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Accessory nerve

Cranial Nerve XI med because it innervates an "additional thing" to what's in the head, mainly the muscles that raise the shoulders and turn the head.

  • Accessorius (Medieval Latin) - Additiol thing
  • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Innervates the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles
  • Tested for when examining the cranial nerves by asking the patient to shrug their shoulders and turn their head against resistance
  • Also referred to as the spinal accessory nerve because most of its nerve fibers originate in the spinal cord
  • Accessory obturator nerve

    Small "additional" nerve branch from L3 and L4 spinal nerves to supply the hip joint and pectineus muscle

    • Accessorius (Medieval Latin) - Additiol thing
    • Obturare (Latin) - To stop up, obstructor
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Descends the medial border of psoas major
  • Crosses superior ramus of pubis
  • Only present 30% of the time
  • Anterior interosseous nerve

    A "sinew" that runs 'in between" the "bones" of the forearm supplies the muscles "before or in front of" the forearm.

    • Ante (Latin) - Before
    • Inter (Latin) - Among, between, betwixt, in the midst of
    • Ossis (Latin) - Bone
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • A branch of the median nerve
  • Supplies that deep muscles on the front of the forearm
  • Anterior interosseous syndrome: damage to the anterior interosseous nerve (AIN), a motor branch of the median nerve, causes pain in the forearm and a characteristic weakness of the pincer movement of the thumb and index finger.
  • Auerbach's plexus

    Collection of nerves that is part of the enteric digestive system responsible for controlling muscle contractions.

  • In Hirschsprung's disease, a congenital disorder of the colon, nerve cells of Auerbach's plexus , also known as ganglion cells, are absent
  • Achalasia, a motor disorder of the esophagus, is characterized by decrease in ganglion cell density in Auerbach's plexus, cause of this is unknown
  • Auriculotemporal nerve

    The nerve that provides sensory innervation to the "ear" and "temples" or side of the head.

    • Auricula (Latin) - Ear
    • Temporalis (Latin) - Of a time, but for a time, pertaining to the temples.
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • A branch of the mandibular nerve (V3 a branch of the fifth cranial nerve) that runs with the superficial temporal artery and vein
  • This nerve is frequently injured in temporomandibular joint surgery
  • Pain from parotitis is carried by the auriculotemporal nerve to the brain
  • Axillary nerve

    Nerve of the brachial plexus that primarily supplies the "shoulder".

    • Axillaris (Latin) - Pertaining to the armpit or shoulder
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Supplies the deltoid, teres minor, and the long head of the triceps brachii.
  • Injured during anterior dislocation of humerus and fractured surgical neck of humerus
  • Presents as flattened deltoid, loss of arm abduction at shoulder, loss of sensation over deltoid muscle and lateral arm
  • Brachial plexus

    A "network" of nerves that supply the "arm".

  • A collection of nerve fibers responsible for motor and sensory innervation of the muscles in the arm, forearm and hands
  • 3 Musketeers (Musculocutaneous C5, C6, C7) Assassinated (Axillary C5, C6) 5 Mice (Median C5C8, T1) 5 Rats (Radial C5C8, T1) and 2 Unicorns (Ulnar C8, T1)
  • Runs from the spine, through the neck, axilla and into the arm
  • Buccal branch of the facial nerve

    These are the "branches or twigs" that arise from the nerve "of the face" that supply the "cheek".

    • Bucca (Latin) - Cheek
    • Branche (Latin) - Branch, bough, twig; branch of family
    • Facialis (Latin) - Of the face
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • There are three buccal branches which supply motor innervation to various parts of the face before the eyes
  • The superficial branch supplies the superficial muscles of the face
  • The deep branch supplies the zygomaticus and quadratus labii superioris
  • The lower deep branch supplies the bacciform and orbicularis oris
  • Test nerve by asking patient to puff out cheeks and smile and show teeth
  • Also called the infraorbital branches
  • Buccal nerve

    The sensory "nerve" of the "cheek".

    • Bucca (Latin) - Cheek
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • A branch of the mandibular nerve which provides sensory information from the skin of the cheek and second and third molar teeth.
  • Celiac ganglia

    Two large "swellings" of nerve tissue in the upper "belly"

  • Part of the sympathetic subdivision of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and innervate most of the digestive tract (from the stomach to the transverse colon), the liver, gallbladder, and spleen
  • Cervical branch of the facial nerve

    Branch of facial nerve that runs by the "pe of the neck"

    • Cervix (Latin) - The Neck, pe of the Neck
    • Branche (Latin) - Branch, bough, twig; branch of family
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Innervates the platysma
  • Travels through the parotid gland but does not innervate it
  • Mnemonic to remember the branches of the Facial Nerve: Two Zebras Bit My Cousin (Temporal, Zygomatic, Buccal, Mandibular, Cervical)
  • Cervical plexus

    A "network" a nerves in the "neck" region that innervate the neck and the back of the head.

    • Cervix (Latin) - The Neck, pe of the Neck
    • Plexus (Latin) - Braid, network
  • C1 though C4, ventral rami, innervate back of head and neck muscles
  • Chorda tympani

    A "cord" like nerve involved in taste whose course runs from the tongue to the brain, passing right behind the ear "drum."

    • Khorde (Greek) - Gut, string of a musical instrument
    • Tympanon (Greek) - A drum
  • Taste, anterior 2/3 of the tongue, facial nerve
  • It runs from posterior to anterior across the tympanic membrane
  • One of three nerves involved in taste, the chorda tympani is part of the facial nerve and originates from the taste buds in the front of the tongue, courses through the middle ear, and carries taste messages from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue to the brain.
  • Ciliary ganglion

    A small cluster or "swelling" located behind the eye that contains nerves that pass through and continue to the eyeball and "upper eyelid" for sensory and motor function.

