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MUSCLES
184 terms share this category
Abductor digiti minimi (foot)

The muscle of the foot that "leads" the "small" "toe" "away" from the other toes.

  • Ducere (Latin) - To Lead
  • Digitus (Latin) - Finger, Toe, Pointing Things
  • Minimus (Latin) - Least, smallest
  • Innervated by the lateral plantar nerve
  • Abductor digiti minimi (hand)

    The muscle of the foot that "leads" the "small" "finger" "away" from the other toes.

    • Ducere (Latin) - To Lead
    • Digitus (Latin) - Finger, Toe, Pointing Things
    • Minimus (Latin) - Least, smallest
  • Innervated by the deep branch of the ulnar nerve
  • Abductor hallucis

    The muscle of the foot responsible for "leading" the "big toe" "away" from the other toes.

  • Innervated by the medial plantar nerve
  • Abductor pollicis brevis

    The "short" muscle that "leads" the "thumb" "away" from the other fingers.

  • Innervated by the recurrent branch of the medial nerve
  • Abductor pollicis longus

    The "longer" muscle that "leads" the "thumb" "away" from the other fingers.

  • Innervated by the recurrent branch of the medial nerve
  • Adductor brevis

    The "short" muscle that "leads" the leg "near" the midline of the body.

    • Ad (Latin) - Near, At, To Add On
    • Ducere (Latin) - To Lead
    • Brevis (Latin) - Brief ,Short
  • From pubic rami to medial femur
  • Behind the pectineus and adductor longus
  • Innervated by anterior and posterior branches of the obturator nerve
  • Adductor hallucis

    The muscle of the foot that "leads" the "great toe" "near" to the other toes.

    • Ad (Latin) - Near, At, To Add On
    • Ducere (Latin) - To Lead
    • Hallux (Latin) - Great toe
  • Innervated by lateral plantar nerve
  • Oblique head arises from metatarsal 2, 3, and 4
  • Transverse head arises from metatarsophalangeal joints of toes 3, 4, and 5
  • Adductor longus

    The "long" muscle that "leads" the leg "near" the midline of the body.

    • Ad (Latin) - Near, At, To Add On
    • Ducere (Latin) - To Lead
    • Longus (Latin) - Long
  • Innervated by the obturator nerve
  • Medial wall of femoral triangle
  • From the superior pubic ramus to the medial femur
  • Adductor magnus

    The "great" muscle that "leads" the thigh "near" to the midline of the body, and helps to flex the knee.

    • Ad (Latin) - Near, At, To Add On
    • Ducere (Latin) - To Lead
    • Magnus (Latin) - Great in size, Greater
  • Pubofemoral part goes from pubic ramus to medial femur
  • Ischiocondylar part from the ischial tuberosity to the medial condyle of the femur
  • Innervated by obturator and tibial nerve
  • Called the great mover towards because of both its size and immense strength in its action of moving the leg towards the body
  • It is a large triangular muscle with 3 separate insertions onto the femur
  • Adductor pollicis

    The muscle of the hand that "leads" the "thumb" "near" to the other fingers.

    • Ad (Latin) - Near, At, To Add On
    • Ducere (Latin) - To Lead
    • Pollex (Latin) - Thumb
  • The muscle
  • Radial artery between the two heads
  • Innervated by deep branch of ulnar nerve
  • Articularis cubiti

    A small muscle of the "elbow" "joint" considered to be part of the triceps brachii.

  • Origin: deep distal surface of medial head of triceps Insertion: posterior capsule of elbow joint Artery: brachial profunda artery Nerve: radial nerve Actions: lifts capsule away from joint
  • Articularis genu

    A small muscle of the "knee" "joint".

  • Functions to pull the suprapatellar bursa superiorly during extension of the knee and prevents impingement of the synovial membrane between the patella and the femur
  • Auricularis

    The three muscles surrounding the outer "ear".

  • These muscles can adjust the direction of the pin. In humans these muscles possess very little action
  • Biceps brachii

    "Two""headed" muscle of the "arm" that flexes the elbow and supports the forearm.

  • Popeye sign due to tears in the muscle
  • Innervated by musculocutaneous nerve (C5, C6)
  • Biceps femoris

    "Two""headed" muscle of the hamstring group in the "thigh" that flexes and laterally rotates the knee. The long head also extends the thigh.

    • Bi (Latin) - Twice, double
    • Ceps (Latin) - Head
    • Femoris (Latin) - Thigh
  • The long head is innervated by tibial portion of sciatic nerve and short head is innervated by common peroneal portion of sciatic nerve
  • Brachialis

    Muscle that flexes the "arm".

  • Muscle in the forearm that flexes the elbow
  • Synergistic with the biceps brachii
  • Innervated by the musculocutaneous nerve (C5, C6)
  • In Latin, brachialis means belonging to the arm, specifically the forearm, even though the brachialis is primarily located in the upper arm rather than the forearm
  • Brachioradialis

    Muscle in the forearm that flexes the elbow and protects or supinates the forearm depending on the position of the forearm

  • Innervated by the radial nerve (C5C8, T1)
  • Leonardo da Vinci first hypothesized that the brachioradialis can protect the forearm
  • Buccinator

    Muscles of the cheeks that allow one to "blow a trumpet".

  • Forms the wall of the cheek and lateral part of the oral cavity and functions to keep the cheek to the teeth while chewing
  • Innervated by the facial nerve so Bell's palsy causes it to become paralyzed and the cheek then droops.
  • One of the first muscles that humans can control so the neonatal suck reflex depends on it
  • Require this muscle to whistle, smile and chew.
  • Bulbospongiosus

    A "bulb" shaped muscle in the penis that acts as a "sponge" absorbing blood to achieve an erection

  • A superficial muscle in the perineum innervated by the deep branch of the peroneal nerve. In males it helps with erection and ejaculation, in females it helps with clitoral erection and closing the vagi
  • Constrictor of pharynx inferior

    A muscle in the neck that "squeezes" during swallowing to push food down the "canal".

  • Constrict, food bolus, esophagus, pharynx
  • Thickest of the three constrictors that arises from the sides of the cricoid and thyroid cartilage, when a food bolus enters the pharynx, the elevator muscles relax, the pharynx descends, and the constrictors contract upon the bolus, moving it down the esophagus.
  • Uncoordinated contraction, cricopharyngeal spasm, or impaired relaxation are the main factors in the development of a Zenker's diverticulum.
  • Constrictor of pharynx middle

    A muscle in the neck that "squeezes" during swallowing to push food down the "canal".

  • Constrict, food bolus, esophagus, pharynx, fanshaped
  • When a food bolus enters the pharynx, the elevator muscles relax, the pharynx descends, and this fanshaped constrictor in the neck contract upon the bolus, moving it down the esophagus.
  • Uncoordinated contraction, cricopharyngeal spasm, or impaired relaxation are the main factors in the development of a Zenker's diverticulum.
  • Constrictor of pharynx superior

    A muscle in the neck that "squeezes" during swallowing to push food down the "canal".

  • Constrict, food bolus, esophagus, pharynx, highest of the three pharyngeal constrictors
  • Highest of the three pharyngeal constrictors, when a food bolus enters the pharynx, the elevator muscles relax, the pharynx descends, and this muscle contracts upon the bolus, moving it down the esophagus.
  • All three parts of the pharyngeal constrictor are innervated by the vagus nerve (CN X).
  • Coracobrachialis

    A muscle connecting the "beak" of the scapula (acromion process) to the "arm".

