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MICROBIOLOGY
346 terms share this category
Achilles Tendon

The tendon connecting calf muscles to the calcaneus med for the Greek warrior and demigod Achilles.

  • A tear of the Achille Tendon can lead to the inability to bear weight on the tiptoes
  • The Greek hero, Achilles, was said to have been dipped into the river styx by his mother in hopes of making him immortal. She held him by the heel, causing that part of his body to remain vulnerable. During the Trojan War, Achilles was struck down by Paris who shot a poison arrow into his heel.
  • Acrodynia

    "Pain" of the "extremities", specifically the hands and feet.

    • Akron (Greek) - Tip, Extremity
    • Odyne (Greek) - Pain
  • Associated with exposure to heavy metals
  • The feet and hands become dusky and discolored
  • Historically, this disease has been referred to as "Pink Syndrome" and "Mercurialism".
  • Actinomyces Israelii

    A bacteria med after Dr. Israeli that resembles a "fungus" by growing in a "ray " like distribution.

    • Aktis (Greek) - Ray
    • Myces (Greek) - Fungus
    • Israelii - German surgeon James Israelii who discovered it
  • Yellow sulfur granules seen in the mouth
  • Branching filaments
  • Normal oral flora
  • Opportunistic pathogen
  • Also known as the most commonly misdiagnosed disease because of its resemblance to cancer or growth
  • Actinomycosis

    A "ray"like "fungus" infection

    • Aktis (Greek) - Ray
    • Mykes (Greek) - Fungus, mushroom, anything shaped like a mushroom
  • Actinomyces Israeli identified histologically by “ray”like hyphae
  • Characterized by sulfur granules, “lumpy jaw”, and fibrotic nodules
  • Acute lymphonodular pharyngitis

    A "sharp" or fast onset of "inflammation" involving "knot"like spots and "watery" discharge in the “throat” and tonsillar area

    • Acuere (Latin) - To Sharpen, sharply onset
    • Lympha (Latin) - Water, clear water, a goddess of water
    • Nodulus (Latin) - A small knot
    • Pharynx (Greek) - Throat, windpipe
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Caused by Coxsackie A virus, especially in children
  • Other manifestations of infections include herpangina and hand, foot and mouth disease
  • Adenovirus

    "A toxic substance" that is med for commonly infecting "glandular" tissues.

    • Aden (Greek) - Gland
    • Virus (Latin) - Poison, poisonous substance
  • Nonenveloped, doublestranded
  • Commonly causes pink eye in children
  • Spread largely in daycares
  • Me derived from originally being isolated from the adenoids
  • Adenylate Cyclase

    Enzyme that converts ATP to cAMP

    • Adenosine (English) - Blend of Adenine and Ribose
    • Cyclo (Greek) - Wheel, Circular
    • Ase (English) - Used to form the me of enzymes
  • Present in bacteria E. Coli, B. anthracis, B. pertussis, M. tuberculosis, Y. pestis, A. hydrophila
  • Ancylostoma Duodenale

    A "crooked" shaped parasitic worm arranged "in twelves", or segments, known for using its "mouth" to gain access to a host.

  • Uses its teeth to hook into the bottom of people's feet, therefore commonly seen in people that walk around barefoot
  • Can lead to iron deficiency anemia by sucking blood from the host
  • Discussed with Necator Americanus
  • This worm has fangs that allow it to penetrate the skin via the feet and burrow into the body.

  • MedyQuestion
    • An 8 year old boy from Georgia is brought to his primary care doctor because of a 3 month history of increasing feelings of fatigue. The patient’s parents say that over the summer, he would often times play outside barefoot with his brothers. On physical exam, the patient’s conjunctiva appears pale with dry pale mouth and tongue. The physician orders an iron study which demonstrated iron deficiency anemia. Given the patient’s symptoms, what is the most appropriate treatment for this patient?

    USMLE Step 1

    Angular cheilitis

    Inflammatory condition affecting the "corners" of the mouth due to a collection of saliva that when dries leads to cracking of the skin.

  • Can happen at any age due to factors such as wearing an illfitting denture, teeth malocclusion and thumb sucking behavior.
  • Cracked corners of the mouth
  • Aplastic Anemia

    To be "without" "blood" due to the bone marrow "not" "forming" new cells.

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Plassein (Greek) - To mold or form
    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Causes pancytopenia, a decrease in white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets
  • Commonly caused by parvo virus B19 in sickle cell patients
  • Idiosyncratic aplastic anemia is a potential adverse effect of chloramphenicol use and may be allergic in origin
  • Ascaris Lumbricoides

    A type of "earth worm" that causes "disease" by inhabiting the "intestinal" tract.

  • Fecal oral
  • In stool detect eggs with rough (bumpy) surface
  • Aspiration of worms can cause Loffler's pneumonia, intestinal obstruction liver abscess
  • More than 2 billion people are affected by this infection
  • Aspergillus Fumigatus

    An opportunistic fungus named for its resemblance to an aspergillum, the instrument used to "scatter" holy water in church ceremonies. The fungus appears "smoky" or grey under the microscope.

  • Septate hyphae branching at 45 degree angle
  • Can cause: invasive aspergillosis, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, Aspergilloma, hepatocellular carcinoma (via aflatoxin)
  • The bug was named because of its resemblance to an aspergillum, an instrument used in the Catholic church to scatter holy water. The wand appears to be a long rod with a large perforated ball at the top which strongly resembles the fungus under the microscope.
  • Asplenia

    To be "without" a "milt or spleen".

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Splen (Greek) - The milt, spleen
  • Spleen is necessary for host immune defense
  • Asplenic patients have decreased IgM, decreased complement activation and decreased C3b opsonization therefore increase susceptibility to encapsulated organisms
  • Autosplenectomy in sickle cell patients due to vasoocclusive infarcts
  • Milt was a synonym for meld, in the context of the organ that grind up or weakens things that pass through it.
  • Atlantoaxial subluxation

    An "under" or partial "dislocation" of the C1 vertebra (Atlas) that "holds up the globe" of the head, and the C2 vertebra (axis) on which the Atlas "pivots" or turns.

    • Atlas (Greek) - The Titan known for holding up Earth
    • Axis (Latin) - Axle, Pivot
    • Sub (Latin) - Under, below, beneath, at the foot of
    • Luxatio (Latin) - Dislocate
  • A common complication of patients with Down Syndrome, due to weak transverse ligaments.
  • Attenuated Vaccine

    A sample of an infective agent that has been "made thin" or weakened, as a preventative measure to disease. Vacca refers to the first one of these produced in which Edward Jenner used cowpox material and injected it into his children to induce immunity to smallpox.

  • Induces a cellular immune response (CD8+ cells)
  • Pro: induces strong, often lifelong immunity
  • Con: may revert to virulent form
  • Do not use in pregnancy and immune deficient individuals
  • Examples: Viral: measles vaccine, mumps vaccine, rubella vaccine, Live attenuated influenza vaccine (the season flu sal spray and the 2009 H1N1 flu sal spray), chicken pox vaccine, oral polio vaccine (Sabin), rotavirus vaccine, and yellow fever vaccine
  • Bacterial: BCG vaccine, typhoid vaccine and epidemic typhus vaccine.
  • Babesia

    A protozoa med after Romanian bacteriologist Victor Babes found in the northeast USA which causes fever and hemolytic anemia.

    • Maltese cross on blood smear
    • Caused by Ixodes tick, same vector as Lyme disease.
    • Bacillus Anthracis

      A "stick"shaped bacteria that causes "charcoal"colored necrotic wounds.

    • A Gram positive, sporeforming bacteria
    • Boillike lesions and pulmonary anthrax
    • Flu symptoms that progress to fever and shock
    • Black eschar
    • Woolsorters disease (seen in people who work with wool or animal hide)
    • Bacillus Cereus

      A "stick"shaped bacteria known for its "waxy" appearance on agar plates.

    • A Gram positive, sporeforming
    • AKA reheated rice syndrome
    • Causes food poisoning as these spores survive in cooking rice
    • Causes nausea and vomiting within 1 5 hours and watery diarrhea in 8 18 hours.
    • Bacteriology

      The "study of" "small stuff", now more specifically referred to as bacteria.

      • Bakteria (Greek) - Staff, cane, Small stuff
      • Logy - Branch of knowledge, Study of
    • Literally meaning, the study of small stuff, derived from the idea that bacteria were very small organisms.
    • Blastomyces Dermatitidis

      "Budding" "fungus" that causes lesions to form in capillary beds throughout the body, including the "skin".

      • Blastos (Greek) - Germ, sprout, bud or budding, immature
      • Mukes (Greek) - Fungus, mushroom
      • Derma (Greek) - Skin
    • Dimorphic fungi found in soil along the Ohio and Mississippi River valley and Great Lakes regions
    • Large round yeast with single broad base buds and a doubly refractile wall
    • Can cause pneumonia in immunocompetent people and disseminated infection in immunocompromised people.
    • Borrelia Burgdorferi

      Bacterial species of spirochete class med after French biologist Amedee Borrel and American scientist Willy Burgdorfer that is transmitted by the Ixodes tick that causes Lyme disease.

      • Large rash with bull's eye appearance
      • Facial nerve palsy
      • Arthritis
      • Largest of the spirochete class.
      • Visualized using aniline dyes like Wright or Giemsa stain in light field microscopy
      • Borrelia Recurrentis

        Bacterial species of spirochete class transmitted by human body louse that causes relapsing fever, in which symptoms appear, disappear, and "return".

        • Recurrere (Latin) - Run back, hasten back, return
      • Capable of changing its surface proteins allowing it to evade the host immune system
      • Brucytos

        Gram negative, nonmotile, nonencapsulated coccobacilli responsible for causing brucellosis which predominately produces a cyclical fever

          Bunyavirus

          "Poisonous substance" that was first isolated in Bunyamwera locale in Uganda

          • All the viruses in this family, with the exception of Hantavirus require arthropod vectors... Family of enveloped, single stranded, negative sense, circular R viruses with a helical capsid that cause California encephalitis, Sandfly/rift valley fevers and CrimeanCongo hemorrhagic fever
          • Calicivirus

            A "poisonous substance" that sometimes has recognizable "cup" shaped depressions on its surface.

            • Calic (Latin) - Cup
            • Virus (Latin) - Poison, poisonous substance
          • Norovirus is part of this family
          • Family of nonenveloped, single stranded, positive sense, linear R
          • Campylobacter Jejuni

            "Bent" "small thing" that can be found infecting the part of the intestine that is empty when "fasting"

          • Gull wings is diagnostic, grows at 42 degrees, associated with Gillian Barre syndrome and reactive arthritis after infection, fecaloral transmission through po...Gram negative, oxidase positive, comma shaped bacteria that cause gastroenteritis and bloody diarrhea especially in children
          • Poultry, meat and unpasteurized milk
          • First described in 1886 in babies and was originally called cholera infantum indicating similar symptoms to cholera but in newborn children. It has since been associated with many foods including chicken and milk
          • Candida Albicans

            Dimorphic fungus that causes opportunistic genital and oral infections; it is responsible for the "white" layer lining the oral cavity in thrush

          • Pseudohypha and budding yeast at 20 degrees and germ tubes at 37 degrees
          • Normally live on skin and mucous membranes without producing any symptoms but overgrowth causes problems
          • Most common cause of diaper rash

          • MedyQuestion
            • A 21-year-old female presents to the doctor’s office with a 3-day history of sore throat. She is currently taking an inhaled corticosteroid for her asthma. Her temperature is 99.4°F. A KOD prep taken from a sample of one of the plaques shows budding year. An illustration of her tongue is shown. Which is the most likely course of pharmacotherapy that the doctor will prescribe for this patient.

            USMLE Step 1

            Candidal Leukoplakia

            A "white" oral mucosal lesion

          • A persistent white lesion, characterized by the increased production keratin (parakeratosis) and chronic intraepithelial inflammation with fungal (Thrush) hyphae invading the superficial layers of the epithelium

          • MedyQuestion
            • A 21-year-old female presents to the doctor’s office with a 3-day history of sore throat. She is currently taking an inhaled corticosteroid for her asthma. Her temperature is 99.4°F. A KOD prep taken from a sample of one of the plaques shows budding year. An illustration of her tongue is shown. Which is the most likely course of pharmacotherapy that the doctor will prescribe for this patient.

