.

      • Hereditatem (Latin) - Heirship, inheritance, condition of being an heir
      • Telos (Greek) - The end
      • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
      • Ektasis (Greek) - A Stretching Out, Extension, Dilation
    • An autosomal dominant genetic disorder that leads to abnormal blood vessel formation in the skin, mucous membranes, and often in organs such as the lungs, liver, and brain
    • Causes arteriovenous malformations
    • Symptoms include telangiectasia, hematuria, GI bleeding, and epistaxis
    • Hiatal

      An "opening" or "gap".

      • Hiatus (Latin) - Opening, aperture, rupture, gap
    • Usually used to describe a hiatal hernia, a protrusion of the upper part of the stomach through a break in the diaphragm
    • Hodgkin lymphoma

      Lymph node tumor localized to a single group of nodes

      • Lympha (Latin) - Water, clear water, a goddess of water
      • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
    • Characterized by ReedSternberg cells
    • Presents in a bimodal distribution
    • Associated with EBV
    • Symptoms include the classic B signs of lowgrade fever, night sweats, and weight loss
    • Hodgkin's lymphoma was discovered by Thomas Hodgkin while he was a museum curator at a hospital.
    • Hydrocele

      "Swelling" of "water" in a body cavity.

      • Hydro (Greek) - Water
      • Kele (Greek) - Swelling, hernia, tumor
    • Hydrocele testis is an increase in fluid due to incomplete fusion of the processus vaginalis and leads to increased size of the scrotum
    • Hydrocephalus

      "Water" in the "head."

    • Buildup of CSF in the brain's ventricles, leading to increased intracranial pressure
    • Symptoms include headaches, tunnel vision, and mental disabilities
    • May be communicating or noncommunicating
    • This issue was first described by Hippocrates and then refined by Galen.
    • Hypernatremia

      "Excess" "sodium" in "blood."

    • Associated with Conn Syndrome due to overproduction of aldosterone
    • The word natrium was an alternative me for sodium, hence the symbol on the periodic table of elements
    • Hypogastric nerve

      A "cord" that runs "under" the "stomach"

      • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
      • Gaster (Greek) - Stomach, belly, eater, devourer
    • A term for the transition between the superior and inferior hypogastric plexuses. The hypogastric nerve enters the sympathetic chain at T10L2
    • The sympathetic nervous system component of emission in the male sexual response
    • Hypospadias

      An opening to the urethra that results in a "tear under" the penis, usually on the underside of the shaft.

      • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
      • Spado (Latin) - A tear or gouge
    • Foreskin used to repair hypospadias
    • Inactive vaccine

      A type of vaccine in which the microbe is killed with chemicals, heat or radiation.

      • Examples include Salk polio vaccine, Influenza, Rabies, Hepatitis A
      • Elicit a weaker immune response as compared to live attenuated vaccines
      • Inferior alveolar nerve

        The nerve that runs "below" the "hollowed out space" of the jaw.

        • Inferus (Latin) - Lower Down, Below
        • Alveus (Latin) - Any hollowed out structure
        • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
      • Third branch of the trigeminal nerve
      • Inferior rectus

        An extraocular muscle that is located "lower" relative to the other extraocular muscles. Its major function is to move the eye "straight" down.

      • Innervated by oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve III)
      • Internal oblique abdominis

        An intermediate muscle of the "abdomen| that lies "deep" to the external oblique and superficial to the transverse abdominal muscle. The muscle is lies in a "slanted" orientation.

      • The oblique muscles are the sideways muscles of the abdomen with origin at the iliac crest and an insertion onto the linea alba (midline fascia of the rectus abdominis)
      • Intramural

        "Within" the "wall" of any cavity or hollow organ.

        • Intra (Latin) - On the inside, within
        • Murus (Latin) - Wall
        Jervell and LangeNielsen syndrome

        An autosomal recessive condition that causes profound hearing loss from birth and a disruption of the heart's normal rhythm, thus causing arrhythmia.

        • This disorder is a form of long QT syndrome, which is a heart condition that causes the heart (cardiac) muscle to take longer than usual to recharge between beats
        • The long QT predisposes to Torsades de pointes.
        • Lacrimal nerve

          The nerve that controls the lacrimal gland which in turn controls "tears."

          • Lacrimare (Latin) - Weep, tear
          • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
        • This nerve is the smallest of the three branches of the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve. It provides sensory innervations for the lacrimal gland, conjunctiva, and the lateral upper eyelids.
        • Leishmania Donovani

          This is a human blood parasite that is responsible for visceral leishmaniasis.

          • It infects the mononuclear phagocyte system including spleen, liver and bone marrow. Infection is transmitted by the sandfly.
          • Leishmania med after Scottish pathologist Sir William Boog Leishman
          • Donovani med after Charles Donovan, MD
          • Ligamentum venosum

            A vestigial "band" that used to shunt blood away from the umbilical "vein"

          • Allowed for placental blood to bypass the liver
          • Ductus venosus, continuous with the ligamentum teres hepatis
          • Lipoxygenase

            An "enzyme" involved in metabolism of "fat" using oxygen to do so.

            • Lipos (Greek) - Fat
            • Oxys (Greek) - Sharp
            • Ase (English) - Used to form the me of enzymes
          • Zileuton is a 5lipoxygese pathway inhibitor that treats asthma
          • Lissencephaly

            A disorder of gestation where a "smooth" "brain" is seen.

          • A condition where the brain lacks gyri and sulci
          • Caused by defective neuronal migration
          • Children will often have severe developmental delays
          • Lobar pneumonia

            An "inflammation of the lungs" affecting one of the "lobes."

            • Lobus (Latin) - Hull, husk, pod, small lobe
            • Pneumonia (Greek) - Inflammation of the lungs
          • Commonly caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenza, and Moraxella catarrhalis
          • Malingering

            An "improper" or false "weakness".

            • Mala (Latin) - Bad, Wrongly, improperly
            • Haingre (French) - Weak
          • Fabrication of the symptoms of a mental or physical disorder for secondary gain
          • Motives may include financial compensation, avoiding undesired tasks or responsibilities, or obtaining drugs
          • An example is drugseeking behavior
          • Mammary gland

            "Acorn shaped" organ in female mammalian "breasts" that produces milk.

            • Mamma (Latin) - Breast
            • Glans (Latin) - Acornshaped ball
          • Breast cancer typically originates in the lobules or ducts of the mammary glands
          • Marrow fibrosis

            "Condition" of the "center" of the bone in which bone marrow proliferate and cause replacement of marrow with connective tissue "fibers".