  • Flex and medially rotates arm
  • This muscle adducts the humerus and flexes the arm at the glenohumeral joint. It originates from the coracoid process of the scapula and inserts into the medial humerus. It is supplied by the brachial artery and innervated by the musculocutaneous nerve. overuse can lead to stiffening of the muscle
  • Actual rupture of the muscle is rare.
  • Corrugator supercilii

    A muscle located "above" the eyelid that creates vertical "wrinkles" in the skin of the forehead, and draws medial ends of eyebrows together.

    • Corrugare (Latin) - To Wrinkle
    • Super (Latin) - In excess, above, Beyond
    • Ciliaris (Latin) - Pertaining to Eyelashes, upper eyelid
  • Frowning muscle, pyramidal shape
  • Small muscle at the medial end of the eyebrow, beneath the frontalis and right above the orbicularis oculi muscle. draws the eyebrow downward and medially, producing the vertical wrinkles of the forehead
  • Sometimes surgically severed or paralyzed with botulinum toxin as a preventative treatment for some types of migraine or for aesthetic reasons.
  • Craniosynostosis

    A "condition" in which the sutures of the "head" of a baby prematurely close, leading to an early joining "together" of the "bones" of the skull.

    • Kranion (Greek) - Head, Skull
    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • This is a problem observed in neonates and requires urgent surgical evaluation, as suture laxity is required in infancy to accommodate rapidly increasing head circumference.
  • Cremaster

    A muscle that "hangs" testes.

  • Cremaster reflex, testis, scrotum
  • Thin muscle between the external and internal layers of spermatic fascia that covers the testis and the spermatic cord
  • One muscle on each side of the body (paired)
  • Innervated by the genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve
  • Muscle contraction leads to the raising of the testes to prevent injury
  • Cricothyroid

    A "circular" muscle in close proximity to the thyroid gland, shaped like a "shield"

  • Muscle of the larynx, phonation, thyroid cartilage, vocal cords
  • One of the muscles of the larynx that tilts the thyroid forward to help tense and elongate the vocal cords
  • Originates from the anterolateral aspect of the cricoid cartilage and insets into the inferior cornu and lamina of the thyroid cartilage
  • Innervated by the external laryngeal branch of the vagus
  • Dartos

    A muscle responsible for contraction of "skin" covering the scrotum.

  • Dartos fascia
  • Contraction of the scrotum
  • Thin muscle interspersed within the dartos fascia between the skin and the external spermatic fascia. It causes contraction of the scrotum.
  • Deep transverse perinei

    A muscle in the "perineum" that goes "across" the pelvic floor.

    • Trans (Latin) - Across, over, beyond
    • Vertere (Latin) - To turn, joint or articulation of the body
    • Peri (Greek) - Around, about, beyond
    • Ineo (Latin) - Empty, evacuate
  • Muscle
  • Pelvic floor
  • Perineum
  • Pudendal nerve
  • Support
  • A muscle in the perineum that forms part of the pelvic floor which functions by fixating the central tendon of perineum, supporting the pelvic floor, expulsion of semen (in males), and voiding the last few drops of urine (males and females). It is innervated by the pudendal nerve and originates at the inferior rami of the ischium, inserting itself at the deep transverse perineal muscle on the opposite side.
  • Deltoid

    A "triangular" muscle responsible for the movements of the shoulder.

  • Shoulder muscle
  • Axillary nerve
  • Humerus
  • Abduction
  • Flexion
  • Extension
  • The muscle in the shoulder that begins at the lateral third of the clavicle, acromion, and spine of the scapula and inserts into the deltoid tuberosity of the humerus. It is innervated by the axillary nerve and functions to assist in shoulder abduction, flexion, and extension.
  • Depressor anguli oris

    A muscle that "depresses" the "angles" of the "mouth" giving appearance as if one is frowning.

    • De (Latin) - Away, Off, Down
    • Pressare (Latin) - Keep pressing
    • Angulus (Latin) - Corner
    • Os (Latin) - Bone
  • Frowning
  • A muscle that attaches to the mandible and mouth to assist with the motion of frowning.
  • Depressor labii inferioris

    A muscle that "depresses" the "lower lip".

    • De (Latin) - Away, Off, Down
    • Pressare (Latin) - Keep pressing
    • Labi (Latin) - To slip
    • Inferus (Latin) - Lower Down, Below
  • Lower the bottom lip
  • A muscle located in the lower part of the face below the lips and near the chin. It helps lower the bottom lip.
  • Diaphoresis

    A process whereby sweat is "carried through" the skin.

  • Sweating
  • Perspiring
  • Increased perspiration that is above normal levels.
  • Diffuse large bcell lymphoma

    A "wide" or big "mass" of "B" cells that inhabit the "clear water" of the body.

    • Diffuse (Latin) - To Pour Out or Away
    • Large (Old French) - Broad, wide; generous, bounteous
    • Beta (Greek) - The me of the second letter of the Greek alphabet, Indicator of the second
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Lympha (Latin) - Water, clear water, a goddess of water
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • A cancer of B cells, a type of white blood cell responsible for producing antibodies
  • Characterized by lymphocytes with round nuclei and fine chromatin
  • The cells are basophilic and lymphoblastic.
  • Diffuse large Bcell lymphoma it is the most common type of nonHodgkin lymphoma among adults
  • Epithelium

    Tissue that lines "above" and surrounds body cavities and surfaces.

    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Thele (Greek) - Nipple, teat
  • Cells undergo a high turnover rate, leading to them being affected greatly by chemotherapy drugs due to their work on cell lines that procreate extensively (like cancer).
  • Erector spinae iliocostalis

    The most lateral muscle of the erector spinae muscle group that is attached to the "flank" and "ribs." It is "set up" or appears like a arrow "thorn."

    • Erect (Latin) - Set Up
    • Spina (Latin) - Spine
    • Ilia (Latin) - Flanks, entrails, referring to the hip bone
    • Costa (Latin) - A Rib
  • Extends vertebral column
  • Erector spinae was known as sacrospinalis in older texts
  • Erector spinae longissimus

    The middle and typically "longest" muscle of the erector spinae muscle group. It is "set up" or appears like a arrow "thorn."

  • Extends vertebral column
  • Erector spinae was known as sacrospinalis in older texts
  • Exstrophy

    A congenital condition in which the bladder protrudes through the abdominal wall as if "turned inside out".

  • May present along with epispadias.
  • Extensor carpi radialis brevis

    "Short" "ray"like forearm muscle that "stretches out" and abducts the "wrist."

  • Innervated by radial nerve
  • Extensor carpi radialis longus

    "Long" "ray"like forearm muscle that "stretches out" and abducts the "wrist."

  • Innervated by radial nerve
  • Extensor carpi ulnaris

    The forearm muscle by the "elbow" that "stretches out" and adducts the "wrist."

  • Innervated by posterior interosseous nerve of radial nerve
  • Extensor digiti minimi (hand)

    The forearm muscle that "stretches out" the wrist and "smallest" "finger."