            USMLE Step 1

            Capsule

            A bacterial virulence "container" that protects the organism from being engulfed by immune cells and aids in adherence.

            • Capsula (Latin) - A small box or container
          • Mostly composed of polysaccharides except in Bacillus anthracis which has a polypeptide capsule
          • Common encapsulated bacteria are Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumonia, Salmonella, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudopods aeruginosa, Neisseria meningitidis, Bacteroides fragilis, and Cryptococcus neoformans. Mnemonic 1: Even Some Super Killers Have Pretty Nice Big Capsules. Mnemonic 2: SHiNE SKiS
          • Catalase

            An "enzyme" that breaks down or "dissolves" hydrogen peroxide into oxygen and water.

          • Obligate aerobes lack catalase
          • Catalase positive organisms include Pseudopods, Listeria, Aspergillus, Candida, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Serratia. Mnemonic: You need PLACESSS for your CATs people with chronic granulomatous disease have recurrent infections with these organisms
          • Cestodes (flatworms)

            A class of "parasitic flatworms" that typically inhabit the digestive tract of humans and animals. These worms are composed of many segments that are "stitched" together.

            • Cestus (Latin) - A parastic tapeworm; stitched
          • Flatworms, tapeworms, parasite, Taenia solium, Taenia sagitta, Diphyllobothrium,
          • Recognizable clusters of cestode eggs have been found in fossil feces of a shark dating to the mid to late Paleozoic Era.
          • Chlamydia Psittaci

            A bacteria that causes a flulike illness and pneumonia in humans. It can only survive within or under the "cloak" of another cell and was first discovered to be transmitted to humans through "parrots."

            • Khlamus (Greek) - Cloak
            • Psittakos (Greek) - Parrot, where the organism was first found
          • Commonly seen in veterinarians due to their close contact with animals
          • Bird vector, psittacosis, pneumonia, flulike symptoms
          • Potentially lethal intracellular bacterial species that can cause endemic avian chlamydiosis and respiratory psittacosis in humans, beginning as flulike symptoms and resulting in lifethreatening pneumonia, with potential hosts including feral birds, domesticated poultry, cattle, pigs, sheep, and horses.
          • Psittacosis was first seen in 1879 when seven people in Switzerland were found to have pneumonia after exposure to tropical pet birds. In the winter of 19291930, the psittacosis pandemic spread across the US and Europe with a mortality rate of 20% and 80% in pregnant women. The spread was eventually attributed to exposure to Amazon parrots imported from Argentina.
          • Chlamydia Trachomatis

            A bacteria that causes an eye infection resulting in a "roughening" on the inner surface of the eyelid and is the leading cause of blindness worldwide. It can only survive within or under the "cloak" of another cell.

          • Obligate intracellular gramnegative bacterial species that can cause trachoma (infection of the eyes with serotype A, B, C), urethritis, PID, ectopic pregnancy, neonatal pneumonia, and neonatal conjunctivitis (with serotype DK), and lymphogranuloma venereum (with serotype L1, L2, and L3).
          • Chlamydia trachomatis was first described in 1907 but was assumed to be a virus since it couldn't be grown on artificial media.
          • Chronic Hyperplastic candidiasis

            A "condition" that lasts a long "time" due to "white" fungi that causes "excess" "formation" of tissue

            • Khronikos (Greek) - Of time, concerning time
            • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
            • Plasis (Greek) - Molding, Formation
            • Candidus (Latin) - White
            • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
          • The major etiologic agent of the disease is the oral fungal pathogen Candida
          • Typically presents as a white adherent patch on the commissures of the oral mucosa
          • A minor proportion may demonstrate dysplasia and develop into carcinomas
          • Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis

            A "condition" of the "skin" and "slimy" surfaces caused by "white" fungi lasting a long "time"

            • Khronikos (Greek) - Of time, concerning time
            • Mucus (Latin) - Slime, mold, snot
            • Cutis (Latin) - Skin
            • Candidus (Latin) - White
            • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
          • Hereditary, immunodeficiency, cellmediated immunity disorder, T cell, Candida
          • Hereditary immunodeficiency characterized by chronic infections with Candida (usually C. albicans) limited to mucosal surfaces, skin, and cells due to impaired cellmediated immunity (T cells)
          • Chronic infections with Candida that are limited to mucosal surfaces, skin, and nails
          • In infants, the first symptoms are thrush and diaper rash that may eventually lead to a thick, oozing disfiguring rash that covers the face and scalp, causing hair to fall out.
          • Clonorchis Sinensis

            A worm parasite found mostly in "Chi," characterized by its highly "branched" and "twig"like testes, that causes liver disease in humans.

          • Aka Chinese liver fluke, Trematode, cholangiocarcinoma
          • It is found commonly in the human bile duct and gallbladder, where it feeds on bile and induces an inflammatory reaction in the bile ducts and can cause cholangiocarcinoma (cancer of the liver and bile duct)
          • This is the 3rd most prevalent worm parasite in the world and is endemic to Japan, Chi, and Southeast Asia. It is currently the most prevalent trematode in Asia, still being transmitted in Korea, Chi, Vietnam, and Russia. It was med for its highly branched testes that separate Clonorchis from other genera of trematodes.
          • Clostridium Botulinum

            A "spindle" or rod shaped bacterium found in certain foods that releases a toxic which causes muscles to become flaccid and paralyzed. This bug was named after contaminated home-made "sausages" that caused this condition in the 1800s.

          • Classically, infants given honey who present with botulism intoxication will present with "floppy baby syndrome", a condition in which the baby experiences a flaccid paralysis, can become constipated, and will have a classic weak cry secondary to the paralysis.
          • In adults, classically associated with home canned foods, or foods bought at the supermarket that are found to be bulging.
          • Adult botulism intoxication will present often times with muscle weaknesses that manifest through problems speaking or swallowing, facial weakness, double vision, ptosis and trouble breathing
          • Infants should not be given honey ( a source of botulinum spores) before the age of 1 in order to prevent infant botulism
          • During the 1800's in Germany, people would make homemade sausage and contract a flaccid paralysis as a result, hence the origin of the name, coming from sausage.

          • Medytoons

            MedyQuestion
            • A middle-aged woman has blurry and double vision 10 hours after eating preserved vegetables. A few hours after these symptoms she begins to experience dysphagia, xerostomia, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, weakness of the distal muscles, and urinary retention. She is alert and conscious. Which of the following is mechanisms is most likely contributing to her condition?

            USMLE Step 1

            Clostridium Difficile

            A "spindle" or rod shaped bacterium normally present in the digestive tract that can cause disease when growth goes unchecked. The bug was named for being "difficult to please" in relation to its inability to be isolated from cultures in the wild.

          • Aka C. diff, normal flora, infectious diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis
          • Grampositive, rodshaped, sporeforming bacterium, normally a minor part of the colonic flora, that causes infectious diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis, and rarely, toxic megacolon when competing colonic bacteria are eliminated by antibiotic treatment
          • MAJOR TEST POINT FOR BOARDS!!!! Hand washing with soap and water are the only way to kill spores that contaminate the skin!! Alcohol based hand rubs are ineffective and therefore are never the answer when leaving a patient's room with C.diff.
          • C. diff, renamed in 1970, was initially named Bacillus difficilis by Hall and O' Toole in 1935 because it was resistant to early attempts at isolation and grew very slowly in culture.

          • MedyQuestion
            • A 66 year old man with medical history significant for hypertension and type II diabetes currently being hospitalized for pneumonia begins to develop foul smelling, watery diarrhea on the fourth day of his hospitalization. The patient is started on oral metronidazole and C.diff stool samples are sent. After 3 days on metronidazole, the diarrhea persists. What drug and through which route should it be administered to treat this patient?

            USMLE Step 1

            Clostridium Perfringens

            A "spindle" or rod shaped bacterium that causes tissue death and decay "by means of" releasing a toxin that kills cells and "breaks [tissue] into smaller pieces."

            • Kloster (Greek) - Spindle
            • Per (Latin) - Through, by means of
            • Frango (Latin) - Break into pieces, shatter
          • Normal flora, necrosis, bacteremia, gas gangrene
          • Grampositive, rodshaped, sporeforming bacterium, present as a normal component of decaying vegetation and the human GI tract that can cause tissue death (necrosis), infection of the blood (bacteremia), infected gallbladder (cholecystitis), and gas production in muscle tissue (gas gangrene or myonecrosis).
          • The toxin involved in gas gangrene (α toxin) inserts into the plasma membrane of cells, producing gaps and disrupting normal cell function. The action of this bacteria even acts on dead bodies in a process known to mortuary workers as tissue gas, and can only be stopped by the embalming process.

          • Medytoons
            Clostridium Tetani (Tetanus)

            A "spindle" or rod shaped bacterium that releases a toxin which causes the muscles become very "taught" and remain in a contracted state.

          • Tetanus, tetanospasmin, muscular spasms, risus sardonicus (sustained spasm of facial muscles), DTaP (vaccine in children), Tdap (booster in adults)
          • Grampositive, rodshaped, sporeforming bacterium, found as spores in the soil or in the GI tract of animals, that produces a potent toxin (tetanospasmin) that causes tetanus, a disease characterized by painful muscular spasms that may lead to respiratory failure.
          • Tetanus was known to ancient people, who recognized the relationship between wounds and fatal muscle spasms. In 1897, Edmond Nocard showed that tetanus antitoxin can induce passive immunity in humans, and can be used as prophylaxis and treatment of tetanus. The tetanus toxoid vaccine was developed in 1924 and was widely used to prevent tetanus induced by battle wounds during World War II.
          • Coccidioides Immitis

            A fungus that looks like small "berries" under a microscope responsible for causing a disease (coccidioidomycosis) that can cause inflammation of the lungs and result in flulike symptoms. The bug got its me due to its ability to exist in "two" different "ways", saprophytic (obtaining nutrients) and parasitic, and was originally described as being "gentle".

            • Kokkos (Greek) - Berry
            • Di (Greek) - Two, Double, Twice
            • Hodos (Greek) - Way
            • Im (English) - In, within
            • Mitis (Latin) - Meek, gentle
          • Found in the Southwestern USA, northern Mexico
          • Also known as Valley Fever
          • GMS stain
          • Spherules
          • Causes a mass resembling a lung tumor that may require biopsy and GMS stain to identify spherules in tissue
          • C. immitis was considered by the US in the 1950s and 1960s as a potential biological weapon, with initial expectations as a human incapacitant. However, medical research suggested that it might have some lethal effects on the population, so it started to be classified by officials as a threat to public health. Therefore, it was never weaponized and most of its research in the mid1960s was focused on finding a human vaccine.
          • Colposcopy

            A procedure to "look at or see" the "the womb" or cervix.

            Coltivirus

            A "poisonous substance" or infectious agent med for causing Colorado Tick Fever, hence ColTi.

            • Virus (Latin) - Poison, poisonous substance
          • Reoviridae, Colorado tick fever, genus of viruses belonging to the Reoviridae family that can infect vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants and is the causative agent of Colorado tick fever.
          • It is carried by rodents and transmitted to humans via ticks, mostly affecting hikers and campers of the Rocky Mountains causing Colorado tick fever (fever, muscle pain, eye pain, photophobia, and headache).
          • Coma

            A state of unconsciousness resembling "deep sleep".

            • Koma (Greek) - Deep Sleep
          • Unconsciousness, no response to stimuli, no voluntary actions
          • State of unconsciousness lasting more than 6 hours where the person can't be awakened, doesn't respond to stimuli, lacks a normal sleepwake cycle, and doesn't initiate voluntary actions.
          • To maintain consciousness, two important neurological components need to be functioning: the cerebral cortex (the gray matter covering the outside of the brain
          • Responsible for perception, relay of sensory input, and complex thinking) and the reticular activating system (RAS
          • Arouses the brain) in the brainstem.
          • Complement

            Part of the immune system med because it "fills up" or completes the immune system response.