            • Marrow (Old English) - Inmost or central part
            • Fibra (Latin) - A fiber, filament, entrail
            • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
          • Hairy cell leukemia
          • Medial plantar nerve

            "Nerve" derived from the "medial" cord of the brachial plexus that innervates the "sole of the foot".

            • Medius (Latin) - In the middle
            • Planta (Latin) - Sole of the foot
            • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
          • Sensory innervation the sole of the foot
          • Motor innervation to the abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum brevis, flexor hallucis brevis, and the first lumbrical.
          • Medullary pyramids

            "Pyramid" shaped part of the kidney's "marrow or pith".

            Megaloblastic anemia

            Type of anemias in which "budding cells" are "larger" than normal due to impaired D synthesis leading to being "without" proper "blood" composition.

            • Megalo (Greek) - Great, large
            • Blastos (Greek) - Germ, sprout, bud or budding, immature
            • An (Greek) - Without, not
            • Haima (Greek) - Blood
          • B12 or folate deficiency
          • Melasma

            "Darkening" of skin associated with pregnancy or OCP use

            • Melas (Greek) - Dark, black, murky
            Menetrier disease

            Gastric hypertrophy disease with protein loss, parietal cell atrophy, increased mucous cells.

            • Brain gyri (due to rugae hypertrophy)
            • Meningioma

              "Growth" in the out "membranes" of the brain.

              • Meninx (Greek) - Membrane
              • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
            • Spindle cells in whorled pattern
            • Extraaxial (external to brain parenchyma)
            • May present with seizures or focal signs
            • Meningocele

              When meninges herniate through the spinal cal.

              • Meninx (Greek) - Membrane
              • Cele (Old Irish) - Associate, Companion
              Meningoencephalitis

              "Inflammation" of neural "membranes" (meninges) and "brain" parenchyma.

              • Meninx (Greek) - Membrane
              • Enkephalos (Greek) - Brain, WIthin the Head
              • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
            • Usually caused by Naeglaria Fowleri
            • Most commonly seen in people after swimming in freshwater lakes
            • Amoebas that cause the disease are seen in spinal fluid
            • The amoeba enters via cribriform plate
            • Meningoencephalitis is believed to have been the cause of death for Mary Ingalls, older sister of Laura Ingalls Wilder, author of the Little House on the Prairie series.
            • Mesangial cells

              Support "vessel" "cells" in "middle" of kidney that hold the glomerular capillaries in place.

              • Mesos (Greek) - Middle, in the middle, in between
              • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
              • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
            • Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
            • During glomerulonephritis, crescent formation can force the glomerulus and mesangium to the periphery. These crescents are composed of fibrin and macrophages.
            • Metacarpus

              Bones "beyond" the "wrist"

              • Meta (English) - Beyond, in the midst of
              • Karpos (Latin) - Wrist
            • Five bones per hand
            • Metatarsus

              Bones located "beyond'' the "ankle".

              • Meta (English) - Beyond, in the midst of
              • Tarsal (Latin) - Pertaining to the ankle or instep
            • Analog of metacarpus
            • Between phalanges and tarsal bone of ankle
            • Microcytic

              Category of anemias "in matter of" including "cells" that are "small".

              • Mikros (Greek) - Small, little, petty, trivial, slight
              • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
              • Ic (Latin) - In manner of
            • Microcytic cells have a mean corpuscular volume (MCV) of less than 80 fL
            • Iron deficiency(GI bleeding), anemia of chronic disease, sideroblastic anemia(lead poisoning, INH), and thalassemia (Mediterranean people) are all common causes of microcytic anemia
            • Microvesicular

              Fatty changes seen in liver after treating children infected by VZV or Influenza B, among others, with aspirin. Appears as "small" "hollow chambers".

              • Mikros (Greek) - Small, little, petty, trivial, slight
              • Vesica (Latin) - Bladder
            • Fat accumulates due to decreased Boxidation by reversible inhibition of mitochondrial enzymes
            • Reye syndrome
            • Exception to rule (never treat children with aspirin) is kawasaki's disease
            • Midbrain

              Rostralmost part of "middle" of brain carrying cranial nerve nuclei 3, 4, 5

              • Mid (Old English) - Together
              Mineralocorticoid

              Hormone of "outer" "layer" of adrenal cortex (glomerulosa) responsible for "mineral" (salt) and water retention.

              • Minera (Latin) - Ore
              • Cortex (Latin) - Bark of a Tree, Outer layer
              • Eidos (Greek) - Form, Resemblance or Shape, Likeness
            • Acts primarily on the kidneys.
            • Mood disorder

              A condition of a "bad" "regular" "frame of mind".

              • Mod (Old English) - Frame of mind
              • Dis (Latin) - Not, In a Different Direction, Between
              • Ordinare (Latin) - Ordain, regular
            • Characterized by abnormal range of moods or emotional states and loss of control over them
            • Impaired social, and occupational functioning.
            • Mucopurulent

              A secretion containing both "mucus" and "pus".

              • Mucus (Latin) - Slime, mold, snot
              • Pustula (Latin) - Blister, pimple
            • Mucopurulent describes discharge that contains both mucus and pus
            • Mucopurulent discharge is seen in ophthalmic and vaginal infections
            • Multiple myeloma

              A “tumor” of the “marrow” of white blood cells resulting in increased “multiple” antibody production

              • Multiplus (Latin) - Multiple
              • Muelos (Greek) - Marrow
              • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
            • Symptoms of this may include loss of kidney function, bone lesions, and hypercalcemia
            • M spike, myeloma kidney, BenceJones protein, osteolytic lesions, RANKL,

            • Medytoons
              Mycosis fungoides

              "Condition" of nonHodgkin lymphoma of mature CD4 cells, presents with "malformed" "mushroom" "fungi" shaped rashes, patches, and nodules. Called Sezary syndrome after spread to blood.

              • Mykes (Greek) - Fungus, mushroom, anything shaped like a mushroom
              • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
              • Fungus (Latin) - Mushroom
              • Eidos (Greek) - Form, Resemblance or Shape, Likeness
            • Lymphocytes with cerebriform nuclei
            • Pautrier's microabscess in the epidermis
            • Additional cause of leonine facies
            • Mydriasis

              Dilation of the pupil due to sympathetic activation. Eye appears "hot" and sparkling when dilated.