    • Extens (Latin) - Stretched Out
    • Digitus (Latin) - Finger, Toe, Pointing Things
    • Minimus (Latin) - Least, smallest
  • Innervated by posterior interosseous nerve of radial nerve
  • Extensor digitorum (hand)

    The forearm muscle that "stretches out" the medial four "fingers" as well as the wrist

    • Extens (Latin) - Stretched Out
    • Digitus (Latin) - Finger, Toe, Pointing Things
  • Innervated by radial nerve
  • Extensor digitorum brevis (foot)

    The "short" foot muscle that "stretches out" "toes" 2, 3, and 4.

    • Extens (Latin) - Stretched Out
    • Digitus (Latin) - Finger, Toe, Pointing Things
    • Brevis (Latin) - Brief ,Short
  • Innervated by deep fibular nerve
  • Extensor digitorum longus (foot)

    The "long" foot muscle that "stretches out" the "toes" and dorsiflexes the ankle.

    • Extens (Latin) - Stretched Out
    • Digitus (Latin) - Finger, Toe, Pointing Things
    • Longus (Latin) - Long
  • Innervated by deep fibular nerve
  • Extensor hallucis brevis

    The "short" foot muscle that "stretches out" the big or "great toe."

  • Innervated by deep fibular nerve
  • Extensor hallucis longus

    The "long" foot muscle that "stretches out" the big or "great toe", dorsiflexes foot, and assists with inversion and eversion.

  • Innervated by deep fibular nerve
  • Extensor indicis

    The muscle that "stretches out" the finger used to "indicate" or point.

    • Extens (Latin) - Stretched Out
  • Innervated by posterior interosseous nerve (from radial nerve)
  • Extensor pollicis brevis

    The "short" forearm muscle that "stretches out" the "thumb."

  • Innervated by posterior interosseous nerve (from radial nerve)
  • External laryngeal nerve

    The "outside" branch of the superior "laryngeal" nerve that innervates the cricothyroid muscle.

    • Externus (Latin) - Outward, Outside
    • Laryngeus (Latin) - Relating to the larynx, the upper windpipe
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Tenses vocal cords to increase pitch
  • Commonly injured during thyroidectomy and cricothyrotomy
  • External oblique abdominis

    Flat "outward" muscle of the lateral anterior abdomen that is responsible for "sideways" rotation of the "belly."

  • Contracts during valsalva maneuver
  • Innervated by thoracoabdominal and subcostal nerves
  • Flavivirus

    Organism containing 'poison' responsible for (amongst other diseases) "yellow" fever, which caused jaundice in patients

    • Flavus (New Latin) - Yellow
    • Virus (Latin) - Poison, poisonous substance
  • Enveloped, positive singlestranded R virus family
  • Includes Hepatitis C Virus, West Nile Virus, Yellow Fever Virus, and Dengue Virus
  • Flexor carpi radialis

    Forearm muscle originating at the "radius" that "bends" (abducts) the hand at the "wrist"

  • Innervated by the median nerve
  • Flexor carpi ulnaris

    Forearm muscle originating at the "ul" that "bends" (adducts) the hand at the "wrist"

  • Innervated by the ulnar nerve
  • Flexor digiti minimi brevis (foot)

    "short" foot muscle that "bends" and adducts the "smallest" "toe"

  • Innervated by the lateral plantar nerve
  • Flexor digiti minimi brevis (hand)

    "Short" hand muscle that "bends" the "smallest" "finger"

  • Innervated by the ulnar nerve
  • Flexor digitorum brevis

    "Short" foot muscle that "bends" the four lateral "toes"

  • Innervated by the medial plantar nerve
  • Flexor digitorum longus (foot)

    "Long" foot muscle that "bends" the four lateral "toes"

  • Innervated by the tibial nerve
  • Flexor digitorum profundus

    Forearm muscle that lies "before" the "bottom" of the arm that "bends" the wrist and "fingers"

    • Flectere (Latin) - To blend
    • Digitus (Latin) - Finger, Toe, Pointing Things
    • Pro (Greek) - Before, Forward
    • Fondus (Latin) - Bottom
  • Medially innervated by the ulnar nerve
  • Laterally innervated by the median nerve
  • Flexor digitorum superficialis

    Forearm muscle that lies "close to the surface" of the arm that "bends" the medial four "fingers"

  • Innervated by the median nerve
  • Flexor hallucis brevis

    "Short" foot muscle that "bends" the "great toe"

  • Innervated by the medial plantar nerve
  • Flexor hallucis longus

    "Long" foot muscle that "bends" the "great toe" and plantarflexes the foot

  • Innervated by the tibial nerve
  • Flexor pollicis brevis

    "Short" hand muscle that "bends" the "thumb"

  • Innervated by the median nerve
  • Deep part may be innervated by ulnar nerve
  • Frontal lobe

    One of the "lobes" of the brain that sits behind the "forehead"

    • Frontalis (Latin) - Brow, forehead
    • Lobus (Latin) - Hull, husk, pod, small lobe
  • Lesion may result in concentration deficits, impaired judgment, and/or personality changes
  • Gastrin

    A peptide hormone secreted by the "stomach".

    • Gaster (Greek) - Stomach, belly, eater, devourer
  • Secreted by G cells
  • Primarily stimulates histamine release from ECL cells to stimulate HCl secretion
  • Secondarily stimulates parietal cells to stimulate HCl secretion
  • From gastric > of the stomach
  • Geniculate ganglion

    A "bentknee"shaped "swelling" in the sensory nerve fiber division of the facial nerve that innervates the sublingual, submandibular, and parotid glands

    • Geniculum (Latin) - Small knee, joint (of a plant)
    • Ganglion (Greek) - A tumor, swelling
  • Parasympathetic innervation from the facial nerve (CN VII)
  • Origin of the greater petrosal nerve
  • The me of this nerve fiber is derived from its Lshaped orientation which makes it resemble a bent knee.
  • Genioglossus

    A muscle under the "chin" that depresses and protrudes the "tongue"

  • Innervated by the hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)
  • Fanshaped muscle under the chin
  • Damage to the hypoglossal nerve causes deviation of the tongue towards the side of the lesion
  • The me of the muscle is derived straight from the latin root as the me literally means chintongue muscle.
  • Glutathione

    Antioxidant synthesized from "glutamic acid" and "sulfate"

    • Gluta (English) - Indicating Glutamic Acid
    • Thio (Greek) - Indicating the presence of sulfur
  • Used by the liver in conjugation and reduction reactions involved in drug metabolism
  • Replenished by Nacetylcysteine in acetaminophen toxicity
  • Gluteus maximus

    The "great" muscle of the "butt".

  • Externally rotates and extends the hip
  • Innervated by inferior gluteal nerve
  • Gluteus medius

    The "middle" muscle of the "butt".

  • Abducts the hip and medially rotates the thigh
  • Innervated by superior gluteal nerve
  • Damage to this nerve causes a hip drop when walking. This is commonly referred to as a Trendelenburg gait due to the inability of the contralateral hip when walking.
  • Gout

    Literally to "drop" because it was thought that the condition was a process by which things were dropped out of the blood into joints.

  • A disease characterized by swollen, red, painful joints
  • Commonly affects the big toe
  • Precipitation of monosodium urate crystals in joints
  • Treat acutely with NSAIDs and colchicine
  • Treat chronically with allopurinol
  • James Gillray painted a famous image called The Gout, revealing a demon on a person's inflamed big toe.
  • Hydrops Fetalis

    Abnormal accumulation of "water" in two or more bodily compartments of an "offspring" in the uterus.