    • Ciliaris (Latin) - Pertaining to Eyelashes, upper eyelid
    • Ganglion (Greek) - A tumor, swelling
  • Parasympathetic, posterior orbit, autonomic
  • Cochlear nerve

    A nerve that carries sound waves from the "snail shell" shaped organ in the inner ear directly to the brain to enable hearing.

    • Cochlea (Latin) - Sil shell, Kokhlias (Greek) sil, screw
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Cranial Nerve VIII
  • Aka auditory nerve, aka acoustic nerve, aka vestibulocochlear nerve
  • Pathway: axons of the cochlear nerve (aka spiral ganglion) from the hair cells of the cochlea go to the ipsilateral (same side) cochlear nucleus in the medulla of the brain stem (first synapse) >it then goes to the inferior colliculus in the midbrain (second synapse) > it then goes to the medial geniculate nucleus in the thalamus (third synapse) > it filly arrives at the primary auditory cortex in the temporal lobe of the brain.
  • Common fibular nerve

    The "common" nerve of the leg that innervates the structures attached to the bone resembling a "clasp or buckle" in conjunction with the tibia.

    • Communis (Latin) - In Common, Shared by all or many, Familiar, Not Specific
    • Fibula (Latin) - Clasp, buckle, brooch
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Derived from the dorsal branches of L4S2
  • It functions in dorsiflexion and eversion of the foot
  • Also known as the common peroneal nerve
  • Damage leads to foot drop, impaired dorsiflexion and eversion
  • The most common cause of peroneal neuropathy is habitual leg crossing and trauma to the lateral leg. A common yoga kneeling exercise has been linked to a variant called yoga foot drop.
  • Deep fibular nerve

    The branch of the common fibular nerve (med for resembling a "clasp" made with the tibia), that runs "deeper" into the leg.

    • Deop (Old English) - Deep Water, Depth
    • Fibula (Latin) - Clasp, buckle, brooch
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • One of the terminal branches of the common fibular nerve, the deep fibular nerve courses in the anterior compartment of the leg and is composed of nerve roots L4 and L5. It innervates the anterior compartment of the leg as well as some of the intrinsic muscles of the foot while supplying the small area between the 1st and 2nd toe.
  • Dopamine

    A neurotransmitter that plays an important role in memory, emotion, and motor function.

    • Dopa (English) - Precursor of neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine
  • Biosynthesized from phenylalanine. Located in many areas of the nervous system and plays an important role in Parkinson's disease.
  • DOPA from first letters of elements in dihydroxyphenylalanine.
  • Eschericia Coli

    Gram negative bacillus found in the "colon" of mammals.

    • Coli (Latin) - Colon
  • STEC (shiga toxin producing E. coli), ETEC (enterotoxigenic E. coli), EPEC (enteropathogenic E. coli), EAEC (Enteroaggregative E. coli), EIEC (enteroinvasive E. coli), DAEC (Diffusely adherent E. coli), O157:H7, shigalike toxin, HUS (hemolytic uremic syndrome), SMAC agar
  • Common cause of foodborne outbreaks
  • Ethmoid bone

    Skull "bone" located between the orbits that acts as a "sieve" to separate the sal cavity and brain

    • Ethmos (Greek) - A Sieve
    • Ban (Old English) - Bone, tusk
  • Forms sal concha
  • Contains ethmoid sinuses
  • Sinus infection may cross into CNS
  • Extensor pollicis longus

    The "long" forearm muscle that "stretches out" the "thumb."

  • Innervated by posterior interosseous nerve (from radial nerve)
  • Fabry's disease

    Deficiency in alphagalactosidase that results in accumulation of ceramide trihexoside

    • Lysosomal storage disease
    • Xlinked recessive
    • May present with angiokeratoma, corneal opacity, GI problems, tinnitus, hearing loss, kidney disease
    • Heart disease, and peripheral neuropathy
    • Described by Fabry and Anderson in 1898
    • Fecalith

      Dry, "stonelike" "sediment" made of compacted feces in the colon.

    • Obstruction of the appendix commonly results in acute appendicitis in adults
    • Gender dysphoria

      A disorder in which the patient finds it "hard to bear" the sex with which they were assigned at "birth"

    • People are often disgusted with their own genitals
    • In 2013, California legislation passed a bill that would allow kids in school experiencing gender dysphoria be allowed to participate in school activities and athletic activities according to the gender the associate with rather than what they are assigned.
    • Genitalia

      A general term referring to the "external organs" "pertaining to birth"

      • Genitalis (Latin) - Pertaining to generation or birth, Exterl sexual organs

      Area referring to the "tongue" and "throat"

      Gray hepatization

      Conversion of lung tissue into a substance resembling "liver" tissue

    • Mainly caused by lobar pneumonia
    • Due to breakdown of red blood cells into exudate
    • Precedes red hepatization
    • Greater auricular nerve

      The "big" nerve of the "ear."

    • A nerve composed of C2 and C3 spinal nerves that contains fibers for sensory innervation of the parotid glands, mastoid process, and outer
    • Heparininduced thrombocytopenia

      Side effect of heparin that occurs when IgG antibodies are created against and bound to heparinplatelet factor 4 complex, leading to activation of platelets

      • Thrombosis and thrombocytopenia
      • Discontinue heparin
      • This side effect was actually first noted by vascular surgeons before the days of routine platelet counts.
      • Infarction

        A "stuffing" up of an artery leading to a decrease in blood flow.