          • Part of the innate immune system that helps antibodies and phagocytic cells clear pathogens using small proteins that initiate an amplification cascade of further cleavages that ultimately results in amplification of the immune response and activation of cellkilling membrane attack complexes (MAC)
          • In the 19th century, Hans Buchner found that serum contains a factor capable of killing bacteria. It was later shown that this factor had 2 components, a heatstabile component, which had specific antimicrobial activity even after being heated, and a heatsensitive component that had nonspecific antimicrobial activity that stopped after being heated. This heatsensitive component is what we now call complement, earlier known as alexine. In the 20th century, it was discovered that complement can act in combination with specific antibodies, or on its own in a nonspecific way.
          • Condyloma lata

            "Knob" like growths on the genitals. Occur on the folds of moist intertriginous areas that coalesce such as the coral sulcus of the perineum or on the glans penis

          • Associated with secondary syphilis, caused by Treponema Pallidum
          • Congenital Rubella Syndrome

            "Born with" condition that occurs in an infant of a mother infected with the rubella virus. "Little red" skin rash present at birth.

            • Con (Latin) - With, Together
            • Genitalis (Latin) - Pertaining to generation or birth, Exterl sexual organs
            • Rubor (Latin) - Redness
          • Also known as German measles

          • Mnemonics
            ToRCHeS
            Teratogens: placenta-crossing organisms
            Toxoplasma, Rubella, CMV, Herpes simplex, Herpes zoster (varicella), Hepatitis B,C,E, Syphilis
            TORCH infections burn the baby
            Infections that Cross the Placental Barrier
            Toxoplasma, Other (syphilis, varicella, parvovirus b19), Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, and Herpes
            Coronavirus

            A "poisonous substance" whose capsid appearance resembles a "crown".

            • Corona (Latin) - Crown
            • Virus (Latin) - Poison, poisonous substance
          • Positivesense R virus, SARS, cause of common cold
          • Enveloped virus with positivesense R genome with a helical nucleocapsid. in the family Coronaviridae
          • Primarily infect the upper respirator and gastrointestinal tract of mammals and birds
          • Frequent cause of common cold in the winter and early spring seasons.
          • Coxiella Burnetii

            An obligate intracellular, gram negative bacterial pathogen and is the causative agent of Q fever.

            • Intracellular, gram negative bacteria that causes Qfever
            • Coxsackievirus

              A "toxic substance" med for Coxsackie, New York where is was discovered.

              • A nonenveloped, linear, positive sense ss-RNA virus that is a part of the Picornaviridae family and the Enterovirus genus
              • Fecal-oral transmission
              • Group A tends to infect the skin and mucous membranes, causing herpangina, acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis, and hand, foot and mouth (HFM) disease. Group B tends to infect the heart, pleura, pancreas, and liver leading to pleurodynia, myocarditis, pericarditis, and hepatitis and pericardial effusion
              • Coxsackie A: Hand-Foot-Mouth disease, Herpangina Cocksackie B: Pleurodynia, Myocarditis/Pericarditis
              • Dr. Gilbert Dalldorf discovered viruses that often mimicked mild or nonparalytic polio and the virus family was given the Coxsackie, from Coxsackie, New York, a small town on the Hudson River where Dalldorf had obtained the first fecal specimens.
              • Cryptococcus Neoformans

                A "spherical" organism infecting "flesh" such as lungs and meninges.

                • Kruptos (Greek) - Flesh, meat
                • Coccus (Latin) - Berry shaped, spherical
                • Neos (Greek) - New, young, youthful
                • Forma (Latin) - Form
              • Encapsulated, yeast, fungal meningitis, immunocompromised, capsule, India ink, mucicarmine stain
              • Encapsulated yeast that commonly causes lung infections and fungal meningitis in immunocompromised individuals
              • Rarely causes infections in immunocompetent individuals
              • Spread by inhalation of spores
              • India ink is used to stain the capsule when examining in cerebral spinal fluid
              • Mucicarmine stain is used when staining the polysaccharide cell wall in tissue

              • Mnemonics
                PUNCH
                Urease Positive Organisms
                Proteus, Ureaplasma, Nocardia, Cryptococccus, H. Pylori
                Cryptosporidium Parvum

                A "small," "sporelike" protozoal organism causing a "hidden" infection, in that detection of pathogen is extremely difficult.

              • Watery diarrhea, immunocompromised, protozoa
              • Protozoa that causes cryptosporidiosis, a condition characterized by watery, nonbloody diarrhea that largely affects immunocompromised patients
              • Fecaloral transmission, mostly via feces
              • Cytomegalo virus

                A "large" "poisonous substance" infecting "cells" .

                • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
                • Megalo (Greek) - Great, large
                • Virus (Latin) - Poison, poisonous substance
              • Owleyed inclusion bodies
              • CMV retinitis
              • TORCH
              • DsD
              • Herpesviridae family
              • Ganciclovir
              • A double stranded D virus that is part of the Herpesviridae family and is characterized by owl eyed inclusion bodies under a microscope. It mainly affects pregnant and immunocompromised individuals. It is a member of the TORCH infections. CMV is treated with ganciclovir.

              • Mnemonics
                ToRCHeS
                Teratogens: placenta-crossing organisms
                Toxoplasma, Rubella, CMV, Herpes simplex, Herpes zoster (varicella), Hepatitis B,C,E, Syphilis
                TORCH infections burn the baby
                Infections that Cross the Placental Barrier
                Toxoplasma, Other (syphilis, varicella, parvovirus b19), Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, and Herpes
                Cytomegalovirus Inclusion Disease

                A “lack of ease” caused by a “poisonous substance” or virus producing lesions of “large” “cells” with “shut in” nuclei

                • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
                • Megalo (Greek) - Great, large
                • Virus (Latin) - Poison, poisonous substance
                • Includere (Latin) - Shut in
                • Desaise (Old French) - Lack of Ease
              • CMV can cause acute infections of the eye and brain, and may be passed from mother to fetus
              • Delta Virus

                The "fourth" discovered "toxic substance" to infect the liver.

                • Delta (Greek) - The fourth letter of the greek alphabet
                • Virus (Latin) - Poison, poisonous substance
              • A circular, enveloped R virus that is associated with Hepatitis B. HepD is a virus only capable of infecting cells already infected with HepB, as it requires the HepB virus to produce a virulent capsid.
              • HepD is med for being the fourth discovered hepatitis virus
              • Desquamation

                "Scaly" skin or gingivae that easily peels "away"

                • De (Latin) - Away, Off, Down
                • Squama (Latin) - Scale, scaly
              • The shedding of the outermost membrane or layer of a tissue
              • Latin meaning: "to scrape the scales off a fish"
              • Looks similar to your skin peeling after getting a sunburn
              • Diphenoxylate

                An opioid drug used to treat diarrhea by slowing intestinal contractions.

                • Di (Greek) - Two, Double, Twice
                • Phenyl (French) - Shining
                • Oxys (Greek) - Sharp
                • Atus/Atum (Latin) - Salts of acids
              • Opioid agonist
              • Diarrhea
              • Intestines
              • Stool
              • Pharmacology
              • An opioid agonist used for the treatment of diarrhea that acts by slowing intestinal contractions and peristalsis, allowing the body to consolidate intestinal contents and prolong transit time. By doing so, it allows the intestines to draw moisture out of the contents at a normal to higher rate and therefore stop the formation of loose and liquid stools.
              • DNA topoisomerase

                An enzyme that nicks and spins D "in place" during D replication, leaving the D strand the "same" as it was originally except without supercoiling. It prevents the D strand from building up too much tension while it is unwound during D replication.

                • Topos (Greek) - Place
                • Isos (Greek) - Equal, the same
                • Meros (Greek) - Part
              • Enzyme
              • D
              • Topoisomerase
              • Coiling
              • Dyscrasia

                A "bad" "mixture" of blood

                • Dys (Greek) - Bad, Ill, Abnormal, Evil
                • Krasis (Greek) - Mixture
              • In modern medicine, dyscrasia indicates a condition caused by abnormal material in the blood, usually referring to diseases of red blood cells or platelets.
              • The Greeks described health in TERMS (Term_definition, Term_information, Term_history, named_for_someone, Category,Term,Root_1,Root_2,Root_3, Root_4, Root_5, Root_6, Root_7, Root_8, Root_9,status,user_id) of harmony between the four humors: blood, water, yellow and black bile. A healthy balance was described as 'eucrasia', and an imbalance ('dyscrasia') was the direct cause of all disease.
              • Echinococcosis

                A genus of tapeworms that can cause hydatid disease (cysts in the liver, lung, and brain). Their body segments have a tough outer shell of tegument that resembles a "prickly berry".

              • There are 2 main disease types, cystic and alveolar echinococcosis. Spread via eggs in food or water or by close contact with infected animals.
              • Echothiophate

                Irreversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor.

                • Ekhe (Greek) - Sound
                • Thio (Greek) - Indicating the presence of sulfur
              • Used as an ocular antihypertensive in the treatment of glaucoma. It irreversibly binds acetylcholinesterase, and therefore acts as an indirect cholinomimetic.
              • Echovirus

                A "toxic substance" that infects the GI tract.

                • Echo (English) - From the initial letters of Enteric, Cytopathogenic, and Human Orphan
              • Highly infectious, especially in children. Digestive system virus. Family: Picornaviridae Genus: Enterovirus.
              • ECHO "enteric cytopathic human orphan". Orphan viruses are viruses not associated with any known disease. Since it was med, diseases have been identified, but the original meaning is still used.
              • Enanthem

                The "eruption" of a rash "within" the body on the mucous membranes.

                • En (Greek) - Within
                • Anthema (Greek) - Eruption
              • Seen in smallpox, measles, and chickenpox
              • Koplik spots in Measles
              • Endarteritis obliterans

                "Inflammation" of the innermost coat (intima) of an artery leading to the "obliteration" or growing of smaller vessels.

                • Endon (Greek) - Within, Inside, Interl
                • Arteria (Greek) - Windpipe, artery
                • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
                • Obliterare (Latin) - Cause to disappear, blot out, erase
              • Causes include allergic, nervous, endocrine or hormonal aspects. Typical in male heavy smokers between the age of 2035 years.
              • May also to be referred to as "Buerger's Disease"
              • Endarteritis obliterans

                "Inflammation" of the innermost coat (intima) of an artery leading to the "obliteration" or growing of smaller vessels.

                • Endon (Greek) - Within, Inside, Interl
                • Arteria (Greek) - Windpipe, artery
                • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
                • Obliterare (Latin) - Cause to disappear, blot out, erase
              • Causes include allergic, nervous, endocrine or hormonal aspects. Typical in male heavy smokers between the ages of 2035 years.
              • May also to be referred to as "Buerger's Disease"
              • Enkephalin

                Endogenous ligands that regulate nociception "within" the "head" and nervous system.

              • Peptide
              • Opioid receptor
              • Pain
              • Nociception
              • Enteric

                Related to the "intestinal" tract.

                • Enteron (Greek) - Intestine, Small intestint, Piece of Gut, Bowel
              • Drugs taken enterically are absorbed in the intestines
              • Drugs
              • Pharmacology
              • Enteric
              • Intestines
              • Absorption
              • Enterobius vermicularis

                "Life" form known as a pinworm, it is a parasitic "small worm" that infects the "intestines" causing enterobiasis.

                • Enteron (Greek) - Intestine, Small intestint, Piece of Gut, Bowel
                • Bios (Greek) - Life
                • Vermiculus (Latin) - Small worm
              • Enterobiasis mainly presents as itching around the anus, mainly occurring at night
              • Pinworm
              • Enterobiasis
              • Intestines
              • Parasite
              • Enthesitis

                An "inflammation" of the point of "insertion" of muscles, tendon, or ligament to bone

                • Enthesis (Greek) - Putting in, insertion
                • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
              • Inflammation of the enthesis is usually caused by psoriatic arthritis and other inflammatory disease or by physical strain and injury
              • Erythropoietin

                Glycoprotein hormone released by kidneys in response to low oxygen "to make" "red" blood cells.

              • May be abused by athletes to improve performance
              • Performance enhancing drug used by Lance Armstrong
              • Exanthem

                The "eruption" of a rash "out of" or throughout the body.