            • Alpha 1 receptor problems
            • Jimson weed contains atropine, a potent muscarinic antagonist, hence its ingestion results in mydriasis
            • Gardner's pupil
            • Myelencephalon

              Region of the "middle" of the "brain" that develops into the medulla and lower 4th ventricle.

              • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
              • En (Greek) - Within
              • Kephale (Greek) - Head
              Myocarditis

              "Inflammatory" disease of "cardiac" "muscle". It has numerous causes and may result in heart failure.

              • Myo (Greek) - Muscle
              • Kardia (Greek) - Heart
              • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
            • Diphtheria
            • Coxsackie B
            • Rheumatic fever
            • Cause of death in acute rheumatic fever

            • Medytoons
              Myopathy

              "Abnormal" "muscle" function.

              • Myo (Greek) - Muscle
              • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
              Naegleria Fowleri

              Freshwater protozoa, can cause near universally fatal meningoencephalitis if it gets to the brain

              • Amoebas in CNS
              • Don't fill Neti pots with tap water
              • Neuroectoderm

                Portion of the "outside" layer of "skin" that develops into the "nervous" system. Differentiates from the remainder of the ectoderm via the notochord.

                • Neuro (Greek) - Nerve, sinew, tendon
                • Ektos (Greek) - Outside
                • Derma (Greek) - Skin
                Norovirus

                A "poisonous substance" med after "Norwalk," Ohio where an outbreak occurred.

                • Nor (Early English) - From Norwalk, Ohio where an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred from which the virus was isolated
                • Nor (English) - Normal
                • Virus (Latin) - Poison, poisonous substance
              • Calici virus
              • Profuse watery diarrhea and vomiting
              • Cruise ships
              • Day care centers
              • Originally called the Norwalk agent after Norwalk, Ohio where the Bronson Elementary School faced an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis in children in November 1968. The virus is also called small, roundstructured viruses (SRSVs) and Snow Mountain virus. Norovirus causes illness referred to as winter vomiting disease, winter vomiting bug, viral gastroenteritis, acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis, and stomach flu though the latter is a broad term. Prevented by hand washing and avoiding buffets on cruises.
              • Nucleosome

                Part of the chromatin structure in which loops of D wrap around histone proteins to make "kernels" forming compact "bodies" of D.

              • Beads on a string
              • Nucleus accumbens

                "Kernellike" area of the basal ganglia responsible for synthesis of GABA, associated with feelings of "reclining," reward, pleasure, addiction, and fear

              • Decreased GABA in anxiety and Huntington's
              • Nucleus ambiguus

                It is a "kernellike" area of the medulla that forms an "isolated" column of gray matter.

              • Contains fibers from CN VII, IX, X
              • Receives visceral sensory information including taste, distension, and baroreceptors
              • PICA stroke leads to dysphagia and hoarseness
              • Why couldn't the pony sing in the choir? Because he was a little hoarse.
              • Nucleus pulposus

                Part of the inner "kernel" area of the intervertebral disk, it is the "soft part of the animal body."

                • Nucleus (Latin) - Kernel
                • Pulpa (Latin) - Soft part of animal body
              • Surrounded by annulus fibrosus
              • Derived from notochord
              • Occipital bone

                Bone that comprises the "back of the skull."

                • Occiput (Latin) - Back of the skull
                • Ban (Old English) - Bone, tusk
              • Foramen magnum
              • Contains bony attachments for connections to the neck
              • Oligodendrocytes

                "Treelike" "cells" which produces myelin for axons of the CNS. Each oligodendrocyte has a "few" extensions that myelitis an average of 17 axons.

                • Oligos (Greek) - Few, scanty, small, little
                • Dendron (Greek) - Tree
                • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
              • Damaged in Multiple sclerosis
              • Fried egg nucleus
              • Analogous to Schwann cells in the PNS
              • Ophthalmic nerve

                It is a branch, "cord" of cranial nerve V that carries sensory fibers to the "eye" and area around it.

              • Enters the orbit via the superior orbital fissure
              • CN V1
              • Ophthalmoplegia

                Paralysis of muscles surrounding the "eye," "striking" out any extraocular movement.

              • Internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) is a disorder of conjugate lateral gaze
              • Bilateral INO is an indication of multiple sclerosis
              • Opisthotonos

                A type of spasm in which the head and heels of the body are "tensed" "backwards" so that the head touches the heels.

                • Opisthios (Greek) - Posterior, backwards
                • Tonos (Greek) - Stretched, Tension, Pressure
              • More common in infants than in adults
              • Can be a sign of acute hydrocephalus
              • Also seen in meningitis, tetanus and kernicturus
              • Sometimes referred to as the "Opisthotonic Death Pose" because individuals who drown oftem times take on this posture
              • Many dinosaurs have been found in this position leading to beliefs that they may have drown
              • Opisthotonus

                A state of being "stretched or strained" "posteriorly" or backwards into an arched position.

                • Opisthios (Greek) - Posterior, backwards
                • Tonos (Greek) - Stretched, Tension, Pressure
              • Can be caused by spasms of the muscles that run along the spinal column.
              • Osmoreceptors

                Sensory receptors found in the hypothalamus that "receive" "impulses" and sense changes in osmotic pressure.

                • Osmos (Greek) - Impulse, a thrusting
                • Recipere (Latin) - To recieve
              • One of the areas of the brain that doesn't have a bloodbrainbarrier
              • Papillary carcinoma

                A "cancer" or "constellation" that look like "nipple"like structures.

                Parakeratosis

                A "condition" that is "like" "keratosis", except that nuclei are retained in the cells

                • Para (Greek) - Along, side, beside, near, against, contrary to
                • Keras (Greek) - Horn
                • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
              • Keratinization of the stratum corneum with the retention of nuclei
              • Paraplegia

                A condition in which one "side" or half of a person's body is "stricken" or afflicted by the inability to move.

                • Para (Greek) - Along, side, beside, near, against, contrary to
                • Plessein (Greek) - Hit
              • Can be spastic or flaccid
              • Usually caused by a spinal cord condition, such as spinal bifida
              • Parietal bone

                A skull bone which forms the lateral "walls" of the cranium

                • Paries (Latin) - A wall
                • Ban (Old English) - Bone, tusk
              • External bones of the lateral surface of the skull
              • Perinephric

                "Surrounding" the "kidney."