    • Hydro (Greek) - Water
    • Fetus (Latin) - Pregncy, Childbirth, Offspring
  • May be caused by maternal infection with Parvovirus B19, congenital syphilis, or alpha thalassemia
  • Iliac crest

    A long curved ridge along the border of the ilium of the "hip bone."

    • Ilia (Latin) - Flanks, entrails, referring to the hip bone
  • Forms the prominence of the hip
  • Landmark for lumbar puncture and L4 spinal level
  • Iliococcygeus

    A muscle that connects the "flank" bone to the bone shaped like a "cuckoo's" beak

    • Ilia (Latin) - Flanks, entrails, referring to the hip bone
    • Kokkux (Greek) - Cuckoo
  • The Greek me for cuckoo was given to the last 35 bones of the coccyx because it resembled the cuckoo's beak when viewed from the side.
  • Inferior nasal concha

    The bone "under" the "nose" that resembles a "conch" or shell.

  • One of the turbites in the nose that extends horizontally along the lateral wall of the sal cavity
  • Inferior palpebral nerve

    The nerve that innervates the skin and conjunctiva of the "lower" "eyelid"

    • Inferus (Latin) - Lower Down, Below
    • Palpebra (Latin) - Eyelid
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
    Infraorbital plexus

    A nerve "network" formed by superior labial branches of the infraorbital nerve and branches of the facial nerve.

    • Infra (Latin) - Under, below, further on
    • Orbis (Latin) - A ring or circle
    • Plexus (Latin) - Braid, network
  • The distribution of the plexus extends to the skin of the upper lip, the mucous membrane of the mouth, and labial glands.
  • Intercostal nerves

    Eleven nerves that arise from thoracic spinal nerves and that run along the lower border of each "rib." Even though they run close to ribs, they are technically "in between" the ribs.

    • Inter (Latin) - Among, between, betwixt, in the midst of
    • Costa (Latin) - A Rib
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Their function differs slightly based on their location, but they primarily innervate the abdominal wall and skin
  • Intercostals external

    Eleven skeletal muscles located on the "outside" of the "ribs" that extend from the inferior border of the ribs to the superior border of the rib below.

    • Inter (Latin) - Among, between, betwixt, in the midst of
    • Costa (Latin) - A Rib
    • Eternus (Latin) - Outward
  • The muscle functions to elevate the ribs.
  • Intercostals innermost

    The "deep" layer of the internal intercostal muscles.

    • Inter (Latin) - Among, between, betwixt, in the midst of
    • Costa (Latin) - A Rib
    Internal laryngeal nerve

    The "inward" branch of the superior laryngeal nerve. It gets its me because it is located in the "larynx."

    • Internus (Latin) - Interl, inside, inward, within
    • Laryngeus (Latin) - Relating to the larynx, the upper windpipe
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • This nerve pierces the thyrohyoid membrane along with the superior laryngeal artery and provides sensory innervation to the epiglottis, larynx, base of the tongue, and above the vocal cords
  • Irritation of this nerve by trapped food particles can cause uncontrollable coughing.
  • Internuclear ophthalmoplegia

    Disorder of conjugate lateral gaze in which the affected eye shows impairment of adduction and the contra lateral eye abducts with nystagmus thus leading to a horizontal diplopia. The communication "between" the PPRF "nuclei" and the oculomotor "nuclei" is disturbed.

    • Inter (Latin) - Among, between, betwixt, in the midst of
    • Nucleus (Latin) - Kernel
    • Ophthalmos (Greek) - Eye
    • Plege (Greek) - Stroke, To Strike
  • Demyelination of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) is the main cause of this disorder. Multiple sclerosis is the most common cause. Stroke is a possible cause in older patients.
  • Interossei dorsal of hand

    Muscles located in the back of the hand and "between" the "bones."

    • Inter (Latin) - Among, between, betwixt, in the midst of
    • Os (Latin) - Bone
    • Dorsum (Latin) - Back
  • These muscles function to abduct the index, middle, and ring fingers away from the midline. The dorsal interossei also assist in flexion at the MCP joint and extension of the finger joints
  • PAD and DAB is a helpful way to remember the interossei muscles: palmar adducts and dorsal abducts
  • Interossei dorsal of foot

    Four muscles in the foot located "between" the metatarsal "bones."

    • Inter (Latin) - Among, between, betwixt, in the midst of
    • Os (Latin) - Bone
  • These muscles function to abduct the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th toes.
  • Interossei palmar of hand

    Three muscles in the hand that lie "between" the metacarpal "bones."

    • Inter (Latin) - Among, between, betwixt, in the midst of
    • Os (Latin) - Bone
    • Palma (Latin) - The flat of the hand
  • They are smaller than the dorsal interossei of the hand
  • These muscles are attached to the index, ring, and little fingers.
  • Interstitial pneumonia

    Group of lung diseases affecting the "interstitium" (the tissue and space around the air sacs of the "lungs."

  • This will cause inflammation of the alveoli, pulmonary capillaries, perivascular and perilymphatic tissues.
  • Ischium

    This part of the "hip" bone is the lowest and most posterior part of the innominate (the three bones that make up the hip).

    • Ischion (Greek) - Hip joint and region
    Lateral cord

    This is a division of the brachial plexus consisting of spinal nerves C5, C6, and C7. This cord is "lateral" compared to the other cords of the brachial plexus.

    • Latus (Latin) - The side
    • Khorde (Greek) - Gut, string of a musical instrument
  • The lateral cord gives rise to the lateral pectoral nerve, the musculocutaneous nerve, and part of the median nerve.
  • Lateral plantar nerve

    The "side" "cord" in the "sole of the foot."

    • Latus (Latin) - The side
    • Planta (Latin) - Sole of the foot
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Similar course as the ulnar nerve in the hand
  • Innervates sole, abductor digiti minimi muscle
  • Lateral pterygoid nerve

    A "side" "cord" in the face "resembling" a "wing."

    • Latus (Latin) - The side
    • Pteryx (Greek) - Wing
    • Eidos (Greek) - Form, Resemblance or Shape, Likeness
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Innervates pterygoideus externus
  • Lateral rectus

    Muscle of the eyeball that moves it "straight" to the "side"

    Leukotriene

    A hydrocarbon that contains "three" "double bonds" that is produced by "white" blood cells

    • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
    • Tri (Greek) - Three
    • Ene (Greek) - Hydrocarbon Suffix
    Levator ani

    Muscle that "lifts" the "ring"shaped anus

  • Comprised of the iliococcygeus, pubococcygeus and puborectalis
  • Levator anipubococcygeus

    A muscle that connects the bone found beneath the "adult" pubic hairs and the bone shaped like a "cuckoo's" beak

    • Puber (Latin) - Ripe, adult, time of maturity
    • Kokkux (Greek) - Cuckoo
  • The Greek me for cuckoo was given to the last 35 bones of the coccyx because it resembled the cuckoo's beak when viewed from the side.
  • Levator anipuborectalis

    Muscle that connects the bone found beneath "adult" pubic hairs to the "straight" part of the colon

    • Puber (Latin) - Ripe, adult, time of maturity
    • Rectus (Latin) - Straight
    Levator anipubovaginalis

    Muscle that connects the bone found beneath "adult" pubic hairs to the "sheath" that connects external female genitalia to the cervix

    • Puber (Latin) - Ripe, adult, time of maturity
    • Vagina (Latin) - Scabbard, sheath
    Levator labii superioris

    Muscle that "lifts" the "above" part of the "lip."