                • Ex (Latin) - Out of
                • Anthema (Greek) - Eruption
              • Usually seen over the bodies of children
              • Can be caused by a variety of insults including bug bits, toxins, and infections
              • Classically caused by mumps, chickenpox, and the rhinovirus
              • Seen in fifth's disease caused by parvovirus B19
              • Exanthema

                "Outward" "flowering" of a widespread rash

                • Ex (Latin) - Out of
                • Anthos (Latin) - Flower
              • A widespread rash usually occurring in children
              • Can be caused by toxins or drugs, microorganisms, or autoimmune disease
              • Six "classical" infectious childhood exanthemas have been recognized, four of which are viral
              • Includes Measles, German measles (Rubella), Scarlet fever (second disease), Mumps, etc.
              • Vaccinations now exist against measles, mumps, rubella (MMR vaccine) and chickenpox
              • Fibula

                Smaller and more lateral lower leg bone, from the upper tibia to the lower tibia that resembles a "buckle."

                • Fibula (Latin) - Clasp, buckle, brooch
              • Latin for brooch because of its appearance with the tibia as similar to a clasp
              • Filovirus

                A "toxic substance" that causes a variety of hemorrhagic diseases.

                • Filum (Latin) - Thread
                • Virus (Latin) - Poison, poisonous substance
              • Enveloped, negative singlestranded R virus family
              • Includes Ebola virus and Marburg virus
              • Ebola virus Named after the Ebola River in the Congo
              • Fixation

                An immature defense mechanism in which one is "fixed" or attached to an object thus partially remaining at a previous developmental stage.

                • Fixus (Latin) - Fixed, fast, immovable, established, settled
                Flagellum

                Cellular appendage that acts as a "whip" for motility.

              • Commonly found on spermatozoon, such as trichomonas
              • Fragile X syndrome

                A condition in which the X chromosome is "fragile" due to trinucleotide repeats. The symptoms found "running" "together" include intellectual disability, macroorchidism, and long facies

                • Fragilis (Latin) - Brittle, easily broken
                • Syn (Greek) - With, together
                • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
              • A trinucleotide repeat (CGG) syndrome that is characterized by intellectual disability, macroorchidism, and long facies
              • Defect in the FMR1 gene
              • Demonstrates anticipation
              • First described in 1943 by J. Purdon Martin and Julia Bell .

              • Medytoons

                MedyQuestion
                • A 4 year old boy is brought to his pediatrician by his mother because she believes him to be learning slower than the other children. On physical examination of the child, the boy is found to have a long face and larger than average ears. He speaks in partial sentences, is unable to identify colors or numbers and has little ability to communicate. The patient is also found to have hypergonadism. What is the most likely tri-nucleotide repeat in this individual?

                USMLE Step I

                • A 4 year old boy is brought to his pediatrician by his mother because she believes him to be learning slower than the other children. On physical examination of the child, the boy is found to have a long face and larger than average ears. He is speak in full sentences. The patient is also found to have hypergonadism. What is the most likely tri-nucleotide repeat in this individual?

                USMLE Step 1

                Gangrene

                A condition that "eats away" at tissue

              • Gas gangrene commonly associated with clostridium perfringens
              • Bed sores are classified as wet gangrene
              • Gas gangrene was the most common cause of amputations during the revolutionary and civil wars after c. perfringens infections in dirty battle wounds.
              • GERD

                A condition in which there is a "flow" of "stomach" acid back "again" into the "passage for food".

                • Gaster (Greek) - Stomach, belly, eater, devourer
                • Oisaphagos (Greek) - Gullet
                • Re (Latin) - Again, anew
                • Fluxus (Latin) - Flowing, loose, slack
                • Desaise (Old French) - Lack of Ease
              • Causes glandular metaplasia
              • Associated with Barrett's esophagus associated with adenocarcinoma
              • Treat with proton pump inhibitors, H2 receptor blockers, and antacids
              • Gestational hypertension

                A condition in which a woman "bearing" a child develops "excessive" blood pressure that "stretches" the vessel walls

                • Gerere (Latin) - To bear, carry
                • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
                • Tenein (Greek) - To stretch, strain
              • Usually diagnosed around the 20th week of gestation
              • May progress to preeclampsia, eclampsia, and/or HELLP Syndrome.
              • It is thought that humans have evolved a more deeply implanted uterus in order to achieve better oxygen transport between the mother and fetus, which allows for faster blood perfusion back into the mother.
              • Giant cell tumor (of bone)

                A benign tumor usually located around the knee

                • Gigas (Greek) - Giant
                • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
                • Tumere (Latin) - To swell
              • Contains multinucleated giant cells
              • Usually seen in the epiphysis of long bones
              • Soap bubble appearance on Xray
              • Locally aggressive but otherwise benign
              • Helminth

                Parasitic "intestinal worm".

              • Usually found in the GI system
              • The hookworm (a helminth) was once known as the germ of laziness.
              • Hematemesis

                "Vomiting" "blood".

              • Blood usually originates in upper GI tract
              • Associated with MalloryWeiss syndrome and esophageal varices
              • Literally named vomiting blood
              • Hemorrhagic cyst

                A "bladder" filled with "blood" from a vessel that has "bust forth."

                • Haima (Greek) - Blood
                • Rhegnunai (Greek) - To bust forth
                • Kustis (Greek) - Bladder, atomical pouch or sac
              • Bloodfilled membrane
              • Usually selfresolve
              • HenochSchonlein purpura

                Disease of skin and other organ systems that causes small hemorrhages in the skin.

              • Palpable skin purpura
              • Associated with vasculitis and nephritis
              • IgA deposition
              • Usually preceded by upper respiratory infection
              • Hepadnavirus

                A "toxic substance" with "DNA" genetic material that infects the "liver."

                • Hepatos (Greek) - Liver
                • Virus (Latin) - Poison, poisonous substance
              • Enveloped
              • Icosahedral
              • Double-stranded, partially circular DNA
              • May be chronic or acute
              • Transmitted primarily sexually
              • The name is derived literally from this class being a DNA virus that infects the liver, hence Hepa-DNA virus. A quick and easy way to remember the genetic material within these viruses.
              • Herniates

                "Rupture" of an organ or structure through a defective portion of membrane or outer covering

                Herpangina

                A condition of the back of the throat in which one develops "creeping" blisters, causing a "strangling" or choking sensation.

                • Herpes (Laitn) - Creeping, Spreading
                • Ankhone (Greek) - A strangling
              • A mouth infection caused by coxsackieviruses
              • Mostly affects children and is associated with high fever and sore throat
              • Also called mouth blisters
              • Heteroplasmy

                Existence of "different shapes" of mutated and normal mitochondrial genomes in one cell

                • Hetero (Greek) - Other, different
                • Plasm (Greek) - Mold, shape
              • Responsible for variable penetrance of mitochondrial diseases
              • HHV4, Epstine Barr, Infectious Mononucleosis

                A virus of the Herpes family, that is the best known cause of infectious mononucleosis or the "kissing disease".

                • Monos (Greek) - Single, alone
                • Nucleus (Latin) - Kernel
                • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
              • EBV linked to infectious mononucleosis, oral hairy leukoplakia, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Burkitt's Lymphoma and Hodgkin Disease. 90% of population harbor EBV and it a transmitted via saliva.
              • No vaccine available
              • HHV5 Cytomegalovirus

                A common virus that is asymptomatic in nearly 90% of patients.

                • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
                • Megalo (Greek) - Great, large
                • Virus (Latin) - Poison, poisonous substance
              • CMV is the most common opportunistic viral pathogen in AIDS. CMV mononucleosis is clinically similar to infectious mononucleosis, but is heterophilnegative. Can cross the placenta to cause congenital CMV infection. Infection is followed by latency in salivary glands, endothelium, macrophages and lymphocytes. Reactivation is linked to reduced host resistance.
              • Spread by saliva, sexual transmission and transplacental transmission.
              • Histone

                Proteins that allow D to be "warped" around them, aiding in D condensation

                • Histos (Greek) - Tissue, web, warp
              • Highly positive proteins that attract negatively charged D
              • Rich in lysine and arginine residues.
              • Histones were originally discovered by Albrecht Kossel and thought of as merely inert packing materials.
              • Homovanillic acid

                Major metabolite of catecholamines

                • Homos (Greek) - Once and the same, like
                • Vagina (Latin) - Scabbard, sheath
                • Acer (Latin) - Be Sour
              • Increased in urine in patients with neuroblastoma
              • Hydronephrosis

                "Pathological" accumulation of "water" in the "kidney."

                • Hydro (Greek) - Water
                • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
                • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
              • Swelling of the kidney with urine due to a blockage to the outflow of urine or as a result of reflux
              • May be caused by a kidney stone, a tumor in or near the ureter, enlarged prostate, or vesicoureteral reflux
              • May lead to UTI
              • Commonly presents as flank pain
              • Diagnosed with ultrasound or CT
              • Hydrophobia

                Physical property of a molecules that "fear water."

              • Molecules seemingly repel water or polar substances
              • Inner portion of a cell membrane (lipid bilayer)
              • Hyperemic fungiform papilla

                "Excess" "Blood flow" to the taste buds on the tongue called fungiform papilla

              • Seen as a symptom called "Strawberry Tongue" in diseases such as Scarlet Fever
              • Hyphae

                A "web" of branching filaments of a fungus, oomycete, or actinobacteria

              • A collection of hyphae is known as a mycelium
              • Main mode of vegetative growth in most fungi
              • Indurated

                Tissue that has become "hardened".

              • Commonly used to describe a consolidation of hardened pus within an abscess
              • Usually seen in bacterial infections of the skin
              • Inflammatory breast carcinoma

                A rare and aggressive "cancer" of the breast that leads to inflammation: redness, swelling, tenderness, and warmth

              • Peau d'orange
              • Cancer cells block lymph vessels in the skin of the breast,
              • Insulinotropic

                A term that "pertains" to substances that affects the production and activity of insulin, a hormone produced by the "Islands" of Langerhans in the pancreas.

              • Glucosedependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) is an insulinotropic hormone
              • Kallikrein

                A subgroup of serine proteases that are responsible for the coordination of various physiological functions including blood pressure, semen liquefaction and skin desquamation. The molecule was med for the "pancreas" because high quantities were discovered there; however, the pancreas is not the only place in the body that produces this molecule.

                Keratoacanthoma

                A common lowgrade skin "tumor" that originates from the neck of the hair follicle, and is considered a type of squamous cell carcinoma. It sticks out of the skin, like a "spine" and it is capped with "keratin" particles.

                • Keras (Greek) - Horn
                • Acanthus (Greek) - Point, Thorn, Spine
                • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
              • Dome shaped tumor of the skin.
              • Kinase

                A type of enzyme that "moves" phosphate groups from highenergy donor molecules, such as ATP, to specific substrates.

                • Kinein (Greek) - Motion, to move
              • This process is referred to as phosphorylation.
              • Koplik's spots

                Areas of erythema on buccal and labial mucosa with small white macules within these areas due to foci of epithelial necrosis, commonly seen in Rubeola (measles).

                • Oral manifestation of Measles.
                • Measles is a virus in family Paramyxovirus and is highly contagious via respiratory droplets.
                • Lecithin

                  A substance that can be found in an "egg yolk."

                • Describes any group of yellowbrownish fatty substances occurring in animal and plant tissues composed of phosphoric acid, choline, fatty acids, glycerol, glycolipids, triglycerides, and phospholipids
                • First isolated in 1846 by the French chemist and pharmacist Theodore Gobley. In 1850, he med the phosphatidylcholine lecithin, who isolated lecithin from egg yolk
                • Leiomyosarcoma

                  A malignant "tumor" in the "flesh" or "smooth" "muscle."

                  • Leios (Greek) - Smooth
                  • Mus (Greek) - Muscle, mouse
                  • Sarx (Latin) - Flesh, Meat
                  • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
                • Not well defined
                • Hemorrhagic look on cross section
                • Lentiform nucleus

                  A "kernel" in the brain that has the "form" of a "lentil"

                  • Lens (Latin) - Lentil, a comparison to the convex shape on both sides
                  • Forma (Latin) - Form
                  • Nucleus (Latin) - Kernel
                • It is a large, coneshaped mass of gray matter just lateral to the internal capsule comprising the putamen and the globus pallidus within the basal ganglia.
                • Leprosy

                  An infectious condition that causes severe and disfiguring "scaly" skin

                • Also known as Hansen's Disease
                • Cause by the bacteria Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis
                • Spread between people through a cough or contact with fluid from the nose of an infected person
                • Leukocyte extravasation

                  "Outward" movement of "white" blood "cells" from the "vessels."