                • Peri (Greek) - Around, about, beyond
                • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
              • Acute pyelonephritis can result in perinephric abscesses
              • Normally, there is fat in the perinephric area.
              • Petechiae

                A “spot” or “freckle” resulting from a broken blood vessels

              • Differentiated from purpura by its size
              • Petechiae are by definition smaller than 3mm
              • Petechial rash is characteristic of Neisseria meningitidis infection
              • Petechial rash on the chest is found in fat embolization
              • May be a sign of thrombocytopenia(DIC, etc.)
              • Associated with vasculitis
              • Physiology

                The study of the function of "natural" living body systems

                Picornavirus

                "A poisonous substance" med because it's very "small" and contains an "R" genome.

                • Pico (Spanish) - Small
                • RNA (English) - Ribonucleic Acid
                • Virus (Latin) - Poison, poisonous substance
              • Contains Poliovirus, Echovirus, Rhinovirus, Coxsackievirus, and Hepatitis A
              • No envelope
              • Mostly fecaloral transmission
              • Rhinovirus is acid labile the rest are enteroviruses that are stable at low pH
              • Med for their small size as they are Pico (10^12) R viruses
              • Pilus

                A "hair"like structure found on the surface of many bacteria

              • Involved in the formation of biofilms
              • Structurally involved in bacterial conjugation
              • Can be antigenic
              • Poikilocytosis

                A "condition" in which the red blood "cells" of a smear have "varied" shapes.

                • Poikilos (Greek) - Varied
                • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
                • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
              • Can be seen in various conditions, including vitamin deficiencies
              • Polydipsia

                Abnormally high to extreme levels of "thirst". To drink "many" more times than baseline.

              • Seen in diabetes, hypokalemia
              • Is a symptom of anticholinergic poisoning
              • Related to word dipsomaniac, meaning alcoholic
              • Pompe's disease

                Glycogen storage disease II. Genetic lack of enzyme acidalpha glucosidase in lysosomes leads to build up in tissues causing progressive muscle weakness affecting many tissues, most notably the heart (cause of death).

                • The only glycogen storage disease with lysosomal metabolism defect,
                • Precordium

                  The term refers to the space that comes "before" or over "the heart" and lower thorax area.

                  • Prae (Latin) - Before in time or place
                  • Cordis (Latin) - Of the Heart
                  • Ium (Greek) - Structure, tissue
                • Precordial chest pain may indicate costochondritis or pericarditis
                • Precordial pulsations suggest right ventricular hyperactivity.
                • Prerenal azotemia

                  Disease process "before" the "kidney" that results in the accumulation of "nitrogenous" waste products in the "blood"

                  • Prae (Latin) - Before in time or place
                  • Renes (Latin) - Kidneys
                  • Azote (French) - Nitrogen
                  • Haima (Greek) - Blood
                • Caused by decreased blood flow to the kidneys in conditions like massive blood loss, heart failure, or renal artery obstruction
                • BUN:Cr > 20:1
                • Potentially reversible if blood flow is restored
                • Progesterone

                  Hormone that increases "before" implantation of the zygote is "carried out"

                  • Pro (Greek) - Before, Forward
                  • Gestare (Latin) - To carry about
                • Natural steroid hormone It plays a key in changing the endometrium into its secretory stage, preparing the uterus for implantation
                • It is an intermediate in formation of sex hormones.
                • Pterygopalatine ganglion

                  A "swelling" of nerves located in a cavity formed by the "wing"shaped bones and the bones forming the "roof of the mouth" of the skull

                  • Pteryx (Greek) - Wing
                  • Palatum (Greek) - Roof of the mouth, of the Palace
                  • Ganglion (Greek) - A tumor, swelling
                • Parasympathetic ganglion largely innervated by the greater petrosal nerve, a branch of the facial nerve. Among other things, it regulates blood flow to the sal mucosa
                • Pustule

                  A "blister" or "pimple", or a collection of pus in the epidermis.

                • Normally due to inflammation secondary to a bacterial infection
                • Staph Infection
                • Quadriplegia

                  A condition in which all four limbs (like the 4 sides of a square), of a person's body are "stricken" or afflicted by the inability to move.

                • Typically includes sensory as well as motor loss
                • Can be flaccid or spastic
                • Can be caused by trauma, congenital conditions, and progressive neurologic diseases among other conditions
                • Radius

                  "Staff"shaped lateral long bone of the forearm.

                  • Radius (Latin) - Staff, spoke, ray
                • Primarily contributes to wrist (ul contributes more to elbow)
                • Colles fracture of the radius can result from a fall on an outstretched hand
                • Retina

                  A "netlike" lightsensitive tissue layer that lines the inside surface of the eye.

                • Electrical and chemical processes enable light to be processed as visual information
                • Schizotypal

                  An illness resembling schizophrenia, or "splitting of the mind"

                • Personality disorder that is similar to schizoid but includes odd behavior and delusional
                • Spider angioma

                  A "growth" of superficial blood "vessels" resembling a spider or "spinner's" web

                  • Spinder (Danish) - The spinner
                  • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
                  • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
                • Superficial blood vessels that become swollen and look like red spider webs on the skin.
                • Often called spider telangiectasias and are commonly found in the face and extremities
                • Often associated with increased estrogen levels due to hormonal imbalances or liver failure
                • Associated with cirrhosis and elevated estrogen
                • Stapedius

                  A muscle attached to the "stirrupshaped bone in the middle ear"

                • A muscle that protects the inner ear by stabilizing the stapes bone and prevent overvibration of the stapes bone
                • Innervated by cranial nerve 7. Damage can cause hyperacusis
                • Mainly protects inner ear from one's own voice
                • Sternum

                  The "breast" bone, in front of the heart, to which the ribs attach.

                • Bone located in front of the heart, to which the ribs attach. Composed of the manubrium, the body, and the xiphoid process and it connects to the clavicles as well as the first seven pairs of ribs.
                • Breastbone, sternal angle
                • Median sternotomy
                • Streptococcus Pyogenes

                  The bacteria Streptococcus pyogenes looks like a "chain" of small "round berrylike" cells, and is responsible for a number of infections which "produce" "pus".

                  • Strepto (Greek) - Twisted
                  • Coccus (Latin) - Berry shaped, spherical
                  • Pyon (Greek) - Pus
                  • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
                • Betahemolytic gram positive cocci that commonly causes pharyngitis (strep throat), skin infections (cellulitis) and toxic shocklike skin infections. Post infection sequelae infections include glomerulonephritis and scarlet fever.
                • Bacitracin sensitive, antibodies to M proteins cause rheumatic fever, ASO titers detect strep throat infection
                • Group A Strep

                • Mnemonics
                  NIPPLES
                  Streptococcus Pyogenes
                  Necrotising fasciitis, Impetigo, Pharyngitis, Pneumonia, Lymphangitis, Erysipelas and cellulitis, Scarlet fever/ Streptococcal TSS
                  Stylopharyngeus

                  Muscle that elevates, like a "pillar", the larynx and pharynx, or "throat", and aids in swallowing by dilating the pharynx allowing the passage of food.