      • Causes a local lack of oxygen due to an obstruction of the tissue's blood supply
      • Avascular necrosis, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, diffuse cortical necrosis of kidneys
      • Inferior colliculus

        The "lower down" "hill" of the midbrain.

      • A part of the midbrain involved in hearing
      • It receives auditory input the brainstem and auditory cortex
      • Inferior gluteal nerve

        The nerve that innervates the "lower" muscle of the "buttocks".

        • Inferus (Latin) - Lower Down, Below
        • Gloutos (Greek) - Buttocks
        • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
      • A nerve that innervates the gluteus maximus muscle, allowing for the hip to extend the thigh, needed for actions such as climbing stairs
      • Injury due to posterior hip dislocation > loss of hip extension
      • Inferior hypogastric plexus

        A "network" of nerves located "under" the "under" the "belly".

        • Inferus (Latin) - Lower Down, Below
        • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
        • Gaster (Greek) - Stomach, belly, eater, devourer
        • Plexus (Latin) - Braid, network
      • A network of nerves located around the rectum in both males and females and also along the prostate (males) and vagi (females)
      • Inferior oblique

        The muscle located "below" the eye that moves it "diagonally" in and up.

      • A thin extraocular muscle located near the anterior margin of the floor of the orbit
      • Actions include extorsion, elevation and abduction of the eye
      • Innervated by the oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve III)
      • Influenza Virus

        A highly contagious orthomyxovirus

      • Segmented genome
      • Undergoes reassortment
      • Hemagglutinin
      • Neuraminidase
      • Risk for bacterial superinfection
      • Genetic shifts cause pandemics
      • Affects the respiratory tract
      • Infraorbital nerve

        Derived from the maxillary nerve after it enters the infraorbital canal, which is located in the "lower" aspect of the orbit.

        • Infra (Latin) - Under, below, further on
        • Orbis (Latin) - A ring or circle
        • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
      • Provides innervation to the lower eyelid, upper lip, and part of the sal vestibule
      • Exits the infraorbital foramen of the maxilla
      • Infraspinatus

        A thick triangular muscle located "under" the scapular "spine".

        • Infra (Latin) - Under, below, further on
        • Spina (Latin) - Spine
      • It is a rotator cuff muscle, and its main function is to externally rotate the humerus and stabilize the shoulder joint.
      • One of the socalled "SITS" muscles of the rotator cuff

      • MedyQuestion
        • A middle aged man presents to the hospital attending complaining of left shoulder pain that began after swimming laps training for a triathalon 2 days ago. Examination of the left upper extremity did not reveal any abnormalities or tenderness. The pain was reproduced when the patient rotated his left shoulder externally against resistance. There was no weakness noted. Which tendon (in addition to the teres minor) is inflammation most likely present in this patient.

        USMLE Step 1


        An "enzyme" produced by a retrovirus (such as HIV) that enables its genetic material to be "made a part of" the D of the infected cell.

        • Integer (Latin) - To make whole
        • Ase (English) - Used to form the me of enzymes
      • Coded by pol gene in HIV
      • Intermediate phalanges

        The bones of the fingers located "between" the distal phalanges and the proximal phalanges. Called a phalange because the way the bones are arranged are reminiscent of the Ancient Greek military formation known as the phalanx.

        • Inter (Latin) - Among, between, betwixt, in the midst of
        • Medius (Latin) - In the middle
        • Phalanx (Latin) - Line of battle in close ranks
      • Articulations with the distal and proximal phalanges create the PIP and the DIP joints of the fingers
      • Intermediate phalanges do not exist in the thumb
      • The phalanges comes from the Greek concept of a phalanx, a battle formation in which soldiers lined up in close proximity to one another to protect the person to the right. The fingers are arranged in similar fashion.
      • Internal carotid plexus

        A nerve "network" along the wall of the "internal" carotid artery that carries postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers from the superior cervical ganglion. Compression of the carotid arteries was known to "put people to sleep"

        • Internus (Latin) - Interl, inside, inward, within
        • Karoun (Greek) - Stupefy, To put to sleep
        • Plexus (Latin) - Braid, network
      • The plexus innervates deep facial structures (including superior tarsal muscle and pupillary dilator muscle)
      • Jugular foramen

        A large "aperture" in the base of the skull, near the "throat."

        • Jugulum (Latin) - Throat
        • Foramen (Latin) - Hole, opening, aperture, orifice
      • It is located behind the carotid canal and is formed by the occipital lobe and the petrous portion of the temporal bone.
      • Lacrimal bone

        This is the smallest and most fragile bone of the face, is situated at the front part of the medial wall of the orbit.

        • Lacrimare (Latin) - Weep, tear
        • Ban (Old English) - Bone, tusk
      • Lacrimal means "tears," which makes sense since this bone is situated close to the eye.
      • Larynx

        An organ in the neck involved in breathing, sound production, and protecting the trachea against food aspiration.

        • Laryngeus (Latin) - Relating to the larynx, the upper windpipe
      • The larynx houses the vocal folds (vocal cords), which are essential for phonation. This is where the pharynx splits into the trachea and the esophagus.
      • Lateral cuneiform bone

        This "wedgeshaped" bone occupies the center of the front row of the tarsal bones, between the intermediate cuneiform medially, the cuboid "laterally, the navicular posteriorly and the third metatarsal in front.