                  • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
                  • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
                  • Externus (Latin) - Outward, Outside
                  • Vas (Latin) - Vessel
                • IL8, LTB4, C5a are all chemotactic signals that trigger this process
                • Leukocytoclastic Angiitis

                  A condition in which the "white" blood "cells" "break" up blood "vessels", leading to "inflammation."

                  • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
                  • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
                  • Klastos (Greek) - Broken
                  • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
                  • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
                • Smallvessel vasculitis
                • Presents as palpable purpura
                • Liposarcoma

                  A malignant tumor of the "fatty" "flesh".

                  • Lipos (Greek) - Fat
                  • Sarx (Latin) - Flesh, Meat
                  • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
                  Liquefactive

                  To "make" "fluid"like.

                • Necrosis of brain tissue is exclusively this type.
                • Listeria Monocytogenes

                  A "single" "cell" which is the "origin" of a condition med for Joseph Lister.

                  • Listeria (English) - Joseph Lister
                  • Monos (Greek) - Single, alone
                  • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
                  • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
                • Betahemolytic, tumbling motility, actin rockets, unpasteurized milk and cheese, only Grampositive with LPS, neonatal meningitis, treat with ampicillin

                • Medytoons
                  Ludwig's angina

                  Infection and swelling in the floor of mouth tissues "strangles" the person affected by this condition

                • Usually originating from dental infections, Ludwig's angina is a lifethreatening condition where the submandibular, sublingual and submental spaces are infected. The cellulitis and swelling can lead to airway obstruction and death.
                • Lues malig

                  Is a "malicious" condition that occurs in cases of secondary syphilis. Ulcerations and dying tissue are formed in the skin.

                • Also called Ulcer nodular syphilis or malignant syphilis. Poor nutrition and debilitation is a feature of most cases and may be of etiological importance.
                • Lues maligna

                  Is a "malicious" condition that occurs in cases of secondary syphilis. Ulcerations and dying tissue are formed in the skin.

                • Also called Ulcer nodular syphilis or malignant syphilis. Poor nutrition and debilitation is a feature of most cases and may be of etiological importance.
                • Lymph node

                  A "knot" of "clear water".

                  • Lympha (Latin) - Water, clear water, a goddess of water
                  • Nodus (Latin) - Knot
                • Germinal centers contain B cells, biopsy to check for malignant tumors and leukemia, become palpable in lymphadenopathy
                • Major histocompatibility complex

                  The "great" or large "webbed tissue" that "suffers with" interacting with white blood cells of the immune system.

                • Set of cell surface molecules that mediates interactions with white blood cells. There are three major classes
                • Involved in organ transplant compatibility, autoimmune diseases, infections, and malignancy
                • Genes were first identified in an experiment that found rejection of transplanted tumors in mice depended on the strain of both the host and donor tumor.
                • Molecular mimicry

                  Concept in which body develops antibodies to a certain pathogen which subsequently attack body's own proteins that closely "mimes" the pathogen. A "mass" of antibodyantigen complexes can form.

                • S. pyogenes
                • Rheumatic fever
                • Endocarditis
                • Monocyte

                  "One" "cell" in the blood stream that later become macrophages in tissues.

                  • Monos (Greek) - Single, alone
                  • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
                • Kidneyshaped nucleus, extensive frostedglass cytoplasm

                • Mnemonics
                  Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas!
                  % Concentrations of the Types of White Blood Cells
                  Neutrophils (65%). Lymphocytes (25%). Monocytes (6%). Eosinophils (3%). Basophils (1%)
                  Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas
                  The concentrations of the various immune cell types
                  Neutrophils (the most), Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Erythrocytes, Basophils (least)
                  Morula

                  A "mulberry" appearing group of cells formed during embryonic development.

                • A very early stage of embryonic development
                • Develops from the 2cell stage, and gives rise to the blastocyst.
                • Mucoepidermoid

                  Most common malignant tumor of "slime" producing gland. "Abnormal" growth in the "skin's" "upper" layers.

                  • Mucus (Latin) - Slime, mold, snot
                  • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
                  • Derma (Greek) - Skin
                  • Eidos (Greek) - Form, Resemblance or Shape, Likeness
                • Presents as a painful mass because of facial nerve involvement
                • Myasthenia gravis

                  Most common neuromuscular junction disorder causing a "weakness" in the "muscle".

                  • My (Greek) - Muscle
                  • Astenia (Greek) - Want of strength, weakness, feebleness, sickness
                  • Gravidus (Latin) - Loaded, full, swollen
                • Autoantibodies to postsynaptic ACh receptor lead to diminished end plate potential
                • Triad of ptosis, diplopia, and weakness
                • Worsens with use, associated with thymoma and thymic hyperplasia
                • Mycobacterium Leprae

                  "Bacteria" that can lead to "scaly" "mushroom" shaped growths on skin.

                  • Mykes (Greek) - Fungus, mushroom, anything shaped like a mushroom
                  • Bakteria (Greek) - Staff, cane, Small stuff
                  • Lepros (Greek) - Scaly
                • Acid fast bacillus that likes cold temperatures and cannot be grown in vitro
                • Armadillos
                • Has two forms: lepromatous form, tuberculoid form
                • Glove and stocking loss of sensation
                • Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

                  Acid fast bacillus producing classical symptoms such as fever, night sweats, weight loss, excess "mucus", and hemoptysis. Can lead to a "lump" in lung with "tuberculosis".

                  • Mykes (Greek) - Fungus, mushroom, anything shaped like a mushroom
                  • Tuber (Latin) - Lump, bump, swelling
                • Caseating granuloma in upper lung lobes
                • Pott's disease
                • Meningitis at base of brain
                • Miliary TB

                • MedyQuestion
                  • A 33 year old incarcerated man with medical history significant for asthma is brought to the prison physician for complaint of ongoing productive cough. The patient reports that over the last few weeks, he has been coughing vigorously and bringing up green sputum, often times tinged with blood. On further investigation, the patient also discloses that he has lost 10 lbs in the last few weeks since the coughing began, and that he has occasionally been waking up drenched in sweat. Physical exam is significant for productive cough, and rhonchi appreciated over the left lung field. What type of lesion and where is most likely to be present on X-ray of this patient's lung?

                  USMLE Step 1

                  Mycolic Acid

                  Fatty acids found in the cell wall of bacteria and "mushrooms" belonging to the mycobacterium genus.

                  • Mykes (Greek) - Fungus, mushroom, anything shaped like a mushroom
                • These chains have a unique structure that produces cording a distinct morphology
                • Mycology

                  The study of fungi such as "mushrooms".

                  • Mykes (Greek) - Fungus, mushroom, anything shaped like a mushroom
                  • Logy - Branch of knowledge, Study of
                • Eukaryotic
                • Ergosterol containing membranes
                • Myeloid

                  Cell line "formed" from "marrow" which RBC, platelets, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils arise.

                  • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
                  • Eidos (Greek) - Form, Resemblance or Shape, Likeness
                  Myxoma

                  "Growth" of scattered "mucus" cells in a mucopolysaccharide stroma.

                  • Muxa (Greek) - Mucus
                  • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
                • Commonly found in left atrium as a pedunculated mass that occasionally plops into the mitral valve causing blockage and syncope
                • Cardiac tumor, recurrent syncope, left atrial mass
                • Navicular bone

                  One of the tarsal "bones" of the foot shaped like a "little ship".

                  • Navicula (Latin) - Little ship
                  • Ban (Old English) - Bone, tusk
                • Located between the cuneiforms and the talus
                • Necrotizing ulcerative mucositis

                  "Inflammation" on mucous membranes with "dead cell bodies" manifesting as an "ulcer(s)" with a "slimelike" coating

                  • Nekros (Greek) - Dead body, Corpse, Death
                  • Ulcus (Latin) - A sore, ulcer
                  • Mucus (Latin) - Slime, mold, snot
                  • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
                • Can be related to Stomatitis, which is an inflammatory process affecting the mucous membranes of the mouth and lips, with or without oral ulceration.
                • Necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis

                  "Inflammation" "around" a "tooth" containing "dead cell bodies"

                  • Nekros (Greek) - Dead body, Corpse, Death
                  • Peri (Greek) - Around, about, beyond
                  • Odous (Greek) - Tooth
                  • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
                • A type of inflammatory periodontal (gum) disease caused by bacteria (notably fusobacterium and spirochaete species)
                • Rapid rate of attachment loss (loss of alveolar bone)
                • Will show lack of response to conventional periodontal treatment
                • Clinically similar to NUG but is a destructive form of periodontitis leading to loss of clinical attachment and alveolar bone.
                • Negative selection

                  Process by which Tcells with too strong affinity for self antigens are targeted for apoptosis. They are "singled out" and "denied" the opportunity to mature.

                  • Negare (Late Latin) - To deny, Refuse to say no
                  • Seligere (Latin) - To single out
                • Prevents autoimmune reaction of Tcells to self antigens
                • Negri Body

                  Dark cytoplasmic inclusion found in "trunk" of neurons infected with rabies virus.

                  • Bodig (Old English) - Trunk, chest
                • Found on autopsy
                • Neisseria Gonorrhea

                  Gram negative diplococci responsible for gonorrhea. Leads to "flowing" discharge where male "seeds" are released.

                  • Gonos (Greek) - Offspring, seed, birth
                  • Rhein (Greek) - Flow
                • Creamy purulent discharge
                • Commonly coinfected and thusly cotreated with chlamydia
                • Called the clap due to the mechanism used for removing pus, namely slamming the penis with a heavy book or object
                • Neisseria Meningitidis

                  Gram negative diplococci responsible for "inflammation" of brain's "membranes" (meninges).

                  • Meninx (Greek) - Membrane
                  • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
                • Ferments maltose
                • Has a polysaccharide capsule and thus a vaccine
                • Petechial rash
                • WaterhouseFriderichsen syndrome

                • MedyQuestion
                  • A 14 year old girl comes into the emergency room with her mother because of fevers for 4 days and a one day history of fatigue. Her mother reports that when she is awake, it's very difficult to keep her up. Her temperature is 102F. On physical exam, there are petechial hemorrhages diffusely and rigidity on attempted flexion of the neck while lying down. The decision to perform an LP is made, on which examination of it reveals segmented neutrophils, and a gram stain demonstrating pink diplococci. Which of the following is the most likely causal organism?

                  USMLE Step I

                  Normocytic

                  "Normal" sized "cells"

                  • Normalis (Late Latin) - In conformity with rule, normal
                  • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
                • Normocytic anemia is anemia associated with normally sized RBC but a lack in their number
                • MCV of 80100
                • Hemolytic anemia
                • Aplastic anemia
                • Anemia of chronic disease
                • Omphalomesenteric

                  Vitelline duct, located near the "fetus," connects the yolk sac to the midgut ("middle" of the "intestine") to provide nutrients between weeks 4 and 7 of development.

                  • Omphalos (Greek) - Vel
                  • Mesos (Greek) - Middle, in the middle, in between
                  • Enteron (Greek) - Intestine, Small intestint, Piece of Gut, Bowel
                • Persistence of the duct results in duct cyst or Meckel's diverticulum
                • Opisthotonos

                  A type of spasm in which the head and heels of the body are "tensed" "backwards" so that the head touches the heels.

                  • Opisthios (Greek) - Posterior, backwards
                  • Tonos (Greek) - Stretched, Tension, Pressure
                • More common in infants than in adults
                • Can be a sign of acute hydrocephalus
                • Also seen in meningitis, tetanus and kernicturus
                • Sometimes referred to as the "Opisthotonic Death Pose" because individuals who drown oftem times take on this posture
                • Many dinosaurs have been found in this position leading to beliefs that they may have drown
                • Oral chancre

                  A "creeping ulcer" found in Primary Syphilis.

                  • Oris (Latin) - Mouth
                  • Cancer (Latin) - Crab; Creeping ulcer
                • Ulcerations can be signs of oral cancer, syphilis and various other pathologies.
                • Oral gumma

                  A tumor associated with the "gums" in Tertiary Syphilis.

                  • Oris (Latin) - Mouth
                  • Gummi (Latin) - A viscous secretion produced by some trees that hardens on drying
                • Form of a granuloma.
                • Orotic aciduria

                  Inability to convert "orotic acid" to UMP, resulting in "orotic acids" being dumped into the "urine."