    • Levare (Latin) - To lift
    • Labio (Latin) - Lip
    • Super (Latin) - In excess, above, Beyond
    Levator palpebrae superioris

    Muscle that "lifts" the "above" part of the "eyelid"

  • Ptosis, drooping eyelid, Horner's syndrome
  • Levator scapulae

    Muscle that "lifts" the "shoulder blades."

  • Stiff neck
  • Levator veli palatini

    Muscle that "lifts" the "veil" on the "roof of the mouth."

    • Levare (Latin) - To lift
    • Vellum (Latin) - Veil or curtain
    • Palatum (Greek) - Roof of the mouth, of the Palace
  • Swallowing, choking
  • Long thoracic nerve

    A "long or extended" nerve that runs down the "chest."

    • Longus (Latin) - Long
    • Thorax (Greek) - Chest, breastplate
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Damage results in winged scapula
  • Damaged in radical mastectomies involving removal of axillary lymph nodes
  • Lumbar vertebrae

    The bones that assist in "turning" the "loin" region of the spine.

    • Lumbus (Latin) - The loin
    • Vertere (Latin) - To turn, joint or articulation of the body
  • Lumbar punctures usually between L3/L4, spinal cord ends around L1/L2

  • Mnemonics
    Breakfast at 7:00, Lunch at 12:00 Dinner at 5:00
    The number of vertebrae in each spinal section
    Cervicle Spine has 7, Thoracic has 12, and lumbar has 5
    Lumbricals of foot

    The "worm" like muscles of the foot

    Marrow fibrosis

    "Condition" of the "center" of the bone in which bone marrow proliferate and cause replacement of marrow with connective tissue "fibers".

    • Marrow (Old English) - Inmost or central part
    • Fibra (Latin) - A fiber, filament, entrail
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Hairy cell leukemia
  • Medial plantar nerve

    "Nerve" derived from the "medial" cord of the brachial plexus that innervates the "sole of the foot".

    • Medius (Latin) - In the middle
    • Planta (Latin) - Sole of the foot
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Sensory innervation the sole of the foot
  • Motor innervation to the abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum brevis, flexor hallucis brevis, and the first lumbrical.
  • Medial pterygoid nerve

    "Wing" "shaped" branch of the trigeminal nerve (CN V3) that innervates the tensor tympani, tensor veli palatini, and "medial" pterygoid muscle.

    • Medius (Latin) - In the middle
    • Pteryx (Greek) - Wing
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
    Musculocutaneous nerve

    "Nerve" that controls "muscles" and "skin" sensation of the arm.

    • Musculus (Latin) - Little mouse [the shape and movement of some muscles were thought to resemble mice]
    • Cutis (Latin) - Skin
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Branch of brachial plexus composing of roots C5, C6, C7
  • Arises from lateral cord
  • Innervates coracobrachialis and biceps brachii
  • Sensory portion goes to lateral forearm
  • Myenteric

    Myenteric plexus, located in the "muscularis" externa of the "intestines". Controls smooth muscle along the digestive tract for peristalsis

    • Mus (Greek) - Muscle, mouse
    • Enteron (Greek) - Intestine, Small intestint, Piece of Gut, Bowel
  • Auerbach's plexus
  • Achalasia from loss of myenteric plexus along lower esophagus
  • Nasal polyp

    Translucent, smooth, "octopusshaped" mass in "sal" cavity due to overgrowth of mucosa.

  • Chronic sinusitis
  • Allergic rhinitis
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Multiple sal polyps in children requires workup for CF
  • Nystagmus

    Involuntary, rhythmic ticking or "nodding" of the eye associated with multiple lesions or toxicities.

  • Internuclear ophthalmoplegia
  • MS
  • Vertigo
  • Phenytoin
  • PCP
  • Obliquus capitis inferior

    A pair of "slanted" muscles found "below" the "head," which connect the spinous process of the axis (C2) to the transverse process of the atlas (C1).

  • Functions in head positioning
  • Not attached to the cranium
  • Obturator

    Region of the pelvis associated with the foramen "obstructed" by multiple membranes and many vessels and muscles.

    • Obturare (Latin) - To stop up, obstructor
  • Formed by the union of the ischium and the pubis
  • Obturator externus

    Muscle that covers the "outward" surface of the anterior pelvis. Its insertion spans and "obstructs" the "outer" obturator membrane and foramen.

  • Connects the ischium and the pubis to the neck of the femur.
  • Omentum

    Double layer fold of peritoneum that makes an apron of fat covering the "entrails" of abdominal organs.

  • Greater and lesser omentum
  • Opioid

    A class of painkiller drugs originally derived from alkaloids and "poppy" plant.

    • Opion (Greek) - Poppy juice, poppy
  • Pinpoint pupils, respiratory failure, and constipation seen in opioid overdose
  • Treat overdose with loxone
  • Natural alkaloids were the first opioids and are derived from the plant species Opium Poppy
  • Opponens digiti minimi (hand)

    The muscle that is responsible for "opposing" the "smallest" "finger" (pinky).

  • Innervated by the deep branch of the ulnar nerve
  • Optic nerve

    The cranial nerve that acts as a "cord" to transmit visual information from the retina of the "eye" to the brain.

  • CN II
  • Pupillary reflex
  • Orbicularis oculi

    The "little" muscle that forms "a ring" around the "eye" responsible for closing the eyelids.

  • Innervated by the facial nerve
  • Otalgia

    "Pain" of the "ear".

    • Ous (Greek) - Ear
    • Algein (Greek) - To feel pain
  • Commonly caused by otitis externa or otitis media, but can also originate from mastoiditis or a tympanic membrane perforation.
  • Palatine processes

    It forms the anterior portion of the hard palate, the "roof of the mouth."

    • Palatum (Greek) - Roof of the mouth, of the Palace
    • Processus (Latin) - Process, progression, course
  • Incisive foramen is in the middle
  • Palatoglossus

    Muscle of the "tongue" that aids in the initiation of swallowing It originates in the "roof of the mouth" and attaches to the posterior "tongue."

    • Palatum (Greek) - Roof of the mouth, of the Palace
    • Glossa (Greek) - Tongue
  • Lifts posterior tongue and closes the oropharyngeal isthmus
  • Prevents saliva from going into the oropharynx
  • Palisading necrosis

    Histological appearance of necrosis surrounding tumor cells.

    • Palus (Latin) - Stake
    • Nekros (Greek) - Dead body, Corpse, Death
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Commonly seen in glioblastoma on histology
  • Palmaris brevis

    Quadrilateral muscle of the ulnar side of the hand

    • Palma (Latin) - The flat of the hand
    • Brevis (Latin) - Brief ,Short
  • Innervated by the superficial branch of the ulnar nerve
  • Pectinate

    A line shaped like a "comb" that separates the al cal.

  • Line that divides upper 2/3 and lower 1/3 of al canal
  • Internal hemorrhoids above while external hemorrhoids below
  • Superior rectal artery above while inferior rectal artery below
  • Al fissures below
  • Pectineus

    A muscle in the anterior thigh shaped like a "small rake or comb."

  • Hip flexion
  • Hip adduction
  • Medial rotation of hip
  • Pectoralis major

    The "large" muscle in the anterior "chest."