        • Latus (Latin) - The side
        • Cuneus (Latin) - Wedge, WedShaped Stone, Area
        • Ban (Old English) - Bone, tusk
      • It is intermediate in size between the other two cuneiform bones of the foot.
      • Lateral pectoral nerve

        The "side" "cord" in the "breast"

        • Latus (Latin) - The side
        • Pectus (Latin) - Breast
        • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
      • Innervates pectoralis major
      • Lateral pterygoid

        Muscle on the "side" of the face "resembling" a "wing."

        • Latus (Latin) - The side
        • Pteryx (Greek) - Wing
        • Eidos (Greek) - Form, Resemblance or Shape, Likeness
      • Depresses mandible, protrude mandible, side to side movement of mandible
      • Limbic system

        A branch of the nervous system whose components lie along the "edge" of two functional components of the brain

      • Involved in memory retention and emotion
      • Hippocampus, amygdala, mammillary bodies, fornix, cingulate gyrus
      • Loffler syndrome

        A condition in which the lungs become filled with eosinophils in response to a parasitic infection.

        • Commonly contracted in temperature climates due to the high rate of parasite infections.
        • Long ciliary nerve

          A "long or extended" nerve of the "eyelashes."

          • Longus (Latin) - Long
          • Ciliaris (Latin) - Pertaining to Eyelashes, upper eyelid
          • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
        • Provides sensory innervation to the eyeball
        • Innervates the dilator pupillae muscle which dilates the cornea
        • Loop of Henle

          A "loop" med for its discoverer G. J. Henle, that plays an integral role in concentrating urine via reabsorption of fluid and electrolytes in various parts.

          • Loupe (Middle English) - Noose
        • Countercurrent multiplier, ascending portion is impermeable to water
        • Lumbar plexus

          A "braid" or "network" in the "loin."

        • Iliohypogastric, ilioinguinal, genitofemoral, obturator, femoral, lateral femoral cutaneous nerves
        • Marasmus

          Form of malnutrition causing "withering" due to inadequate energy intake.

          • Marasmos (Greek) - A wasting away, withering, decay

          A muscle of "chewing" that elevates and protracts the mandible and is innervated by the mandibular version of the trigeminal nerve (CN V3).

        • Spasm in malignant hyperthermia is easily noted
        • Maxillary artery

          Branch of the external carotid "artery" that supplies the "upper jaw".

        • Derived from the first aortic arch
        • Meckel diverticulum

          When the tissue of the small intestine "turns aside" to create an outpouching.

        • It is a remnant of the vitelline duct
        • May contain ectopic gastric or pancreatic tissue
        • Medial cuneiform bone

          The largest "area" cuneiform "bone" in the toe.

          • Medius (Latin) - In the middle
          • Cuneus (Latin) - Wedge, WedShaped Stone, Area
          • Ban (Old English) - Bone, tusk
        • Situated anterior the navicular bone and posterior to the base of the first metatarsal
        • Medial cutaneous nerve

          "Nerve" derived from the "medial" cord of the brachial plexus that provides sensory innervation to medial "skin" of the arm.

          • Medius (Latin) - In the middle
          • Cutis (Latin) - Skin
          • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
          Medial pectoral nerve

          "Nerve" derived from the "medial" cord of the brachial plexus that innervates "breast".

          • Medius (Latin) - In the middle
          • Pectus (Latin) - Breast
          • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
        • Innervates the pectoralis minor and pectoralis major
        • Medial pterygoid

          "Wing" "shaped" muscle of mastication that elevates the "middle" of the jaw, and assists the lateral pterygoid in moving the jaw from side to side.

          • Medius (Latin) - In the middle
          • Pteryx (Greek) - Wing
          • Eidos (Greek) - Form, Resemblance or Shape, Likeness
        • Innervated by the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve (CNV3)
        • Medial rectus

          Extraocular "straight" and "middle" muscle that adducts the eye.

        • Innervated by the inferior division of the oculomotor nerve (CN III)
        • Meiosis

          The process by which a cell "lessens" or divides into mon ploidy units.

          • Meion (Greek) - To lessen, lesser
          Muscular dystrophy

          Group of muscular disorders in which dystrophin, the protein that anchors sarcomeres to the cell membrane, is damaged. "Muscles" show "poor" "nourishment".

          • Musculus (Latin) - Little mouse [the shape and movement of some muscles were thought to resemble mice]
          • Dys (Greek) - Bad, Ill, Abnormal, Evil
          • Trophe (Greek) - Food, Nourishment
        • Gower maneuver
        • Pseudohypertrophy
        • Fatty calf muscle
        • Longest known human gene
        • Mylohyoid

          "Ushaped" "muscle" which connects the mandible to the hyoid "forming" the jaw used in swallowing and speaking.

          • Myle (Greek) - Grinder, A mill
          • Hyoides (Greek) - Shaped like the letter u
          • Eidos (Greek) - Form, Resemblance or Shape, Likeness
        • First pharyngeal arch derivative
        • Nasalis

          Muscle along the lateral "nose" responsible for nostril flaring

          Nasociliary nerve

          Branch of ophthalmic "nerve" responsible for afferent signal of corneal reflex. Runs near the "nose" and interacts with "eyelash" shaped cilia in the nose.

          • Nasus (Latin) - Nose
          • Ciliaris (Latin) - Pertaining to Eyelashes, upper eyelid
          • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
          NiemannPick disease

          Lysosomal storage disease med after Albert Niemann and Ludwig Pick. Neurodegenerative disease that causes hepatosplenomegaly and a cherryred spotted macula.