                • CN IX runs laterally to this muscle
                • Only muscle in pharynx innervated by CN IX
                • Originated from 3rd pharyngeal pouch
                • Subcutaneous

                  Something "below" the "skin"

                  • Sub (Latin) - Under, below, beneath, at the foot of
                  • Cutis (Latin) - Skin
                • Referencing something under the skin, such as fat.
                • Subscapularis

                  A muscle "under" the "shovel"shaped scapula bone

                  • Sub (Latin) - Under, below, beneath, at the foot of
                  • Scapulae (Latin) - Shoulder blades
                • The rotator cuff muscle that originates in the subscapular fossa and inserts in the lesser tubercle of the humerus
                • Medially rotate the arm and stabilizes the shoulder
                • Gerber liftoff test is used to test the subscapularis
                • Substantia nigra

                  Cluster of neurons characterized as containing a "black" "substance" which contain dopamine

                • Blackened cluster of neurons, or nucleus of the midbrain that is broken down into two parts known as the pars compacta and pars reticulata.
                • Functions as part of the basal ganglia and is associated with disorders such as Parkinson's and schizophrenia.
                • Substantia nigra is Latin for black substance this portion of the midbrain is darker than the surrounding structures.
                • Sudden cardiac death

                  "Abrupt" death, usually from cardiac or "heart"related causes with loss of consciousness quickly following onset of symptoms

                  • Kardia (Greek) - Heart
                  • Dheu (ProtoIndoEuropean) - Process, Act, Condition of Dying
                • Often caused by some cause of cardiac arrhythmia, such as ventricular fibrillation
                • Enlarged heart can predispose someone to an arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death
                • Superior cardiac nerve

                  A "cord" of nerve cells that innervates the "heart" from "above"

                  • Superior (Latin) - Higher, Above
                  • Kardia (Greek) - Heart
                  • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
                • The superior cardiac nerve arises from the superior cervical ganglion and courses down the neck behind the common carotid artery to innervate the heart. The right nerve courses towards the back of the aortic arch and joins the deep cardiac plexus, while the left nerve joins the superficial part of the cardiac plexus.
                • Innervates the heart
                • Superior cervical ganglion

                  A "swelling" of nerve cells "above" the "neck"

                • The superior cervical ganglion is a sympathetic ganglion that innervates the head and neck. Of the three cervical ganglia, it is located in the highest position (by C2 and C3) and is the largest.
                • Innervates the eye
                • Innervates blood vessels of skin
                • Innervates carotid body
                • Superior rectus

                  The extraocular muscle that functions to move the eye "straight" "up"

                  • Super (Latin) - In excess, above, Beyond
                  • Rectus (Latin) - Straight
                • Innervated by CN III
                • Elevates eyeball
                • Attaches to the upper portion of the eye
                • Sydenham chorea

                  Uncoordinated, jerky, "dancelike" movements of the arms.

                  • Khoreia (Greek) - Dancing in unison, dance
                • Associated with acute rheumatic fever
                • It was med after Thomas Sydenham (British physician). It is also known as Saint Vitus Dance because it is named after Saint Vitus, a patron saint of dancers.

                • Medytoons
                  Synovitis

                  "Inflammation" of the membrane surrounding the joint capsule.

                  • Sinovia (Latin) - Albuminous fluid secreted by glands
                  • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
                • Causes swollen nodules at joints
                • T cell

                  "Cells" of the immune system, lymphocytes, that mature in the thymus and are involved in cellmediated immunity. They "shield" our body from infection and other disease processes.

                  • Thureos (Greek) - Oblong shield
                  • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
                • Severe combined immunodeficiency
                • Surface has CD 3, CD 28 and TCR
                • In the thymus T cells undergo positive and negative selection
                • Types include helper T cells (Th1 and Th2), cytotoxic T cells, regulatory T cells, and natural killer cells
                • Temporal branches of the facial nerve

                  "Branches" of the "facial" nerve supply the muscles of the temporal region.

                  • Temporalis (Latin) - Of a time, but for a time, pertaining to the temples.
                  • Facialis (Latin) - Of the face
                  • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
                • This nerve can be tested by asking a patient to frown and wrinkle forehead
                • It acts at the efferent limb of the corneal reflex
                • It supplies the frontalis, orbicularis oculi, and other facial muscles
                • Temporal lobe

                  The most lateral "lobes" of the brain, involved in visual processing, spatial sensation, and other functions.

                  • Temporalis (Latin) - Of a time, but for a time, pertaining to the temples.
                  • Lobus (Latin) - Hull, husk, pod, small lobe
                • Temporal lobes are commonly involved in seizures
                • Contains Wernicke's area
                • Visual disturbance to this area results in contralateral homonymous upper quadrantanopia
                • Tetralogy of Fallot

                  Cyanotic congenital heart defect with a right to left shunt which has "4" atomical abnormalities. These "4" abnormalities include pulmonary valve stenosis, overriding aorta, ventricular septal defect, and right ventricular hypertrophy

                • ToF is caused by a defect in development of the aorticopulmonary septum
                • "Tet spells" occur in children due to cyanosis and is compensated by squatting to increase systemic vascular resistance
                • Digital clubbing
                • Blue baby syndrome
                • Associated with DiGeorge syndrome
                • It is med after French Physician Etienne Louis Arthur Fallot

                • MedyQuestion
                  • A 6 year old boy is brought to the pediatrician because his mother reports that he has been having bouts of blue colored skin and shortness of breath. She says that when he is outside playing, he becomes short of breath much quicker than the other children. The patient was evaluated for asthma last year, but at that time demonstrated normal PFTs. The pediatrician asked the patient if anything made him feel better when he found it hard to breath, at which time, the boy squatted. What 4 characteristics are pathomnemonic for this child’s condition?

                  USMLE Step 1

                  • A 6 year old boy is brought to the pediatrician because his mother reports that he has been having bouts of blue colored skin and shortness of breath. She says that when he is outside playing, he becomes short of breath much quicker than the other children. The patient was evaluated for asthma last year, but at that time demonstrated normal PFTs. The pediatrician asked the patient if anything made him feel better when he found it hard to breath, at which time, the boy squatted. On cardiac auscultation, what type of murmur is expected to be appreciated and where?