    • Pectus (Latin) - Breast
    • Magnus (Latin) - Great in size, Greater
  • Muscle in anterior chest which medially rotates upper extremity
  • Poland's syndrome is congenitally missing one pectoris major
  • Proximally attached at clavicle and sternum
  • Distally attached at the bicipital groove of humerus
  • Innervated by the lateral pectoral nerve
  • Poland's syndrome is congenitally missing one pectoris major
  • Proximally attached at clavicle and sternum
  • Distally attached at the bicipital groove of humerus
  • Pernicious anemia

    A condition of being "without" "blood" due to "destruction" of the lining of the stomach that produces intrinsic factor.

  • A megaloblastic anemia caused by a lack of intrinsic factor secretion by gastric parietal cells, leading to a vitamin B12 deficiency.
  • The original treatment was large amounts of liver juice

  • MedyQuestion
    • A patient with known rheumatoid arthritis goes to see his primary care physician complaining of easy fatigue, despite his treatment for the last 3 months. On physical exam, the patient has notable palore of the conjunctiva and skin. A cbc performed demonstrates a hgb of 10.5, wbc of 6,700. Differential demonstrates an MCV of 110. Antibodies against what are causing this patient’s symptoms?

    USMLE Step 1

    Peroneus brevis

    A "shorter" "pinlike" leg muscle.

    • Perone (Greek) - Anything sharp or pointed
    • Brevis (Latin) - Brief ,Short
  • Also known as the fibularis brevis, a leg muscle located underneath the peroneus longus (which is also known as the fibularis longus)
  • Responsible for weak dorsiflexion and eversion of foot
  • Innervated by the superficial peroneal/fibular nerve
  • Peroneus longus

    A "longer" "pinlike" leg muscle.

    • Perone (Greek) - Anything sharp or pointed
    • Longus (Latin) - Long
  • Also known as the fibularis longus, a muscle along the superficial lateral leg under the knee
  • Evert and plantar flex the foot
  • Pineal gland

    A small gland (that resembles a "pine cone" "acornshaped ball") located near the thalamus in the center of the brain. The pineal gland is involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms and it secretes melatonin.

    • Pineal (Latin) - Pine cone
    • Glans (Latin) - Acornshaped ball
  • Releases melatonin
  • Regulates circadian rhythm
  • Pinealomas can cause Pariud's syndrome
  • Many philosophers, such as Descartes, have given special consideration to this gland due to its deep location in the brain. Descartes called it the principal seat of the soul
  • Placenta previa

    Abnormal attachment of the placenta to the lower uterine segment. The "flat plate" shaped organ "precedes" the baby down the vaginal cal.

  • This is a leading cause of antepartum hemorrhage
  • Platelet

    An anucleate, "flat, broad" cell fragment found in the blood responsible for the initial phases of coagulation.

  • A deficiency of platelets is thrombocytopenia
  • Contain dense granules and alpha granules
  • Derived from megakaryocytes
  • Pons

    Part of brainstem directly anterior to the cerebellum, "bridge" between the midbrain and the medulla. Has many functions and tracts that run through it. Sensory, hearing, taste, eve movements, facial expressions, chewing, saliva secretion and swallowing are all functions associated with the pons. The pons also plays an important role in the sleep cycle and in dreaming.

    • Pons (Latin) - Bridge
  • Central pontine myelinolysis associated with rapid correction of hyponatremia
  • Trigeminal sensory and motor nucleus located in the pons
  • Nuclei of CN VI, VII, VIII located in the pons
  • Comes from the a word that means bridge because the pons acts as a bridge between the medulla and midbrain.
  • Posterior cord

    Branch/"string" of brachial plexus that is located most "behind" in comparison to other branches.

    • Posterior (Latin) - After, later, behind
    • Khorde (Greek) - Gut, string of a musical instrument
  • Branches into radial and axially nerves, lower and upper subscapular nerves and the thoracodorsal nerve
  • It contains nerves from roots C5T1
  • Injury results in wrist drop, injury below the clavicle, weak extension at elbow, wrist, elbow and MP joints
  • Prinzmetal angina

    Coronary vessel spasm presenting as chest pain at rest and occurs in cycles. Caused by contraction of smooth muscle of coronary artery.

  • Betablockers are contraindicated, responds to nitrates and calcium channel blockers
  • Prolactin

    Hormone that is secreted "before" breast "milk" production in mammals.

    • Pro (Greek) - Before, Forward
    • Lac (Latin) - Milk
  • Infertility (Increased levels), craniopharyngioma, bulimia (hypo)
  • Pronator quadratus

    "Square"shaped muscle of distal forearm that turns forearm so that the palm is "facing downward"

    • Pronus (Latin) - Inclined forward or lying face downward
    • Quadrus (Latin) - Square
  • Interosseus artery
  • Pseudomyxoma periotnei

    A "false" "mass" that secretes "mucus" into the abdomen

    • Pseudein (Greek) - To deceive, cheat by lies, fake
    • Myxa (Greek) - Mucus
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Cancer of the appendix which secretes large amounts of mucus into the abdominal cavity
  • Also known as jelly belly
  • Psoas major

    The "larger" muscle of the "loin region".

    • Psoa (Greek) - Loin region
    • Magnus (Latin) - Great in size, Greater
  • Long muscle that begins along the lumbar region of the vertebral column and joins with the iliacus to form the iliopsoas
  • Hip flexor
  • The psoas major is the cut of meat from a cow we commonly know as the "filet mignon".
  • Purulent

    Something containing "pus" often referring to a sore or urine.

  • Purulent is used to describe pusforming bacteria
  • Purulent fluid is proteinrich and contains dead leukocytes
  • Pyogenic granuloma

    A "granular" "tumor or mass" that "produces" "pus".

    • Puon (Greek) - Discharge from a sore, pus
    • Gene (French) - Something that produces
    • Granum (Latin) - Grain, seed
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Pregnancy tumor
  • Overgrowth of vascular tissue due to irradiation, trauma or hormones. Technically a capillary hemangioma so are prone to bleeding and occur in the gums, skin and sal septum.
  • First described in 1897 by French surgeons who med the growths 'botryomycosis hominis'
  • Pyruvate kinase deficiency

    Enzyme deficiency that results in the inability to complete the last step of glycolysis

    • Pyr (Greek) - Fire, heat
    • Kinein (Greek) - Motion, to move
    • Deficere (Latin) - To Desert, Revolt, Fail
  • The lack of ATP when PK is absent leads to cell death of the red blood cell, presenting clinically as a hemolytic anemia
  • 2nd most common hemolytic anemia to G6PD
  • Quadratus femoris

    "Square"shaped and flat muscle of the posterior "thigh" with a major function of moving the leg closer to the body (Adduction)

    • Quadrus (Latin) - Square
    • Femur (Latin) - Thigh, but applide to the one of the upper leg
    Quadratus lumborum

    "Square"shaped muscle of "the loin" area, or the area between the lower ribs and pelvis

  • Primarily involved in lateral flexion of the back
  • Recombination

    Process by which two D molecules exchange information, resulting in in a new combination of alleles.

    • Re (Latin) - Again, anew
    • Combinare (Late Latin) - To Join by Two
  • The VDJ rearrangement mechanism used by the adaptive immune system is an example of recombination
  • Occurs during gametogenesis, which leads to novel traits being passed onto progeny.
  • Described in 1931 when observed in corn by Creighton and McClintock
  • Rectus abdominis

    "straight" paired muscle bands of the "belly", commonly known as "abs"

  • Abdominal hernia, innervated by nerve roots T711
  • Inserts at pubic crest inferiorly and costal cartilage/xiphoid process superiorly
  • Rectus capitus anterior

    The "straight" muscle "before" or located in the front of the "head".