                  • Orotic (English) - Reference to orotic acid
                  • Acidus (Latin) - Relating to acid
                  • Uria (Latin) - Of or pertaining to urine, the uriry system
                • Defect in UMP synthase
                • Megaloblastic anemia that cannot be cured by folate or B12
                • Failure to thrive
                • Papilloma

                  A benign epithelial "tumor" that is "nipplelike" in appearance.

                  • Papilla (Latin) - Nipple
                  • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
                  Paraaminohippuric acid

                  A organic compound that is "colorless" and "pungent," yet "acidic."

                  • Para (Greek) - Along, side, beside, near, against, contrary to
                  • Ammoniakos (Greek) - Belonging to Ammon
                  • Hippos (Greek) - A horse
                  • Ouron (Greek) - Urine
                  • Acidus (Latin) - Relating to acid
                • Diagnostic organic compound used to estimate renal plasma flow
                • Parafollicular (C) cells

                  "Near" a "pouchlike cavity" in the thyroid

                  • Para (Greek) - Along, side, beside, near, against, contrary to
                  • Folliculus (Latin) - Little bag
                  • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
                • Neuroendocrine cells of the thyroid that secrete calcitonin
                • Aka Ccells
                • Paramesonephric duct

                  Ducts that run "along" the "middle" section of the embryological structure that will give rise to the "kidneys"

                  • Para (Greek) - Along, side, beside, near, against, contrary to
                  • Mesos (Greek) - Middle, in the middle, in between
                  • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
                • Paired ducts of embryogenesis that form the Fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, and upper 1/3 of the vagi in females
                • Müllerian inhibitory factor secreted by Sertoli cells causes degeneration of the paramesonephric duct
                • Parietal lobe

                  A "husk"like section of the brain that seems to form its superior wall

                  • Paries (Latin) - A wall
                  • Lobus (Latin) - Hull, husk, pod, small lobe
                • One of the major lobes of the brain that resides superior to the temporal lobe and posterior to the frontal lobe
                • Involved in language processing
                • Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

                  The presence of "sphere" shaped proteins containing "blood" in the "urine" that is "sudden onset" at "night"

                • Rare hereditary disorder with complement induced intravascular hemolysis due to CD55 and CD59 receptor deficiencies
                • MarchiafavaMicheli syndrome, me is a misnomer presented with hemoglobinuria in the morning because of increased acidity when sleeping which leads to increased activation of the complement system
                • Parvovirus

                  A "small" sized "poisonous substance"

                  • Parvus (Latin) - Small
                  • Virus (Latin) - Poison, poisonous substance
                • Smallest, linear, singlestranded family of viruses
                • Fifth's disease, slappedcheek disease, aplastic anemia, Erythema infectiosum

                • Mnemonics
                  3 B's
                  B19 Virus at risk groups
                  Babies (5th disease, infectiousum erythematosa), Black Bleeders (sickle cell anemics - anaplastic anemic crisis), Bearing Babies [pregnant women] (hydrops fetalis)
                  Penis

                  The primary male sexual organ or "penis".

                  • Penis (Latin) - Tail, penis
                • Filled with erectile tissue (corpus cavernosum/spongiosum)
                • Parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation for sexual function
                • Location of several different kinds of skin cancers and sexually transmitted diseases
                • Pharyngeal plexus

                  A "braid" of nerves located on the "throat, windpipe".

                  • Pharynx (Greek) - Throat, windpipe
                  • Plexus (Latin) - Braid, network
                • Network of nerve fibers innervating palate, larynx and pharynx
                • Pharyngitis

                  "Inflammation" of the "throat, windpipe" (pharynx).

                  • Pharynx (Greek) - Throat, windpipe
                  • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
                • Pseudomembranous pharyngitis seen with diphtheria
                • Streptococcus pyogenes, Adenovirus, EBV can cause pharyngitis

                • MedyQuestion
                  • A 13-year-old boy is seen at the physician’s office due to shortness of breath, a red, erythematous rash, and painful joints both at the hips and the knees. He appears to be agitated over the course of the visit. A chest x-ray was ordered which revealed cardiomegaly and changes similar to those seen in pulmonary edema cases. CHF develops and he dies 2 days after the visit. The boy most likely had a recent history of which of the following ailments?

                  USMLE Step 1

                  Phosphorylase

                  An enzyme the catalyzes the addition of a phosphate group to a molecule from an inorganic source. Phosphate gets it's me as "bringer of light" because it was discovered emitting light when exposed to oxygen.

                  • Phosphoros (Greek) - Bringer of light
                  • Ase (English) - Used to form the me of enzymes
                • Glycogen phosphorylase is an enzyme involved in the breakdown of glycogen.
                • Pia mater

                  The innermost layer of the meninges that protects and cushions the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord), like a "tender mother."

                  • Pia (Latin) - Tender
                  • Mater (Latin) - Mother
                • Gets inflamed (along with the arachnoid) in meningitis.
                • Pia mater is a Latin term that translates to tender mother

                • Mnemonics
                  The layers that PAD the brain
                  Meninges:layers in order
                  Piamater, Arachnoid, Dura
                  Pilocytic astrocytoma

                  A brain "mass, tumor" derived from astrocytes ("star" shaped glial cell in CNS)

                  • Pilus (Latin) - Hair
                  • Astro (Greek) - Star
                  • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
                  • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
                • A childhood cystic neoplasm
                • Often in the cerebellum
                • Composed of bipolar cells with "hair like" GFAPpositive processes
                • Associated with Rosenthal fibers, which can be seen under microscopy
                • Plasmapheresis

                  Therapeutic removal ("taking away") of certain blood components

                • Treatment for GuillainBarre syndrome
                • Treatment for Criglerjjar syndrome
                • Plasmapheresis was first used in 1959.
                • Plasmin

                  A blood protein enzyme responsible for breaking down the "mold, shape" of clots.

                  • Plasm (Greek) - Mold, shape
                • Inactive form is plasminogen
                • Tissue plasminogen activator activates plasmin
                • Acute treatment of ischemic strokes is tissue plasminogen activator
                • Plasmodium Falciparum

                  A "mold""like" protozoan whose gametocytes are shaped like "sickles" when they are "ready" to infect a red blood cell.

                • Responsible for malaria infection.
                • Associated with irregular fever patterns
                • Can cause cerebral malaria
                • Plasmodium Malariae

                  A "mold""like" protozoan responsible for an infection thought to be caused by breathing "bad" "air" from swamps (malaria).

                  • Plasm (Greek) - Mold, shape
                  • Odes (Greek) - Like
                  • Mala (Latin) - Bad, Wrongly, improperly
                  • Aria (Latin) - Air
                • Associated with a 72hour fever cycle
                • Plasmodium Ovale

                  A "mold""like" "eggshaped" protozoan responsible for malaria infection.

                • Associated with 48hour fever cycles
                • Can form dormant hypnozoites in the liver
                • Pneumoconioses

                  A restrictive "lung" "disease" caused by inhalation of certain substances (i.e. "dust")

                • Asbestosis, silicosis, coal worker's pneumoconiosis, and berylliosis are all types of restrictive lung diseases
                • These diseases are typically occupational in nature. These diseases have led to various sorts of government action, including the Black Lung Benefits Act of 1973 which pays benefits to workers disabled by coal worker's lung.
                • Poliomyelitis

                  A "inflammation" of the "grey" matter of the spinal cord and "brain."

                  • Polios (Greek) - Grey
                  • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
                  • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
                • Causes destruction of anterior horns of spinal cord
                • Can result in flaccid paralysis with lower motor neuron damage
                • Transmitted via fecaloral
                • Franklin D. Roosevelt had poliomyelitis.
                • Polymyositis

                  Pain and weakness in "many" "muscles" caused by chronic "inflammation" of poorly understood etiology. Thought to be consequence of autoimmune disorder.

                  • Polloi (Greek) - Many
                  • My (Greek) - Muscle
                  • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
                • Associated with AntiJo1, antiSRP, and AntiMi2 antibodies
                • Increased MHC I expression on muscle cells
                • High CD8+ lymphocyte infiltration
                • Treat with steroids
                • Postherpetic neuralgia

                  "Nerve" "pain" that lasts "after" a herpes zoster outbreak

                  • Post (Latin) - Behind, afterward
                  • Herpes (Laitn) - Creeping, Spreading
                  • Neuro (Greek) - Nerve, sinew, tendon
                  • Algos (Greek) - Pain
                • The neuralgia is confined to a dermatomic area of the skin
                • Typically begins when the herpes zoster vesicles have crusted over and begun to heal, but it can begin in the absence of herpes zoster
                • Potter syndrome

                  Actually a sequence caused by oligohydramnios (little amniotic fluid) in the uterus. Usually caused by inability of fetus to produce urine (bilateral renal agenesis) which makes up most of amniotic fluid.

                  • Lung failure due to pulmonary hypoplasia is commonly seen in Potter syndrome and is the major cause of death
                  • Cystic kidney diseases can commonly cause Potter syndrome, Parrot beak nose and club foot are common physical exam findings
                  • First recognized in 1671.
                  • Prostatitis

                    "Inflammation" of the gland that "stands" 'before" the base of the bladder

                    • Pro (Greek) - Before, Forward
                    • Statos (Greek) - Standing, statiory
                    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
                  • Can be acute, chronic or asymptomatic
                  • Asymptomatic leukocytosis
                  • Pseudohyphae

                    A "web" of "fake" hyphae between fungal cells

                    • Pseudein (Greek) - To deceive, cheat by lies, fake
                    • Hyphe (Greek) - Web
                  • A chain of easily disrupted fungal cells that is marked by constrictions rather than septa at the junctions
                  • Distinguished from true hyphae by their method of growth, relative frailty and lack of cytoplasmic connection between the cells
                  • Yeast can form pseudo hyphae
                  • Pseudohypoparathyroidism

                    A "false" "lower" level of the hormone release by the glands "near" to the "oblong shield" shaped organ.

                    • Pseudein (Greek) - To deceive, cheat by lies, fake
                    • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
                    • Para (Greek) - Along, side, beside, near, against, contrary to
                    • Thureos (Greek) - Oblong shield
                  • Cell resistance to PTH
                  • Body acts as if it doesn't have PTH but really does
                  • Low serum calcium, high phosphate
                  • Pseudomembranous candidiasis

                    An oral fungal/yeast infection that appears as a "white" "false" layer of "skin" over the oral mucosae

                  • A mycosis (yeast/fungal infection) of Candida species on the mucous membranes of the mouth
                  • An opportunistic infection
                  • Commonly occurs due to local or systemic factors altering host immunity, i.e. HIV/AIDS
                  • Usually caused by Candida albicans species
                  • Can have various clinical appearances Pseudomembranous, Erythematous, or Hyperplastic variants
                  • Aka Oral Candidiasis or Oral Thrush
                  • The Pseudomembranous variant looks like "curdled milk", or "cottage cheese"
                  • Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

                    A bacteria med for its "false" "unit" that is colored "green".

                    • Pseudein (Greek) - To deceive, cheat by lies, fake
                    • Monas (Greek) - Unit
                    • Aerugo (Latin) - Copper, Rust, Green
                  • Gram negative bacteria
                  • Needs oxygen to survive and can infect human beings, especially the immunocompromised
                  • Secretes a bluegreen pigment.
                  • Hot tub folliculitis, burns, immunocompromised

                  • Mnemonics
                    AERUGINOSA
                    Psuedomonas Aeruginosa Attributes
                    Aerobic, Exotoxin A, Rod/Resistance, UTIs, burns, injuries, Green-blue, Iron-containing lesions, Negative gram, Odor of grapes, Slime capsule in CF Pts, Adherin Pili
                    Quadratus plantae

                    "Square"shaped muscle of the "sole of the foot"

                  • Flexes toes 25, offsets oblique pull of flexor digitorum longus
                  • Ramsay Hunt Syndrome

                    A "course" that presents when shingles infection affects the facial nerve near one of your ears.