                  USMLE Step 1

                  Transposition of the great vessels

                  A congenital disorder in which there is a "swapping" of the "big" "vessels" that comes from the heart, mely the aorta and pulmonary arteries.

                • Congenital heart disease where the aorta and the pulmonary artery are swapped and the aorta empties into the ve cava or lungs and the pulmonary artery empties into the aorta
                • A shunt is necessary for viability of life
                • This congenital heart defect is due to the failure of the aorticopulmonary septum to spiral
                • Associated with maternal diabetes
                • Troponin

                  Protein that changes shape or "turns" to allow actin and myosin interaction for muscle contraction.

                • Cardiac troponins rise in the event of damage to the heart tissue
                • Troponin is more specific than CKMB
                • Tuberculosis

                  A very complex "disease" involving the "small pipes" of the lungs.

                  • Tubulus (Latin) - A small pipe
                  • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
                • Classic cause of Caseating granulomas
                • Grows slowly and often uses LowensteinJensen agar
                • Classic clinical presentation of fever, weight loss, hemoptysis, and night sweats
                • Around 460 BC, Hippocrates described Phthisis (Greek for consumption, an old word for pulmonary tuberculosis, as the most widespread disease of the times. Before the Industrial Revolution, in folklore, it was believed that TB was associated with vampires because when one family member died, the other infected members lost health slowly, almost as if the original member was slowly draining the life out of the family members.

                • Medytoons

                  MedyQuestion
                  • A 33 year old incarcerated man with medical history significant for asthma is brought to the prison physician for complaint of ongoing productive cough. The patient reports that over the last few weeks, he has been coughing vigorously and bringing up green sputum, often times tinged with blood. On further investigation, the patient also discloses that he has lost 10 lbs in the last few weeks since the coughing began, and that he has occasionally been waking up drenched in sweat. Physical exam is significant for productive cough, and rhonchi appreciated over the left lung field. What type of lesion and where is most likely to be present on X-ray of this patient's lung?

                  USMLE Step 1

                  Umbilical vein

                  A "blood vessel" from placenta to "vel" of fetus. Carries oxygenated blood.

                • The ductus venosus shunts blood from the umbilical vein to the IVC, bypassing the liver
                • There are 2 umbilical arteries but 1 umbilical vein.
                • Uterus

                  Comes from Greek word for "womb." Organ in female body where fetus develops.

                • Developed from the paramesonephric ducts
                • Incomplete fusion of the two paramesonephric ducts can lead to a bicornuate uterus.
                • Uterus is derived from the word meaning hysteria as the Greeks believed that it was the reason that women became emotional during their period.
                • Venostasis Ulcer

                  A "sore" that occurs as a result of "stationary" blood within "blood vessels" due to bad venous valve functioning leading to a large increase in pressure.

                  • Vena (Latin) - A blood vessel
                  • Statos (Greek) - Standing, statiory
                  • Ulcus (Latin) - A sore, ulcer
                • Venous insufficiency causes ulcers to form on the surface of the skin
                • Poor venous flow leads to venous hypertension which ultimately results in extravascular leak of proteins.

                • Mnemonics
                  Think layers of tissue for staging! - Some are Fat, Most are Bone
                  Stages of Ulcerations
                  Stage 1- Skin layer involvement, Stage 2- Fat layer involvement Stage 3- Muscle layer Involvement Stage 4- Bone layer involvment
                  Ventral ramus

                  A "branch" of the spinal nerve that goes anteriorly or to the "belly."

                  • Venter (Latin) - Belly
                  • Ramus (Latin) - A branch, bough, or twig
                • The anterior division of the spinal nerve that supply the anterolateral portion of the body forming plexuses
                • Med because it is literally the branch of the spinal nerve that leads to the front, or ventral side of the body
                • Verrucae

                  "A wart" on the plantar surface of the foot.

                • Commonly caused by HPV, the same virus responsible for genital warts and cervical cancer in women
                • Previously called verruca plantaris
                • Are usually self limiting and go away by themselves.
                • Zygote

                  The "yoking or joining" together of a sperm and an egg.

                  • Zygotos (Greek) - Yolked together, Joint
                • Med literally yoked together because it is the literal fusion or joining of two gametes
                • Epinephrine

                  Adrenergic agonist

                  • Glaucoma
                  • Decrease aqueous humor synthesis
                  • Brimonidine

                    Adrenergic agonist

                    • Glaucoma
                    • Decrease aqueous humor synthesis
                    • Timolol

                      Beta blocker

                      • Olol (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                    • Glaucoma
                    • Decrease aqueous humor synthesis
                    • Betaxolol

                      Beta blocker

                      • Olol (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                    • Glaucoma
                    • Decrease aqueous humor synthesis

                    • Mnemonics
                      The BP beta B.E.A.M.
                      The Beta 1 Selective Beta Blockers (located on the heart) that, as a result, slow the heart rate by blocking stimulation of the beta receptor
                      Betaxolol Esmolol Atenolol Metoprolol
                      Carteolol

                      Beta blocker

                      • Olol (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                    • Glaucoma
                    • Decrease aqueous humor synthesis
                    • Acetazolamide

                      Diuretic

                      • Glaucoma
                      • Decrease aqueous humor synthesis (via inhibition of carbonic anhydrase)
                      • Pilocarpine

                        Direct cholinomimetic

                        • Glaucoma
                        • Increase outflow of aqueous humor by opening up the trabecular meshwork
                        • Carbachol

                          Direct cholinomimetic cholinergic agonist

                          • Chol (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                        • Glaucoma
                        • Increase outflow of aqueous humor by opening up the trabecular meshwork
                        • Physostigmine

                          Indirect cholinomimetic acetylcholinesterase inhibitor

                          • Stigmine (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                        • Glaucoma
                        • Increase outflow of aqueous humor by opening up the trabecular meshwork
                        • Echothiophate

                          Indirect cholinomimetic

                          • Glaucoma
                          • Increase outflow of aqueous humor by opening up the trabecular meshwork
                          • Latanoprost

                            Prostaglandin Analogue

                            • Prost (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                          • Glaucoma
                          • Increase outflow of aqueous humor
                          • Morphine

                            Opioid Algesic

                            • Pain Relief
                            • Agonist at opioid receptors
                            • Fentanyl

                              Opioid Algesic

                              • Pain Relief
                              • Agonist at opioid receptors
                              • Codeine