  • Minor muscle
  • Flexion of neck and head, supplied by C1/C2. Found at basic of occipital bone
  • Rectus capitus lateralis

    The "straight" muscle to "the side" of the "head".

  • Minor muscle
  • Weak lateral flexion of head. C1/C2 nerve innervation
  • Rectus capitus posterior major

    The "greater" or bigger of the pair of "straight" muscles "behind" the "head".

    • Rectus (Latin) - Straight
    • Caput (Latin) - Head
    • Post (Latin) - Behind, afterward
    • Magnus (Latin) - Great in size, Greater
  • Minor muscle
  • Postural muscle
  • Weak lateral flexion of head
  • C1/C2 nerve innervation
  • Rectus capitus posterior minor

    The "lesser" or smaller of the pair of "straight" muscles "behind" the "head".

    • Rectus (Latin) - Straight
    • Caput (Latin) - Head
    • Post (Latin) - Behind, afterward
    • Meion (Greek) - To lessen, lesser
  • Minor muscle
  • Postural muscle
  • Weak lateral flexion of head
  • C1/C2 nerve innervation
  • Rhomboid crystals

    Positively birefringent calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate "rhombus"shaped crystals resembling "clear ice" found in pseudogout .

  • Found in pseudogout
  • Usually found in the knee
  • Treat with NSAIDs, steroids, and colchicine
  • Associated with hemochromatosis, hyperparathyroidism, and hypoparathyroidism
  • Rhomboid major

    "Rhombus""like" "great" upper back muscle that connects the medial border of the scapula to the vertebrae.

    • Rhombos (Greek) - A magician's circle
    • Eidos (Greek) - Form, Resemblance or Shape, Likeness
    • Magnus (Latin) - Great in size, Greater
  • Innervated by the dorsal scapular nerve
  • Fixes scapula to the thoracic wall
  • Involved in retraction of the scapula.
  • Sarcoplasmic reticulum

    A "network" of membranous organelles that "forms" in the "flesh" of the body (i.e.: muscle cells)

    • Sarx (Latin) - Flesh, Meat
    • Plasm (Greek) - Mold, shape
    • Reticulum (Latin) - Littlle net, network like structure
  • A special type of smooth endoplasmic reticulum within muscle cells responsible for storing calcium. Upon excitation of the muscle, the calcium is released in order to strengthen the muscle contraction
  • Sartorius

    The long leg muscle used in crossing the legs, med for it's location on the inseam where a "tailor" traditionally measures pant length.

  • A long muscle of the anterior thigh responsible for assisting in flexion and rotation of the hip
  • The longest muscle in the human body
  • Innervated by the superficial branch of the femoral nerve
  • The me is derived from the word meaning tailor and is sometimes referred to as the tailor's muscle. This is because of it's location on the inseam of the leg where tailors traditionally measure for pant length
  • Scalenus anterior

    A "triangular" muscle with "unequal sides" that "comes before" the rest of the body (is in the front)

    • Scalenus (Latin) - Having three unequal sides, shell pod, husk
    • Ante (Latin) - Before
  • Anterior vertebral muscle that arises from the third, fourth, fifth and sixth cervical vertebrae and attaches to the scalene tubercle of the 1st rib. Elevates first rib and rotates the neck to the opposite side.
  • Thoracic outlet Syndrome
  • Derived from skalenos meaning uneven as in uneven sides of a scalene triangle and the borders of the set of scalene muscles
  • Scalenus medius

    A "triangular" muscle with "unequal sides" that is in the "middle" of two other scalene muscles

    • Scalenus (Latin) - Having three unequal sides, shell pod, husk
    • Medius (Latin) - In the middle
  • Arises from the transverse processes of the lower six cervical vertebrae and attaches to the 1st rib. Elevates first rib and rotates the neck to the opposite side.
  • Thoracic outlet Syndrome
  • Derived from skalenos meaning uneven as in uneven sides of a scalene triangle and borders of the set of scalene muscles
  • Scalenus minimus

    A "triangular" muscle with "unequal sides" that is "smallest"

    • Scalenus (Latin) - Having three unequal sides, shell pod, husk
    • Minimus (Latin) - Least, smallest
  • Vertebral muscle sometimes present just behind the lower portion of the scalenus anterior. Elevates first and second ribs.
  • Thoracic outlet Syndrome
  • Derived from skalenos meaning uneven as in uneven sides of a scalene triangle and the borders of the set of scalene muscles
  • Selective IgA deficiency

    A primary "failure" of the immune system characterized by the lack of a "single" type of "spherical" protein that helps "exempt" the body from infection (IgA) in the blood and secretions.

  • IgA normally protects against infections of the mucous membranes.
  • People are usually asymptomatic, but have increased frequency of infections, especially respiratory, digestive, and GI systems.
  • Transfusion aphylaxis, celiac disease
  • IgA was first identified by Graber and Williams in 1952
  • The first patients with selective IgA deficiency were described 10 years later.
  • Seminoma

    A "tumor" of the testis arising from "sperm"forming tissue

    • Semen (Latin) - Seed
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Germ cell tumor in the testes or sometimes mediastinum. It originates in the germinal epithelium of the seminiferous tubules.
  • Serous cystadenoma

    A benign "mass" of a "gland" filled with "watery fluid" resembling a small "bladder".

    • Serum (Latin) - Watery fluid, whey
    • Kustis (Greek) - Bladder, atomical pouch or sac
    • Aden (Greek) - Gland
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Common benign ovarian neoplasm filled with clear fluid
  • Most common type of ovarian cancer
  • Socialization

    Pertaining to society as a natural condition of human life.

    • Socialis (Latin) - Of companionship, of allies, united
  • The continuity of social, cultural, and behavioral habits, commonly known as customs that are acquired and kept between generations.
  • Social
  • Cultural
  • Behavioral
  • Splenic sinusoid

    "Curved" vascular channels in the "spleen" which help remove old red blood cells

    • Splen (Greek) - The milt, spleen
    • Sinus (Latin) - Bend, fold, curve, a bent surface; a bay, bight, gulf; a fold in land; hollow curve or cavity in the body
  • Wide vascular channels in the red pulp of the spleen that drain into trabecular veins and filter out aged and damaged red blood cells, which are subsequently devoured by macrophages
  • Splenius capitis

    A "bandage"like muscle which is attached to the head

  • A muscle in the back of the neck that pulls on the base of the skull from the vertebrae in the neck and upper thorax.
  • Innervated by the posterior ramus of C3 and C4
  • Extend
  • Rotate, and laterally flex the head
  • Stapedial artery

    A small "artery" which supplies the stapedius, a small muscle in the ear attached to the neck of the stapes.

    • Stapedius (Latin) - Denoting the muscle attached to the neck of the stapes
    • Arteria (Greek) - Windpipe, artery
  • The artery that enters into the ear and is responsible for supplying the stapedial muscle
  • Branch of the posterior auricular artery
  • Derived from the second aortic arch
  • Status asthmaticus

    An acute "condition" in which it is "hard to breathe"

    • Status (Latin) - Condition, position, state, manner, attitude
    • Azein (Greek) - Breathe hard
  • An acute form of asthma that is more severe and unresponsive to initial treatment, resulting in severe bronchospasm, airway inflammation, and difficulty breathing. severe asthma
  • Rapid onset
  • Sternocleidomastoid

    Muscle of the "breast, clavicle, and breastlike process (behind the ear)" that is response for turning the head contralaterally.