                    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
                    • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
                  • 3 Syndromes include infection of facial nerves, facial paralysis and hearing loss. Caused by the same virus that causes chicken pox.
                  • Symptoms include painful red rash with fluid filled blisters and facial paralysis on same side of affected ear.
                  • Reactive arthritis

                    "Inflammation" "pertaining to joints" due to autoimmune crossreactivity

                    • Arthron (Greek) - Pertaining to the Joint
                    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
                  • Reactive arthritis is a HLAB27 associated condition
                  • Infections with chlamydia, gonorrhea, shigella, and other bugs can result in reactive arthritis
                  • Reiter's syndrome is the triad of large joint arthritis, conjunctivitis, and urethritis/cervicitis
                  • Described during WW1 by soontobe zi physician Hans Reiter. Used to be called Reiter syndrome, but the me was changed because of Reiter's connection to Nazism.
                  • Receptor

                    Protein found on inside or surface of cell that receives chemical signals, resulting in a cellular response.

                    Renovascular hypertension

                    A syndrome of high blood pressure, or "excess tension on the vascular system" (hypertension), caused by the kidneys in response to a growing of the "renal" arteries supplying the kidneys; Also called "renal hypertension".

                    Retina

                    A "netlike" lightsensitive tissue layer that lines the inside surface of the eye.

                  • Electrical and chemical processes enable light to be processed as visual information
                  • Retroperitoneum

                    The space "behind" the peritoneum, the "stretched lining around the abdominal cavity".

                    • Retro (Latin) - Backward, behind
                    • Peri (Greek) - Around, about, beyond
                    • Perinein (Greek) - To stretch
                  • Houses the adrenal glands, kidneys, ureter, aorta, inferior ve cava, the thoracic esophagus and rectum (the upper 2/3s), and the ascending and descending colon
                  • Also known as the retroperitoneal space, med for it's position behind the peritoneum of the abdomen
                  • Rhinosinusitis

                    "Inflammation" of the "bent space", or hollow bone called a sinus, around the "nose".

                    • Rhino (Greek) - Nose
                    • Sinus (Latin) - Bend, fold, curve, a bent surface; a bay, bight, gulf; a fold in land; hollow curve or cavity in the body
                    Rhinovirus

                    A "poisonous substance" commonly found in cold places, such as the "nose".

                    • Rhino (Greek) - Nose
                    • Virus (Latin) - Poison, poisonous substance
                  • Causes the common cold
                  • The virus is med so due to its optimal temperature for function being the temperature found inside the nose
                  • Rickets

                    A disease characterized by Vitamin D deficiency in children. Results in soft bones that bow out.

                    • Hypocalcemia
                    • Hypophosphatemia
                    • Children
                    • Higher risk in infants breastfed without vitamin D supplementation
                    • Can be mistaken for child abuse
                    • Rickettsia Prowazekii

                      Causative agent of endemic Typhus, med eponymously

                      • Rash that starts on the trunk and moves towards the extremities
                      • No rash on the palms and soles
                      • Muscle and joint pain
                      • Ringed sideroblast

                        An "immature, budding" red blood cell with a "ring" of excess of "iron" in its mitochondria.

                        • Ring (Olde English) - Small circlet
                        • Sidero (Latin) - Iron, Constellation
                        • Blastos (Greek) - Germ, sprout, bud or budding, immature
                      • Seen in sideroblastic anemia
                      • Visualized by the Prussian Blue stain
                      • Risus sardonicus

                        A prolonged spasm or contraction of the facial muscles that produce a "laughing" or grinning face.

                      • A common sign of tetany secondary to C. tetani in later stages
                      • Sometimes seen in late stages of Wilson's Disease
                      • In pop culture, the Joker from the comic book series Batman, is said to use a toxin that induces this facial expression in victims
                      • Sardonicus refers to the belief that if one were to eat the sardonian plant from Sardinia, that once would suffer from convulsions, "mocking laughter" and death.
                      • RomanoWard syndrome

                        An autosomal dominant long QT syndrome, named eponymously

                        • The condition is caused by defects in ion channels
                        • Do not confuse with Jervell and LangeNielson syndrome, which is a recessive long QT syndrome that is associated with hearing loss
                        • Long QT is associated with torsades de pointes, which can lead to death
                        • Roseola

                          A condition in which "rose"colored red rash appears, usually after a fever

                        • A condition caused by human herpesvirus 6
                        • Normally afflicts children between the ages of 6 months and 24 months of age
                        • Conjunctivitis, coryza
                        • Fever
                        • Also known as exanthem subitum, or sudden rash because of the rapid onset of the body rash immediately after the decline of the fever
                        • Sacral vertebrae

                          The second lowest spine bone that allows the body to "turn" and twist that inserts into the bone that was once considered "sacred" in sacrificial offerings (sacrum).

                          • Sacer (Latin) - Sacred
                          • Vertere (Latin) - To turn, joint or articulation of the body
                        • One explanation for the origin of the word is that the soul of the person lived in the sacrum. The second possible explanation is that this part of the animal offered to the gods during sacrifices
                        • Salmonella Dysenteriae

                          A gram negative non motile bacteria that infects the GI tract and causes bloody diarrhea, or "abnormal intestines"

                          • Salmonella - Med for veterry surgeon Daniel Salmon
                          • Dys (Greek) - Bad, Ill, Abnormal, Evil
                          • Intera (Greek) - Bowell, intestines
                        • A common cause of bloody stool or diarrhea
                        • Named for the scientists who described it, this bug causes dysentery, or bloody diarrhea, hence the name, 'bad bowels'.
                        • Schistocyte

                          Red blood "cells" that have been "divided" or fragmented

                          • Schistos (Greek) - Divided, deparated
                          • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
                        • Referred to as helmet cells
                        • They are fragmented parts of red blood cells often seen patients with hemolytic anemia
                        • Hemolytic anemia (and HUS)
                        • RBC damage from mechanical artificial heart valves
                        • Microangiopathic diseases (DIC TTP)
                        • Calcified aortic valves
                        • Schistosoma hematobium

                          Parasite that "specifically lives" in the "blood" networks around the bladder. It looks like it has a "divided" "body" under a microscope.

                          • Schistos (Greek) - Divided, deparated
                          • Soma (Greek) - Body
                          • Haima (Greek) - Blood
                          • Bium (New Latin) - Organism having specific mode of life
                        • Major agent of Schistosomiasis found mostly in the Middle East and Africa. Causes hematuria and fibrosis of the bladder
                        • This results from adults populating the venous plexuses of the bladder releasing eggs into the wall of the bladder.
                        • Squamous cell carcinoma
                        • Hematuria
                        • Praziquantel
                        • Schistosomiasis was first described by Theodor Biharz in 1851 while working at the KasrelAini hospital in Cairo. He discovered the trematode during a postmortem examination.
                        • Sezary Syndrome

                          A "number of symptoms coming together" or "running a course", med eponymously; a cutaneous lymphoma

                          • Syn (Greek) - With, together
                          • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
                        • A cutaneous lymphoma of Tcells that is considered a late form mycosis fungoides, as the Tcells have invaded beyond the skin and involves lymph nodes
                        • Hallmark of Sezary syndrome is atypical Tcells and Sezary cells, found in the peripheral blood
                        • Pautrier's microabscesses are the microscopic skin lesions seen in Sezary syndrome and mycosis fungoides
                        • Shigella Flexneri

                          A bacteria, med eponymously, that is Gramnegative and often causes bloody diarrhea

                          • Gramnegative bacteria that often causes bloody diarrhea in humans
                          • Does not produce hydrogen sulfide differentiates it from Salmonella
                          • Invades intestinal mucosa
                          • Shiga toxin inactivates 60S ribosome
                          • May cause hemolyticuremic syndrome
                          • Spina bifida occulta

                            A "hidden cleft backbone", in which the spine fails to fuse completely, but the defect is not visible

                          • A failure of the spinal, or "backbone" canal to close without herniation of the spinal cord.
                          • Tuft of hair or skin defect located at the location
                          • Around 10% of the general population has spina bifida occulta
                          • Folate deficiency
                          • Spongiosis

                            The "sponge"like condition in which fluid is accumulated in epithelial cells

                            • Spongia (Latin) - Sponge
                            • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
                          • Intracellular fluid accumulation within epithelial cells
                          • Eczematous dermatitis
                          • Aka "Diffuse vacuolization"
                          • Named for the spongy appearing cellular structure under the microscope
                          • Spore

                            The "seed" form of certain bacteria during unfavorable environmental conditions, which lasts until favorable conditions are encountered

                            • Spora (Greek) - Spore, Seed
                          • A bacteria's survival response to unfavorable conditions, such as high temperatures, until more favorable conditions return.
                          • The spore forming bacteria are B. anthracis, B. cereus, C. perfringens, C. tetani, C. botulinum, and C. burnetii
                          • Increased survival
                          • Spreads infection
                          • Bacteria virulence factor
                          • Stapes

                            A "stirrupshaped bone in the middle ear"

                          • A smallest bone (ossicle) of the middle ear used in conductive transmission of sound to the inner ear.
                          • Stabilized by the stapedius muscle, innervated by cranial nerve 7
                          • Smallest bone of the human body
                          • Staphylococcus Aureus

                            A "spherical, berry shaped" bacteria arranged in "clusters", med after the "golden" lesion it causes on skin infection (impetigo).

                            • Staphyle (Greek) - Cluster, bunch of grapes
                            • Coccus (Latin) - Berry shaped, spherical
                            • Aureus (Latin) - Golden
                          • Gram positive, catalasepositive, and coagulase positive bacteria that causes food poisoning, skin infections, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, sepsis and superantigen mediated syndromes.
                          • MRSA, scalded skin syndrome and toxic shock syndrome
                          • Fast onset food poisoning

                          • Mnemonics
                            SOFT PAINS
                            Staph Aureus Attributes
                            Skin infections, Osteomyeltiis, Food poisoning, TSS, Penumonia, Acute endocarditis, Infective arthritis, Necrotizing fascitis, Sepsis
                            Staphylococcus Epidermidis

                            A "spherical, berryshaped" bacteria that resides "upon" the "skin", and commonly causes hospitalacquired infections from catheters and prosthetics

                            • Staphyle (Greek) - Cluster, bunch of grapes
                            • Coccus (Latin) - Berry shaped, spherical
                            • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
                            • Derma (Greek) - Skin
                          • Gram positive, catalasepositive bacteria that is sensitive to novobiocin. It forms biofilms and commonly causes hospital acquired infections from catheters and prosthetics.
                          • Novobiocin sensitive
                          • Biofilms
                          • Resistant to many antibacterial agents
                          • Stratum spinosum

                            A "thorny"appearing "layer" of skin which contains desmosomes

                          • Layer of skin (epidermis) that is below the stratum granulosum with characteristic spiny appearance due to the desmosomes that connect cells together.
                          • Pemphigus vulgaris primarily affects the stratum spinosum layer of the epidermis
                          • Streptococcus Agalactiae

                            The bacteria Streptococcus agalactiae looks like a "chain" small "round berrylike" cells and causes a variety of infections, particularly in newborns (such as septicemia and meningitis). In cows, it infects the udders, causing them to be "without" "milk" production.

                            • Strepto (Greek) - Twisted
                            • Coccus (Latin) - Berry shaped, spherical
                            • A (Greek) - Not, Without
                            • Gala (Greek) - Milk
                          • Betahemolytic gram positive cocci that is a part of normal GI flora and commonly causes infection in neonates while they travel through the vaginal cal.
                          • Causes neonatal infection that manifests as sepsis or meningitis
                          • Transfer of bacteria from mother during birth
                          • Group B Strep
                          • First described just prior to WWII when it was found to infect cows and cause utteritis. As a result, those cows couldn’t produce milk.
                          • Streptococcus Pneumoniae

                            The bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae looks like a "chain" of small "round berrylike" cells, which causes a variety of infections, and is a notable cause of "lung" infections.

                          • Alphahemolytic encapsulated diplococci that is a common causative factor for meningitis, pneumonia, otitis media in children, and sinusitis.
                          • Sensitive to optochin
                          • Patients have rusty sputum
                          • Lancet shaped gram positive bacteria

                          • MedyQuestion
                            • A 33 year old woman with history of IV drug abuse and HIV presents to the emergency room with complaint of productive cough and fever for 3 days. The patient reports bringing up yellow-green mucus on coughing. Patient has increased tactile fremitus on the right lower lobe. A CXR confirms the diagnosis of pneumonia. The patient’s last CD4 count last year was 320, but came back at 127 on this visit. What is the most likely causative agent for this individuals pneumonia?