          • Sphingomyelinase
          • Foam cells
          • Obturator internus

            Muscle on the "internal, inward" surface of the anterior portion of pelvis. It "occludes" part of the obturator foramen.

            • Obturare (Latin) - To stop up, obstructor
            • Internus (Latin) - Interl, inside, inward, within
          • Connects pubis and ischium to the greater trochanter. Functions in hip flexion and extension
          • Occult

            "Trace" or very "hidden" small amounts of something.

          • Hemoccult tests looks for trace amounts of blood in stool
          • Screening test for colorectal cancer
          • Followed up with gold standard colonoscopy
          • Due to my strong personal convictions, I wish to stress that this film in no way endorses a belief in the occult Michael Jackson's Thriller
          • Olfactory epithelium

            Specialized cells found "upon" the superior sal cavity responsible for "smell."

            • Olfacere (Latin) - To smell
            • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
            • Thele (Greek) - Nipple, teat
          • Derived from surface ectoderm
          • Operant conditioning

            Learned behavior through punishment or reward.

          • Voluntary responses
          • Opsonization

            Process where an antigen is marked or tagged for ingestion and destruction. The marked antigen acts as "food" for other cells.

          • Opsonization is accomplished by antibodies, C3b, and CRP
          • Ostium secundum

            The "second" "opening" formed between the right and left atrium during embryogenesis.

            • Ostium (Latin) - Door, opening
            • Secundus (Latin) - Next, following, second
          • Ostium secundum atrial septal defect is the most common type of atrial septal defect
          • Otitis

            "Inflammation" of the "ear" due to infection.

            • Ous (Greek) - Ear
            • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
          • Usually caused by staph infection
          • Palatine bone

            Pair of "bones" of the "roof of the mouth."

            • Palatum (Greek) - Roof of the mouth, of the Palace
            • Ban (Old English) - Bone, tusk
          • Greater and lesser palatine foramen
          • Between maxilla and pterygoid process of sphenoid bone
          • Pancreas

            Endocrine and exocrine organ of the digestive system that "creates" various hormones for the "entire" body.

            • Pan (Greek) - All, every
            • Kreas (French) - Flesh, meat

            "Pan"shaped bone forming the bony prominence underlying the knee

          • Anterior bone of the knee joint that protects the anterior articular surface
          • Pellagra

            A condition in which there is a "taking" of the "skin" by the disease when deprived of Niacin.

          • Disease caused by niacin or tryptophan deficiency. 4 D's of diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, and death
          • Can be caused by overuse of tryptophan in carcinoid syndrome
          • Can be caused by Hartnup's disease
          • Pellagra was an epidemic in the American South during the late 19th century. This epidemic was resolved only after the requirement of dietary niacin fortification, especially in corn.
          • Peptidoglycan

            A molecule with a "sweet wine" or sugar backbone linked by "digest" small pieces.

            • Peptos (Greek) - Cooked, digested
            • Glucos (Greek) - Sweet Wine
          • Bacterial cell wall component
          • Synthesis targeted bacitracin and vancomycin
          • Crosslinking targeted by penicillins, cephalosporins, monobactam, and carbapenems
          • Perimysial inflammation

            "Inflammation" of the layer "around" the "muscle" fibers.

            • Peri (Greek) - Around, about, beyond
            • My (Greek) - Muscle
            • Inflammare (Latin) - To set afire
          • Inflammation of perimysium, which groups muscle fibers into fascicles
          • Found in dermatomyositis
          • As opposed to polymyositis, which is endomysial inflammation
          • Dermatomyositis also has skin findings
          • Pharmacokinetics

            The "study of" the body's effects on the way drugs "move" or act.

          • The study of what the body does to the drugs it is introduced to.
          • Important organs for drug elimination include the kidney and the liver
          • Some individuals metabolize some drugs much faster than others (e.g. fast acetylators vs. slow acetylators)
          • Pharyngeal branch of vagus nerve

            A "branch" of the nerve "that wanders" through the body that goes to the "throat."

            • Pharynx (Greek) - Throat, windpipe
            • Vagus (Latin) - Wandering
            • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
          • Branch of the vagus nerve going to the pharynx
          • Innervates muscles of the pharynx and soft palate, except the stylopharyngeus and tensor veli palatini
          • Pharyngeal nerve

            A "nerve" that innervates the "throat."

            • Pharynx (Greek) - Throat, windpipe
            • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
          • A nerve off of the maxillary part of the of the trigeminal nerve
          • Sensory innervation to the nasopharynx
          • Phototherapy

            A "medical treatment" that involves exposure to "light" in order to "heal"

          • Neonatal jaundice can be treated with phototherapy
          • Phototherapy converts unconjugated bilirubin to a watersoluble form however, it does not actually conjugate the bilirubin
          • Can be used to treat seasonal affective disorder
          • Can be used to treat psoriasis
          • Many ancient cultures practiced phototherapy. Niels Finsen was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1903 for his work in developing phototherapy for the treatment of lupus vulgaris.
          • Phrenic nerve

            A nerve that innervates the "diaphragm" muscle.

            • Phren (Greek) - Diaphragm or mind
            • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
          • Innervated by C3,4,5
          • Irritation of the diaphragm can be referred to above the shoulder
          • Important nerve in the control of breathing
          • Positive selection

            First stage in T cell development in the thymus in which T cells that are capable of binding self MHC are "singled out."