                                Opioid Algesic

                                • Pain Relief
                                • Agonist at opioid receptors
                                • Heroin

                                  Opioid Algesic

                                  • Pain Relief
                                  • Agonist at opioid receptors
                                  • Methadone

                                    Opioid Algesic

                                    • Pain Relief
                                    • Agonist at opioid receptors
                                    • Meperidine

                                      Opioid Algesic

                                      • Pain Relief
                                      • Agonist at opioid receptors
                                      • Dextromethorphan

                                        Opioid Algesic

                                        • Cough suppression
                                        • Agonist at opioid receptors
                                        • Diphenoxylate

                                          Opioid Algesic

                                          • Diarrhea
                                          • Agonist at opioid receptors
                                          • Butorphanol

                                            Opioid Algesic

                                            • Pain Relief
                                            • Mu opioid partial agonist, kappa opioid agonist
                                            • Tramadol

                                              Opioid Algesic

                                              • Relief of Chronic Pain
                                              • Weak opioid agonist, inhibits seratonin and norepinephrine uptake
                                              • Phenytoin

                                                Na channel Blocker

                                                • Seizures
                                                • Ictivates channels
                                                • Carbamazepine

                                                  Na channel Blocker

                                                  • Seizures, trigemil neuralgia
                                                  • Ictivates channels
                                                  • Lamotrigine

                                                    Anticonvulsant

                                                    • Seizures
                                                    • Ictivates channels
                                                    • Gabapentin

                                                      Anticonvulsant

                                                      • Seizures, neuropathic pain, migraine prophylaxis, bipolar disorder
                                                      • Ictivates channels
                                                      • GABA alog
                                                      • Topiramate

                                                        Anticonvulsant

                                                        • Seizures, migraine prophylaxis
                                                        • Ictivates channels
                                                        • Increases GABA activity
                                                        • Valproic acid

                                                          Anticonvulsant

                                                          • Seizures (1st line for myoclonic), bipolar disorder
                                                          • Ictivates channels
                                                          • Increases GABA by ictivating GABA transamise
                                                          • Ethosuximide

                                                            Anticonvulsant

                                                            • Seizures (1st line for absence in children)
                                                            • Blocks thalamic Ttype Ca2+ channels
                                                            • Tiagabine

                                                              Anticonvulsant

                                                              • Seizures
                                                              • Inhibits GABA reuptake
                                                              • Vigabatrin

                                                                Anticonvulsant

                                                                • Seizures
                                                                • Irreversibly inhibits GABA transamise
                                                                • Levetiracetam

                                                                  Anticonvulsant

                                                                  • Seizures
                                                                  • Unknown
                                                                  • Phenobarbitral

                                                                    Barbiturate Anticonvulsant

                                                                    • Barbital (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                  • Seizures
                                                                  • Increase GABA action
                                                                  • Pentobarbitral

                                                                    Barbiturates Sedatives

                                                                    • Barbital (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                  • Anxiety, seizures, insomnia
                                                                  • Increased duration of GABA Cl channel opening
                                                                  • Thiopental

                                                                    Barbiturates Sedatives

                                                                    • Barbital (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                  • Induction of anesthesia
                                                                  • Increased duration of GABA Cl channel opening
                                                                  • Secobrabital

                                                                    Barbiturates Sedatives

                                                                    • Barbital (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                  • Anxiety, seizures, insomnia
                                                                  • Increased duration of GABA Cl channel opening
                                                                  • Diazepam

                                                                    Benzodiazepines Sedatives

                                                                  • Status epilepticus, anxiety, alcohol detoxification, insomnia, night terrors, sleepwalking
                                                                  • Increased frequency of GABA Cl channel opening
                                                                  • Lorazepam

                                                                    Benzodiazepines Sedatives

                                                                  • Status epilepticus, anxiety, alcohol detoxification, insomnia, night terrors, sleepwalking
                                                                  • Increased frequency of GABA Cl channel opening
                                                                  • Triazolam

                                                                    Benzodiazepines Sedatives

                                                                  • Anxiety, alcohol detoxification, insomnia, night terrors, sleepwalking
                                                                  • Increased frequency of GABA Cl channel opening
                                                                  • Temazepam

                                                                    Benzodiazepines Sedatives

                                                                  • Anxiety, alcohol detoxification, insomnia, night terrors, sleepwalking
                                                                  • Increased frequency of GABA Cl channel opening
                                                                  • Oxazepam

                                                                    Benzodiazepines Sedatives

                                                                  • Anxiety, alcohol detoxification, insomnia, night terrors, sleepwalking
                                                                  • Increased frequency of GABA Cl channel opening
                                                                  • Midazolam

                                                                    Benzodiazepines Sedatives

                                                                  • Anxiety, alcohol detoxification, insomnia, night terrors, sleepwalking
                                                                  • Increased frequency of GABA Cl channel opening
                                                                  • Chlordiazepoxide

                                                                    Benzodiazepines Sedatives

                                                                    • Anxiety, alcohol detoxification, insomnia, night terrors, sleepwalking
                                                                    • Increased frequency of GABA Cl channel opening
                                                                    • Alprazolam

                                                                      Benzodiazepines Sedatives

                                                                    • Anxiety, alcohol detoxification, insomnia, night terrors, sleepwalking
                                                                    • Increased frequency of GABA Cl channel opening
                                                                    • Zolpidem

                                                                      NonBenzodiazepine Hypnotics

                                                                      • Insomnia
                                                                      • Act via the BZ1 subtype of the GABA receptor.
                                                                      • Zalelpon

                                                                        NonBenzodiazepine Hypnotics

                                                                        • Insomnia
                                                                        • Act via the BZ1 subtype of the GABA receptor.
                                                                        • Eszopiclone

                                                                          NonBenzodiazepine Hypnotics

                                                                          • Insomnia
                                                                          • Act via the BZ1 subtype of the GABA receptor.
                                                                          • Halothane

                                                                            Inhaled anesthetic

                                                                            • Anesthesia respiratory/myocardial depression, usea/emesis, increased CNS bloodflow
                                                                            • Unknown
                                                                            • Enflurane

                                                                              Inhaled anesthetic

                                                                              • Flurane (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                            • Anesthesia respiratory/myocardial depression, usea/emesis, increased CNS bloodflow
                                                                            • Unknown
                                                                            • Isoflurane

                                                                              Inhaled anesthetic

                                                                              • Flurane (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                            • Anesthesia respiratory/myocardial depression, usea/emesis, increased CNS bloodflow
                                                                            • Unknown
                                                                            • Sevoflurane