                            USMLE Step 1

                            • A 33 year old woman with history of IV drug abuse and HIV presents to the emergency room with complaint of productive cough and fever for 3 days. The patient reports bringing up yellow-green mucus on coughing. Patient has increased tactile fremitus on the right lower lobe. A CXR confirms the diagnosis of pneumonia. The patient’s last CD4 count last year was 320, but came back at 127 on this visit. What medication should this patient be started on for prophylaxis?

                            USMLE Step 1

                            Stridor

                            Highpitched breath sound ("creaking sound") heard on physical exam when the upper airway is obstructed

                          • Highpitched breath sound (creaking sound) heard on physical exam when the upper airway is obstructed.
                          • It can result from epiglottitis, foreign body obstruction of the airway, or growing of the airway.
                          • Med justly due to the similarity of the sound produced, to that of a creaking door
                          • Strongyloides Stercoralis

                            A "round" "shaped" intestinal parasitic nematode, which has rhabditiform larvae (NOT eggs) in the "stool"

                          • Nematode responsible for intestinal infections known as strongyloidiasis, which manifests as diarrhea and stomach pain.
                          • Larvae infects the body through cutaneous surfaces, often due to barefoot walking in soil
                          • Treated with ivermectin
                          • Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

                            “Inflammation” in “all” areas “within the head” involving an “under sharp,” or somewhere between acute and chronic, that appears as a “hardening” radio graphically

                            • Sub (Latin) - Under, below, beneath, at the foot of
                            • Acumen (Latin) - Point, Sharpness
                            • Skleroun (Greek) - To Harden
                            • Pan (Greek) - All, every
                            • En (Greek) - Within
                            • Kephale (Greek) - Head
                            • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
                          • A rare condition that involves complications with the measles virus
                          • Sulfer granules

                            A small "grain" like particle that resembles sulfur

                          • Found in Actinomycosis bacterial infection
                          • Filled with progeny bacteria
                          • Sydenham chorea

                            Uncoordinated, jerky, "dancelike" movements of the arms.

                            • Khoreia (Greek) - Dancing in unison, dance
                          • Associated with acute rheumatic fever
                          • It was med after Thomas Sydenham (British physician). It is also known as Saint Vitus Dance because it is named after Saint Vitus, a patron saint of dancers.

                          • Medytoons
                            Tachyarrhythmia

                            Describes an abnormally "fast" heart beat with an "abnormal rhythm".

                            Taenia Saginata

                            The "ribbonlike" tapeworm parasite that is "nourished" by living in a host's gastrointestinal tract. Its eggs are often found in contaminated beef.

                            • Taenia (Greek) - Band, ribbon
                            • Saginata (Latin) - Fattened, fatted, nourished
                          • Diagnosis made via stool sample containing eggs
                          • Treat w/ praziquantel
                          • Beef tapeworm
                          • Tibial nerve

                            A large "nerve" passing down the posterior thigh and leg, behind the "shinbone".

                            • Tibia (Latin) - Shinbone, Flute, Pipe
                            • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
                          • TIP toe with the tibial nerve (Tibial nerve is responsible for Inversion and Plantar flexion of the foot)
                          • Tinea Capitis

                            A fungal infection of the scalp under the "hair" that resembles a "worm".

                          • Commonly caused by trichophyton and microsporum
                          • Also known as ringworm of the hair or ringworm of the scalp
                          • Tinea Corporis

                            A fungal infection of the "body" that resembles a "worm"..

                          • Commonly caused by trichophyton and microsporum
                          • Commonly known as ringworm because of the rash's resemblance to a red raised circle that appears as if there is a worm under the skin
                          • Tinea Cruris

                            A fungal infection of the groin, between the "legs" that resembles a "worm".

                          • Commonly caused by trichophyton and microsporum
                          • Also known as crotch itch or jock itch because it affects the groin or inner thighs.
                          • Tinea Pedis

                            A fungal infection of the "foot" that resembles a "worm".

                          • Commonly caused by trichophyton and microsporum
                          • Known as athlete's foot because of it's reputation of being transmitted in locker rooms and other places where people walk barefoot.
                          • Tinea Unguium

                            A fungal infection under the "il" that resembles a "il".

                          • Also known as Onychomycosis
                          • Requires systemic antifungals to treat and has a long course because of poor blood supply to the il
                          • Tissue plasminogen activator

                            Enzyme that converts plasminogen to plasmin, which is involved in the breakdown of fibrin clots.

                            • TPA can be used as a thrombolytic
                            • Recombinant tPA molecules include alteplase, reteplase, and tenecteplase
                            • Toxicity

                              The degree to which something is toxic or "poisonous."

                            • The therapeutic index (TI) is the median toxic dose divided by the median effective dose. The higher the TI value, the safer the drug.
                            • Toxocara Canis

                              A "poison" worm that is known for infecting "dogs".

                            • Associated with visceral larva migrans and ocularis larva migrans.
                            • Transversus abdominis

                              The deep muscle layer that "crosses" the "belly".

                            • Supplied by the intercostal arteries
                            • Trapezoid bone

                              The "four" sided "formed" "bone" of the wrist.

                              • Trapezion (Latin) - A table or counter
                              • Eidos (Greek) - Form, Resemblance or Shape, Likeness
                              • Ban (Old English) - Bone, tusk
                            • Wedgeshaped bone of the distal row of wrist bones, adjacent to the 2nd metacarpal
                            • Med for its structure as having 4 sides

                            • Mnemonics
                              So Long To Pinky, Here Comes The Thumb
                              The bones of the wrist
                              Scaphoid, Lunate, Triqutrim, Pisiform, Hamate, Capitate, Trapezoid, Trapezium
                              Trematode

                              A parasitic worm that pierces "holes" into the host body with their external suckers

                            • Known colloquially as "flukes"
                            • Can be classified based upon where they infest vertebrates into "blood flukes" and "tissue flukes"
                            • Treponema Pallidum

                              A "thread" like "turning" spirochete that is acid fast, leading it to be "pale" on gram stain.

                            • Causes syphilis
                            • Associated with nonpainful chancres
                            • Penicillin is the preferred treatment
                            • Trichinella spiralis

                              A nematode parasite, often found in undercooked pork, that form "spiral" cysts in skeletal muscle.

                            • Known as "pork worm"
                            • Disease is transmitted by eating undercooked infected meat
                            • Truncus arteriosus

                              An embryonic heart structure that aorta the main "artery" from the left ventricle and pulmonary "trunk."

                              • Truncus (Latin) - Trunk of a tree, trunk of the body
                              • Arteria (Greek) - Windpipe, artery
                            • Persistent truncus arteriosus is a congenital defect caused by failure of septation of the truncus arteriosus
                            • Associated with VSD
                            • Causes early cyanosis in the child
                            • Trypanosoma Brucei

                              Parasitic agent that causes African Sleeping Sickness, a type of trypanosomiasis. med after Dr. Brucei

                            • Causes sleepiness and recurring fever
                            • Transmitted by the tsetse fly
                            • Endemic to subSaharan Africa.
                            • Tyrosine

                              Tyrosine is a polar nonessential amino acid discovered in "cheese."

                            • Tyrosine is a precursor to neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine as well as hormones such as triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4)
                            • Discovered on the fusion of old cheese and potash, a group of naturally occurring salts that contain potassium
                            • Vestibulocochlear nerve

                              Cranial nerve or "cord" from the cochlea which is a "silk shell" looking organ.

                              • Vestibulum (Latin) - Forecourt, entrance
                              • Cochlea (Latin) - Sil shell, Kokhlias (Greek) sil, screw
                              • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
                            • Cranial nerve VIII transmits sound and information about equilibrium/balance
                            • Previously referred to as the auditory or acoustic nerve but vestibulocochlear nerve is now preferred since it indicates the nerves function in equilibrium as well as sound
                            • Vincent's angi

                              A condition where the throat is "strangled" or inflamed, med after French physician Jean Hyacinthe Vincent

                            • Acute necrotizing pharyngitis and tonsillitis due to fusiform bacilli and spirochetes. It is often mistakenly interchanged with acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG, trench mouth), because it has the same etiological organisms
                            • Aka. tonsillitis
                            • WarthinFinkeldey Cells

                              Cells first described by Warthin and Finkeldey.

                              • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
                            • Multinucleated giant cells, found in hyperplastic lymph nodes, spleen and other lymphoid tissues they are pathognomonic for measles
                            • WolffParkinsonWhite syndrome

                              A heart conduction disorder that runs a "course" characterized by the electrical signal of the heart travels via an accessory pathway.

                              • Travels through the Bundle of Kent
                              • Leads to premature stimulation of the ventricle and contraction
                              • Delta wave present (a small premature rise/bump in the Q wave of the QRS complex)
                              • The Bundle of Kent was first described in monkey hearts
                              • Xerophthalmia

                                A condition in which the "eye" is "dry."

                              • Commonly caused by vitamin A deficiency
                              • Consider Sjögren's syndrome or rheumatoid arthritis
                              • Literally dry eye
                              • Yersinia Enterocolitica

                                Med after Alexander "Yersinia". Infects "intestine" or "Colon".

                                • Yersinia - Med for Alexendre Yersin
                                • Enteron (Greek) - Intestine, Small intestint, Piece of Gut, Bowel
                                • Kolon (Greek) - Large intestine
                              • Facultative intracellular organism that causes bloody diarrhea
                              • Acquired by the ingestion of contaminated milk or meat
                              • (Benzathine) Penicillin G/V

                                Beta-lactam antibiotic

                                • Cillin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                              • Non beta-lactamase producing gram positive cocci (pneumococci, staphylococci, streptococci), few gram negative cocci, gram postive bacilli, anerobes (Clostridium perfringens), and spirochetes( Treponema pallidum)
                              • Inhibit the formation of peptidoglycan crosslinks in the bacterial cell wall by binding to enzyme transpeptidase (also known as penicillinbinding proteins (PBP)), thereby creating an imbalance in cell wall production and degradation, causing the cell to rapidly die
                              • Requires IV or IM administration due to its sensitivity to stomach acid
                              • Methicillin

                                Beta-lactam antibiotic

                                • Cillin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                              • Previously used to treat infections causes by gram + bacteria including staphlococcus aureus but largely replaced by vancomycin today due to the development of resistant organisms (MRSA).
                              • Inhibit the formation of peptidoglycan crosslinks in the bacterial cell wall by binding to enzyme transpeptidase (also known as penicillinbinding proteins (PBP)), there by creating an imbalance in cell wall production and degradation, causing the cell to rapidly die.
                              • Ticarcillin

                                Beta-lactam antibiotic

                                • Cillin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                              • Treatment of gram negative bacteria, expecially pseudonomas aeruginosa
                              • Inhibit the formation of peptidoglycan crosslinks in the bacterial cell wall by binding to enzyme transpeptidase (also known as penicillinbinding proteins (PBP)), there by creating an imbalance in cell wall production and degradation, causing the cell to rapidly die.
                              • Piperacillin

                                Beta-lactam antibiotic

                                • Cillin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                              • Extendedspectrum betalactam antibiotic used against pseudonomas aeruginosa
                              • Normally used with a betalactamase ihnhibitor ( piperacillin/tazobactam)
                              • Inhibit the formation of peptidoglycan crosslinks in the bacterial cell wall by binding to enzyme transpeptidase (also known as penicillinbinding proteins (PBP)), there by creating an imbalance in cell wall production and degradation, causing the cell to rapidly die.
                              • Aztreonam

                                Beta-lactam antibiotic

                                • Bacteria causing severe infections of the uriry tract, lower respiratory tract, skin and stomach.
                                • Blocks cell wall systhesis by binding to penicillin binding protein 3 and there by blocking crosslinking
                                • Most known as being used as an alternative to penicillin for those who are allergic!
                                • Imipenem/Cilastin

                                  Carbapenem

                                  • Penem (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                • Susceptible aerobic and aerobic grampositive and gram negatice organisms
                                • Imipenem binds to penicillinbinding proteins and inhibits bacterial cellwall synthesis
                                • It is rapidly degraded by rel dehydropeptidase I so it is given in combition with cilastatin, a DHPI inhibitor, to increase imipenem's half life and tissue penetration.