            • Positivus (Latin) - Settled by agreement, to place on top of
            • Seligere (Latin) - To single out
            Posterior cricoarytenoid

            Very small, paired muscles that extend from the posterior cricoid cartilage to the arytenoid cartilages "behind" the larynx. They complete a "ring" of muscles surrounding the larynx. They function to open the vocal cords and are innervated by the recurrent laryngeal branch of the Vagus nerve

            • Post (Latin) - Behind, afterward
            • Krikos (Greek) - Ring, circle
            • Arytaina (Greek) - Ladle
            • Eidos (Greek) - Form, Resemblance or Shape, Likeness
          • Paralysis leads to asphyxiation
          • Prostate

            Male gland that "stands" "before" the base of the bladder

            • Pro (Greek) - Before, Forward
            • Statos (Greek) - Standing, statiory
          • BPH (periureteral zone), Prostate cancer (posterior zone palpable in digital rectal examination), prostatitis
          • Pterygoids

            Winglike muscles of the jaw.

            • Pteryx (Greek) - Wing
            • Eidos (Greek) - Form, Resemblance or Shape, Likeness
          • Muscles on the side of the face that mainly serve to open the jaw
          • Pubis

            Anterior bone of the "pubis" or pelvis.

            • Pubis (Latin) - Bone of the pubes
            Rabies Virus

            Virus that is a "poisonous substance" that commonly causes the infected "to be mad or rave"

            • Rabere (Latin) - To be mad, rave
            • Virus (Latin) - Poison, poisonous substance
          • Negative stranded R virus, transmitted by animal bite
          • Has a long incubation period, and the infection is fatal once active
          • Negri bodies can be seen inside affected cells
          • Infected individuals can become hydrophobic
          • Known virus since 2000 BC. Not uncommon for those bitten by a dog to commit suicide or to be killed by others as a cautionary measure. Vaccine created by Louis Pasteur
          • Rectus femoris

            "Straight" muscle of the "thigh".

            • Rectus (Latin) - Straight
            • Femur (Latin) - Thigh, but applide to the one of the upper leg
          • Thigh, hip flexor strain, quads
          • One of the four quadriceps muscles
          • Origin: anterior inferior iliac spine and rim of acetabulum. Insertion: base of patella. Flexes the thigh and extends the leg at the knee.
          • Renal papillary necrosis

            "Death" of the "nipple"shaped structures of the kidneys

          • Commonly caused by sickle cell disease (or trait), algesic use, diabetes mellitus, or severe pyelonephritis
          • Rubor

            Flushing "redness" of the skin

          • Seen in inflammation
          • Seen in carcinoid syndrome
          • Associated with various emotional states
          • Rubor can be can be druginduced
          • One of the five cardinal signs of inflammation
          • Salpingitis

            "Inflammation" of the "Greek trumpetshaped" fallopian tubes.

            • Salpinx (Greek) - Trumpet
            • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
          • Associated with Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
          • Infertility can be a sequela
          • Schwannoma

            Benign "tumor" composed of Schwann cells covering peripheral nerves, med eponymously

            • Schwann (German) - Theodor Schwann
            • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
          • NF1
          • S100+
          • Shigella Sonnei

            A Gramnegative bacteria, med eponymously, that often causes bloody diarrhea in humans

            • Does not produce hydrogen sulfide differentiates it from Salmonella
            • Invades intestinal mucosa
            • Shiga toxin inactivates 60S ribosome
            • May cause hemolyticuremic syndrome
            • Sphenoid bone

              A "wedge"shaped bone comprising the orbit that is located anteriorly to the temporal bone.

              • Sphen (Greek) - Wedge
              • Ban (Old English) - Bone, tusk
            • It is the attachment site for most of the muscles of mastication.
            • Sphenomandibular ligament

              A "band" "wedged" between the sphenoid and mandibular foramen of the "jaw".

            • Limits distension of the mandible inferiorly
            • Derived from Meckel's cartilage from the first branchial arch
            • Spirochetes

              Long, flexible "hair"like "spiral"shaped bacteria

            • Bacteria that are spiral in shape.
            • Spirochetes cause Borreliosis (Lyme disease, relapsing fever), Leptospirosis, and Syphilis
            • Distinguished by the unique axial filaments of their flagella
            • Subclavius

              Muscle found "under" the "key" or fastener of the shoulder, the clavicle.

              • Sub (Latin) - Under, below, beneath, at the foot of
              • Clavicula (Latin) - Small Key, vinetendril
            • Muscle found between the clavicle and 1st rib, which acts to depress the clavicle.
            • Contributes to the anterior wall of the axilla
            • Sublingual

              Below or "under" the "tongue"

              • Sub (Latin) - Under, below, beneath, at the foot of
              • Lingua (Latin) - Tongue
            • Often used to indicate a route of administration of medications, such as nitroglycerin tablets
            • Sublingual administration of drugs bypasses the first pass metabolism
            • Submandibular ganglion

              A "swelling" of nerve cells "below" the "jaw"

              • Sub (Latin) - Under, below, beneath, at the foot of
              • Mandere (Latin) - To chew, jaw
              • Ganglion (Greek) - A tumor, swelling
            • Parasympathetic ganglia of the head located below the mandible
            • Contains sympathetic fibers from the external carotid plexus, preganglionic parasympathetic fibers carried via the chorda tympani and lingual nerve that synapse at this ganglia. Postganglionic parasympathetic fibers leave this ganglia and innervate salivary glands.
            • Superficial external anal sphincter