    • Sternon (Latin) - Breast
    • Cleido (Latin) - Clavicle
    • Mastos (Greek) - Breast
    • Eidos (Greek) - Form, Resemblance or Shape, Likeness
  • A muscle that turns the head to the contralateral side.
  • Innervated by the spinal accessory nerve (CN 11)
  • Often hypertrophied in congenital torticollis.
  • Styloglossus

    A muscle that lifts up the sides of the "tongue" like a "pillar" during swallowing and helps retract the tongue.

  • Muscle that lifts up the sides of the tongue during swallowing and helps to retract the tongue.
  • Innervated by CN XII
  • Stylohyoid

    Muscle that lifts up, like a "pillar", the "ushaped" hyoid bone and elevates the tongue during swallowing.

    • Stylos (Greek) - Pillar
    • Hyoides (Greek) - Shaped like the letter u
  • Innervated by CN VII
  • Subarachnoid hemorrhage

    "bleeding violently" "under" the "cobweb" layer of the meninges

    • Sub (Latin) - Under, below, beneath, at the foot of
    • Arakhne (Greek) - Cobweb, spider
    • Haimorrhages (Greek) - Bleeding violently
  • Blood accumulation under the arachnoid membrane but above the pia mater, most often secondary to a ruptured brain aneurysm.
  • "Worst headache of my life"
  • Thunderclap headache
  • Xanthochromia
  • Symptoms can include severe headache, confusion, seizures, hemiparesis, and associated symptoms of increased intracranial pressure.
  • Subcostal nerve

    A "cord" of nerve cells which is "below" the "ribs"

    • Sub (Latin) - Under, below, beneath, at the foot of
    • Costa (Latin) - A Rib
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Nerve that originates from the 12th thoracic nerve and runs along the lower border of the 12th rib. Responsible for innervating some muscles of the abdomen and gives off sensory fibers to the lower abdomen and gluteal region.
  • Runs along lower border of 12th rib
  • Suboccipital nerve

    A "cord" of nerve cells "below" the "base" of the skull

    • Sub (Latin) - Under, below, beneath, at the foot of
    • Occiput (Latin) - Back of the skull
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • The posterior branch (dorsal primary ramus) of C1
  • Innervates muscles of the suboccipital triangle such as the rectus capitis, posterior major, obliquus capitis superior and inferior and rectus capitis posterior minor
  • Exits the spinal cord at the atlas
  • Superantigen

    A substance that causes "excess" "production" of an "antibody a substance that "neutralizes" poisons

    • Super (Latin) - In excess, above, Beyond
    • Anti (Greek) - Against, opposite, opposed to
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
  • Antigens produced by bacteria that result in an overwhelming T cell response, resulting in massive cytokine release and immune response. These superantigens cause activation of a greater than normal amount of T cells by binding MHC II resulting in conditions such as toxic shock syndrome and rheumatic fever.
  • Toxic shock syndrome
  • Rheumatic fever
  • Superior mesenteric plexus

    The "superior" half of a "network" of nerves in "between" the "bowels"

    • Superior (Latin) - Higher, Above
    • Mesos (Greek) - Middle, in the middle, in between
    • Enteron (Greek) - Intestine, Small intestint, Piece of Gut, Bowel
    • Plexus (Latin) - Braid, network
  • Surrounds the SMA
  • Continuation of the celiac plexus
  • Innervate the pancreas, small intestine and parts of the large intestine.
  • Superior rectal plexus

    Division of the inferior mesenteric plexus that supplies the rectum

  • Supplies the rectum
  • Superoxide dismutase

    The "enzyme" that "changes" the free radical superoxide, and "breaks it apart" into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide.

    • Super (Latin) - In excess, above, Beyond
    • Oxys (Greek) - Sharp
    • Dis (Latin) - Not, In a Different Direction, Between
    • Mutare (Latin) - To change
    • Ase (English) - Used to form the me of enzymes
  • SOD1 mutation associated with ALS
  • Reduces superoxide into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide
  • Suprascapular nerve

    A nerve coursing "above" the "scapula".

    • Supra (Latin) - Above, over, beyond, on the upper side
    • Scapulae (Latin) - Shoulder blades
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Innervates the supraspinatus and infraspinatus
  • Arising from the 5th/6th cervical roots (the upper trunk of the brachial plexus)
  • Temporal lobe

    The most lateral "lobes" of the brain, involved in visual processing, spatial sensation, and other functions.

    • Temporalis (Latin) - Of a time, but for a time, pertaining to the temples.
    • Lobus (Latin) - Hull, husk, pod, small lobe
  • Temporal lobes are commonly involved in seizures
  • Contains Wernicke's area
  • Visual disturbance to this area results in contralateral homonymous upper quadrantanopia
  • Temporalis

    Fanshaped muscle of mastication that covers most of the "temporal" bone of the head.

    • Temporalis (Latin) - Of a time, but for a time, pertaining to the temples.
  • It is covered by the temporal fascia
  • The muscle can be palpated on the temples when the jaw is clenched
  • Derived from 1st pharyngeal arch
  • Tenosynovitis

    "Inflammation" of "fluidsecreting" synovial membranes surrounding "tendons".

    • Teno (Greek) - Tendon
    • Sinovia (Latin) - Albuminous fluid secreted by glands
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Treat with NSAIDs or cortisone injections
  • Trigger finger
  • Tensor fasciae lata

    A "bandlike" muscle on the "side" of the thigh which stabilizes it during extension by "stretching" fascia.

    • Tenein (Greek) - To stretch, strain
    • Fascia (Latin) - Band, doorframe
    • Lata (Latin) - Side
  • Arises from the ASIS
  • In latin, it means stretcher of the wide band.
  • Tensor tympani

    A muscle that "stretches" the "drumlike" tympanic membrane separating the outer and middle ear.

  • Embryonic origin is the 1st pharyngeal arch
  • Hyperacusis is associated with tonic tensor tympani syndrome
  • Innervated by CNV
  • Teratogen

    A teratogen is a substance that causes "monstrous" congenital abnormalities.

    • Terato (Greek) - Marvel, monster
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
  • Lithium
  • Isotretinoin
  • Tetracycline
  • Warfarin
  • Anticonvulsants
  • Teratology is latin translates to the study of marvel, monster. It was a term used to describe the study of anything abnormal or marvelous but soon was used to define the study of biological deformities.
  • Trachyonychia

    A "condition" of having "rough" "fingernails".

    • Trakhys (Greek) - Rough
    • Onyx (Greek) - Fingeril
    • Ia (Greek) - Condition
  • When it involves all or most of the fingernails and toenails, it is known as "twenty il dystrophy"
  • It occurs mostly in children
  • It is associated with skin conditions such as psoriasis, lichen planus, alopecia areata, or atopic eczema
  • Commonly referred to as "sandpaper" nails.
  • Coloboma

    A "defect" or hole, usually in one of the structures of the eye

  • - Coloboma of the eye most commonly affects the iris, creating an often larger area of black (the pupil) - Can also affect the retina, choroid, or optic disc - Coloboma of the eye is the "C" in CHARGE Syndrome
  • MEDYMOLOGY