                                                                              Inhaled anesthetic

                                                                              • Flurane (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                            • Anesthesia respiratory/myocardial depression, usea/emesis, increased CNS bloodflow
                                                                            • Unknown
                                                                            • Methoxyflurane

                                                                              Inhaled anesthetic

                                                                              • Flurane (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                            • Anesthesia respiratory/myocardial depression, usea/emesis, increased CNS bloodflow
                                                                            • Unknown
                                                                            • Nitrous Oxide

                                                                              Inhaled anesthetic

                                                                              • Anesthesia respiratory/myocardial depression, usea/emesis, increased CNS bloodflow
                                                                              • Unknown
                                                                              • Succinylcholine

                                                                                Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs

                                                                                • Muscle paralysis in surgery or mechanical ventilation. selective for motor nicotinic receptor
                                                                                • Strong Ach receptr agonist
                                                                                • Produces sustained depolarization and precents muscle contraction
                                                                                • Tubocurarine

                                                                                  Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs

                                                                                  • Muscle paralysis in surgery or mechanical ventilation. selective for motor nicotinic receptor
                                                                                  • Competitive antagonist
                                                                                  • Compete with ACh for receptors
                                                                                  • Atracurium

                                                                                    Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs Nondepolarizing paralytic

                                                                                  • Muscle paralysis in surgery or mechanical ventilation. selective for motor nicotinic receptor
                                                                                  • Competitive antagonist
                                                                                  • Compete with ACh for receptors
                                                                                  • Mivacurium

                                                                                    Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs Nondepolarizing paralytic

                                                                                  • Muscle paralysis in surgery or mechanical ventilation. selective for motor nicotinic receptor
                                                                                  • Competitive antagonist
                                                                                  • Compete with ACh for receptors
                                                                                  • Pancuronium

                                                                                    Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs Nondepolarizing paralytic

                                                                                  • Muscle paralysis in surgery or mechanical ventilation. selective for motor nicotinic receptor
                                                                                  • Competitive antagonist
                                                                                  • Compete with ACh for receptors
                                                                                  • Vecuronium

                                                                                    Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs Nondepolarizing paralytic

                                                                                  • Muscle paralysis in surgery or mechanical ventilation. selective for motor nicotinic receptor
                                                                                  • Competitive antagonist
                                                                                  • Compete with ACh for receptors
                                                                                  • Rocuronium

                                                                                    Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs Nondepolarizing paralytic

                                                                                  • Muscle paralysis in surgery or mechanical ventilation. selective for motor nicotinic receptor
                                                                                  • Competitive antagonist
                                                                                  • Compete with ACh for receptors
                                                                                  • Dantrolene

                                                                                    Muscle Relaxant

                                                                                    • Malignt Hyperthermia and neuroleptic Malignt Syndrome
                                                                                    • Prevents the release of calcium from the sarcoplastic reticulum of skeletal muscle
                                                                                    • Bromocriptine

                                                                                      Dopamine agonist

                                                                                      • Parkinson disease (PD), hyperprolactiemia, neuroleptic malignt syndrome, and type 2 diabetes
                                                                                      • Pramipexole

                                                                                        Dopamine agonist

                                                                                        • Parkinson disease and Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS)
                                                                                        • Partial/full agonist at the following receptors: D2 receptor, D3 receptor, D4 receptor
                                                                                        • Ropinirole

                                                                                          Dopamine agonist

                                                                                          • Parkinson disease and Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS)
                                                                                          • D2, D3, and D4 dopamine receptor agonist with highest affinity for D2
                                                                                          • Amantadine

                                                                                            Antiviral/antiparkinson

                                                                                            • Parkinson disease and influenza A and rubella
                                                                                            • Unknown
                                                                                            • Selegline

                                                                                              MAO inhibitors

                                                                                              • Parkinson disease
                                                                                              • Selective MAO type B inhibitior, decreasing central LDOPA breakdown
                                                                                              • Entacapone

                                                                                                COMT inhibitors

                                                                                                • Parkinson disease
                                                                                                • Block peripheral LDOPA breakdown, increase dopamine availability
                                                                                                • Tolcapone

                                                                                                  COMT inhibitors

                                                                                                  • Parkinson disease
                                                                                                  • Block central LDOPA breakdown, increase dopamine availability
                                                                                                  • Benztropine

                                                                                                    Antimuscarinic

                                                                                                    • Parkinson disease, Drug induce Parkinson disease
                                                                                                    • Block excess cholinergic activity
                                                                                                    • Ldopa(levodopa)/Carbidopa

                                                                                                      Parkinson drug

                                                                                                      • Parkinson disease
                                                                                                      • Increase level of dopamine in brain. unlike dopamine,Ldopa can cross the blood brain barrier and is converted by dopa decarboxylase in the CBS to dopamine. Carbidopa is a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor, is given with Ldopa to increase the bioavailability of Ldopa in the brain and to limit peripheral side effects
                                                                                                      • Memantine

                                                                                                        NMDA receptor antagonist

                                                                                                        • Alzheimer's Disease
                                                                                                        • NMDA receptor antagonist
                                                                                                        • Helps prevent excitotoxicity (mediated by Calcium)
                                                                                                        • Donepezil

                                                                                                          AChE inhibitors

                                                                                                          • Alzheimer's Disease
                                                                                                          • Anticholinesterases, therefore increase endogenous Ach
                                                                                                          • Galantamine

                                                                                                            AChE inhibitors

                                                                                                            • Alzheimer's Disease
                                                                                                            • Anticholinesterases, therefore increase endogenous Ach
                                                                                                            • Rivastigmine

                                                                                                              AChE inhibitors

                                                                                                              • Alzheimer's Disease
                                                                                                              • Anticholinesterases, therefore increase endogenous Ach
                                                                                                              • Tetrabezine

                                                                                                                VMAT inhibitor

                                                                                                                • Huntington Disease
                                                                                                                • Inhibit vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT)
                                                                                                                • Limit dopamine vesicle packaging and release
                                                                                                                • Reserpine

                                                                                                                  VMAT inhibitor

                                                                                                                  • Huntington Disease and antihypertensive
                                                                                                                  • Inhibit vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT)
                                                                                                                  • Limit dopamine vesicle packaging and release
                                                                                                                  • Haloperidol

                                                                                                                    Antipsychotic

                                                                                                                    • Schizophrenia, Huntington Disease, Tourette Syndrome and acute mania
                                                                                                                    • Block dopamine D2 receptors (increase cAMP)