              A muscle that "binds tightly" and is located on the "outer" surface of the "anus", and its tonic contraction keeps the anus closed

            • Sphincter located on the surface of the outer portion of the anus. It is tonically contracted, keeping the al canal closed.
            • Anismus
            • Superficial fibular nerve

              A "cord" of nerves near the "surface" of the fibula, or "bone resembling a clasp, like a modern safety pin"

              • Superficialis (Latin) - Near the surface
              • Fibula (Latin) - Clasp, buckle, brooch
              • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
            • The superficial fibular (superficial peroneal) nerve is a branch of the common peroneal nerve, which courses near the surface of the later calf. It innervates the fibularis longus and fibularis brevis and gives sensation to the dorsum of the foot except the area between the big toe and second toe.
            • Injury to the superficial fibular nerve results in inability to evert the foot and loss of sensation of the dorsal aspect of the foot
            • Superior cerebellar peduncle

              A "footstalk" entering the "small brain" from "above".

            • There are two superior cerebellar peduncles, which are located in the upper medial portions of the cerebellum. They are the highest peduncles out of the three sets of cerebellar peduncles. They contain fibers from the ventral spinocerebellar tract.
            • Ventral spinocerebellar tract
            • Superior colliculus

              Two "hills" "above" the inferior colliculi in the midbrain

            • There are two superior colliculi on the dorsal aspect of the midbrain, which form the two highest bumps of the midbrain and are above the two lower bumps known as the inferior colliculi. It is a visual reflex center that receives information from the retina and visual cortex.
            • Pariud's syndrome
            • PPRF
            • Superior colliculus means upper hill in latin.
            • Superior gluteal nerve

              A "cord" of nerve cells "above" the "buttocks"

              • Superior (Latin) - Higher, Above
              • Gloutos (Greek) - Buttocks
              • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
            • The superior gluteal nerve originates from the sacral plexus and innervates the gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, and tensor fasciae latae. It is located above the inferior gluteal nerve. It courses through the greater sciatic foramen above the piriformis.
            • Trendelenburg sign occurs when the nerve is damaged
            • Superior hypogastric plexus

              The "higher" half of the "network" of nerves just "beneath" the "stomach".

              • Superior (Latin) - Higher, Above
              • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
              • Gaster (Greek) - Stomach, belly, eater, devourer
              • Plexus (Latin) - Braid, network
            • Located at the aortic bifurcation
            • Contain sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers
            • Lumbar splanchnic and pelvic splanchnic
            • Superior laryngeal nerve

              The "upper" nerve that innervates the "upper windpipe, or larynx".

              • Superior (Latin) - Higher, Above
              • Laryngeus (Latin) - Relating to the larynx, the upper windpipe
              • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
            • Branch of the vagus nerve
            • Injured during thyroidectomy
            • Divides into the external and internal laryngeal nerves
            • Superior lateral cutaneous nerve of arm

              Nerve that supplies the "skin" of the "upper" "outer" area of the arm and right under the shoulder

              • Superior (Latin) - Higher, Above
              • Latus (Latin) - The side
              • Cutis (Latin) - Skin
              • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
            • Originates from axillary nerve
            • Superior oblique

              Extraocular muscle that has a "slanted" course to the "upper" medial portion of the eye

              • Super (Latin) - In excess, above, Beyond
              • Obliquus (Latin) - Slanted, sideways
            • Uses a pulley system to depress the eye
            • It acts to Abduct, depress, and internally rotate the eye
            • CN IV palsy
            • Brown syndrome
            • Suppression

              Mature defense mechanism where one purposely "pushes down" feelings or thoughts.

            • Different from repression which is involuntary
            • Supraclavicular nerves

              Nerves arising from the 3rd and 4th cervical roots coursing "above" the "clavicle" and next to the sternocleidomastoid muscle.

              • Supra (Latin) - Above, over, beyond, on the upper side
              • Clavicula (Latin) - Small Key, vinetendril
              • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
            • Branches of the 3rd and 4th cervical nerves
            • Supraorbital nerve

              A nerve that supplies areas "above" the "orbit".

              • Supra (Latin) - Above, over, beyond, on the upper side
              • Orbis (Latin) - A ring or circle
              • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
            • Supplies the frontal sinus, conjunctiva, and skin of the forehead
            • Passes through the supraorbital foramen
            • Suprarenal plexus

              A nerve plexus found by the adrenal (or suprarenal) gland, which is "above" the "kidneys".

              • Supra (Latin) - Above, over, beyond, on the upper side
              • Renes (Latin) - Kidneys
              • Plexus (Latin) - Braid, network
            • Supplies the suprarenal gland
            • Supraspinatus

              A rotator cuff muscle med for its location "above" the scapula's "spine".

              • Supra (Latin) - Above, over, beyond, on the upper side
              • Spina (Latin) - Spine
            • Responsible for the initial 30 degrees of abduction of the upper extremity from rest
            • One of the SiTS muscles
            • Sympathetic

              An arm of the autonomic nervous system that controls the fight or flight response.

              • Syn (Greek) - With, together
              • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
            • Fight or flight response
            • Temporal bone

              A "bone" of the skull that surrounds the lateral brain, consisting of the "temporal" lobes.

              • Temporalis (Latin) - Of a time, but for a time, pertaining to the temples.
              • Ban (Old English) - Bone, tusk
            • Contains the internal ear and tympanic ossicles
            • Thiamine

              Watersoluble vitamin in the B complex (Vitamin B1) containing "sulfur" an "amine" components.

              • Theion (Greek) - Sulfur
              • Amine (English) - Compound in which one of the hydrogens of ammonia is replaced by a hydrocarbon radical
            • Thiamine deficiency is common in alcoholics
            • Thiamine deficiency is associated with dry and wet beriberi
            • Thiamine deficiency is related to WernickeKorsakoff Syndrome, a triad of ataxia, confabulation, and ophthalmoplegia
            • Thiamine deficiency can lead to damage of the medial dorsal nucleus of the thalamus and the mammillary bodies, which are both related to the memory loss seen in this condition.
            • Thiamine was the first watersoluble vitamin to be described
            • It's me reflects the presence of sulfur within the molecule.
            • Thoracic aneurysm

              A pathologic "dilation" of the aorta at the level of the "chest".

            • Associated with hypertension, Marfan's syndrome, and tertiary syphilis (endarteritis obliterans)
            • Thoracic vertebrae

              Bony structures that surround the spinal cord at the level of the "chest" or thorax.

              • Thorax (Greek) - Chest, breastplate
              • Vertere (Latin) - To turn, joint or articulation of the body
            • There are 12 thoracic vertebrae
            • Movement caudally along the spine leads to progressively larger vertebrae

            • Mnemonics
              Breakfast at 7:00, Lunch at 12:00 Dinner at 5:00
              The number of vertebrae in each spinal section
              Cervicle Spine has 7, Thoracic has 12, and lumbar has 5

              "Shinbone" located next to the fibula.

              • Tibia (Latin) - Shinbone, Flute, Pipe
            • OsgoodSchlatter disease is a common pediatric orthopedic injury where there is traction apophysitis of the proximal tibial tuberosity, where the patellar tendon attaches to the tibia.
            • Trichomonas Vaginalis

              A protozoan covered in "hair"like "units" or projections that commonly infects the female "sheath".

            • Protozoan that causes trichomoniasis, a common vaginitis
            • Motile trophozoites on the smear
            • Frothy vaginal discharge
            • Treat with metronidazole
            • French doctor Alfred François Donné (18011878) was the first to describe this protozoan. He also discovered leukemia and invented the photoelectric microscope.
            • Triquetrum bone

              "Three cornered," triangular shaped "bone" of the medial or ul side of the wrist.

              • Triquetrus (Latin) - Three cornered
              • Ban (Old English) - Bone, tusk
            • Triangular shaped bone that is the third most commonly fractured wrist bone
            • Derived from Latin triquetrus, meaning threecornered

            • Mnemonics
              So Long To Pinky, Here Comes The Thumb
              The bones of the wrist
              Scaphoid, Lunate, Triqutrim, Pisiform, Hamate, Capitate, Trapezoid, Trapezium
              Tunica vaginalis

              Involved in inflammatory response which causes "swelling."

            • The remnant of the processus vaginalis, an outpouching of the peritoneum. Provides a serous covering of the testicles. A hydrocele of the testicle can develop if the processus vaginalis remains patent.
            • Ulna

              This bone is the major contributor to the "elbow"

              • Ulna (Latin) - Elbow
            • Longer than the radius
            • Unstable angina

              A "not" "firm" "strangling" sensation felt in chest.

              • Un (Old English) - Prefix of negation
              • Stabilis (Latin) - Firm, steadfast, fixed
              • Ankhone (Greek) - A strangling
            • Can show ST depression on EKG
            • Vagina

              The "sheath" or "scabbard" that connects the external genitalia to the cervix and uterus.

              • Vagina (Latin) - Scabbard, sheath
            • The sheath or canal that connects the external genitalia to the cervix and uterus
            • Velocity

              Unit of measurement to determine "speed or swiftness."

            • Velocity is applicable to medicine by virtue of drug metabolism, transportation of molecules into cells, and by enzymatic reactions in the body
            • V= dx/dt where V is velocity, dx is change in distance, and dt is change in time.
            • Vestibular glands

              Glands found at "entrance" of vagi.

            • These glands secrete mucus to lubricate the vagi during sexual arousal. Infection and inflammation of these glands leads to pathognomonic enlargement just lateral to the vagi, known as a Bartholin cyst
            • Also known as the Bartholin's Glands, med after the Danish atomist Caspar Bartholin who discovered them
            • Sometimes mistakenly thought to have been described by his grandfather with the same me.
            • Vestibular nerve

              Transmit equilibrium information from the "entrance" of ear cal.

              • Vestibulum (Latin) - Forecourt, entrance
              • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
            • Division of cranial nerve VIII that arises in the vestibular ganglion at the entrance of the ear canal and provides information about equilibrium
            • Dermatome

              Referring to two separate items, the first of which is a surgical "instrument used for cutting" thin slices of "skin". In general medicine it refers to the various "skin" areas and their innervations.

              • Derma (Greek) - Skin
              • Tome (Greek) - Instrument used for cutting
            • Dermatomes refer commonly to areas of the skin innervated by single spinal nerves.
            • The following dermatomes are high yield and commonly associated with their anatomic landmarks:
            • T4- The level of the nipple
            • T10- The level of the umbilicus
            • Dermatome also refers to a surgical instrument commonly used for the thin slicing of skin to be used for skin grafts.
            • These grafts are commonly used in Stage III burn victims
            • Coloboma

              A "defect" or hole, usually in one of the structures of the eye

            • - Coloboma of the eye most commonly affects the iris, creating an often larger area of black (the pupil) - Can also affect the retina, choroid, or optic disc - Coloboma of the eye is the "C" in CHARGE Syndrome
            • MEDYMOLOGY