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MICROBIOLOGICAL PHARMACOLOGY
115 terms share this category
(Benzathine) Penicillin G/V

Beta-lactam antibiotic

  • Cillin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
  • Non beta-lactamase producing gram positive cocci (pneumococci, staphylococci, streptococci), few gram negative cocci, gram postive bacilli, anerobes (Clostridium perfringens), and spirochetes( Treponema pallidum)
  • Inhibit the formation of peptidoglycan crosslinks in the bacterial cell wall by binding to enzyme transpeptidase (also known as penicillinbinding proteins (PBP)), thereby creating an imbalance in cell wall production and degradation, causing the cell to rapidly die
  • Requires IV or IM administration due to its sensitivity to stomach acid
  • Methicillin

    Beta-lactam antibiotic

    • Cillin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
  • Previously used to treat infections causes by gram + bacteria including staphlococcus aureus but largely replaced by vancomycin today due to the development of resistant organisms (MRSA).
  • Inhibit the formation of peptidoglycan crosslinks in the bacterial cell wall by binding to enzyme transpeptidase (also known as penicillinbinding proteins (PBP)), there by creating an imbalance in cell wall production and degradation, causing the cell to rapidly die.
  • Ticarcillin

    Beta-lactam antibiotic

    • Cillin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
  • Treatment of gram negative bacteria, expecially pseudonomas aeruginosa
  • Inhibit the formation of peptidoglycan crosslinks in the bacterial cell wall by binding to enzyme transpeptidase (also known as penicillinbinding proteins (PBP)), there by creating an imbalance in cell wall production and degradation, causing the cell to rapidly die.
  • Piperacillin

    Beta-lactam antibiotic

    • Cillin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
  • Extendedspectrum betalactam antibiotic used against pseudonomas aeruginosa
  • Normally used with a betalactamase ihnhibitor ( piperacillin/tazobactam)
  • Inhibit the formation of peptidoglycan crosslinks in the bacterial cell wall by binding to enzyme transpeptidase (also known as penicillinbinding proteins (PBP)), there by creating an imbalance in cell wall production and degradation, causing the cell to rapidly die.
  • Aztreonam

    Beta-lactam antibiotic

    • Bacteria causing severe infections of the uriry tract, lower respiratory tract, skin and stomach.
    • Blocks cell wall systhesis by binding to penicillin binding protein 3 and there by blocking crosslinking
    • Most known as being used as an alternative to penicillin for those who are allergic!
    • Imipenem/Cilastin

      Carbapenem

      • Penem (English) - Medication Naming Convention
    • Susceptible aerobic and aerobic grampositive and gram negatice organisms
    • Imipenem binds to penicillinbinding proteins and inhibits bacterial cellwall synthesis
    • It is rapidly degraded by rel dehydropeptidase I so it is given in combition with cilastatin, a DHPI inhibitor, to increase imipenem's half life and tissue penetration.
    • Meropenem

      Carbapenem

      • Penem (English) - Medication Naming Convention
    • Grampositive, gramnegative( including Pseudomos) and anerobic bacteria
    • Complicated skininfections, intraabdomila infections and bacterial meningitis
    • Inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis, however it is highly resistant to degradation by betalactamases or cephalosporises
    • Unlike imipenem, it is not degraded by DHPI so can be given without cisplastin

    • Mnemonics
      Uh Oh! Erta' Betta' Geta' 'nother antibiotic!
      -Penem that does not work for Pseudomonas Treatment
      Ertapenem is the only -penem that does not have Pseudomonas coverage
      Bacitracin

      Antibiotic

      • Effective against grampositives and gramnegatives, especially those that cause skin infections causes by small cuts or burns
      • Interferes with the dephosphorylation of the 55 carbon, biphosphate lipid transport molecule C55isoprenyl pyrophosphate, which carries the building blocks of the peptidoglycan bacterial cell wall.
      • Vancomycin

        Aminoglycoside antiobiotic

        • Micin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
      • First line treatment fro complication skin infections, blood stream infections, endocarditis, bone and joint infections, and meningitis causes
      • Oral administration is tx for Clostridum difficile intestil infection
      • Effective only against gram positive organisms ( not gram )
      • Inhibits cell wall synthesis in Grampositive bacteria by forming hydrogen bonds with termil DalanylD alanine residues of M/Gpeptides (backbone strands of cell wall), there by inhibiting the backbone polloimers from crosslinking with each other.

      • MedyQuestion
        • A 66 year old man with medical history significant for hypertension and type II diabetes currently being hospitalized for pneumonia begins to develop foul smelling, watery diarrhea on the fourth day of his hospitalization. The patient is started on oral metronidazole and C.diff stool samples are sent. After 3 days on metronidazole, the diarrhea persists. What drug and through which route should it be administered to treat this patient?

        USMLE Step 1

        Quinupristin

        Streptogramin antibiotics

        • Pristin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
      • Grampositive bacteria, atypicals, often combined with dalfopristin to treat infections by staphylococci and by vancomycinresistant Enterococcus faecium
      • Protein synthesis inhibitor
      • Binds to a site nearby the 23S site on the 50S ribosomal subunit and prevents elongation of the polloipeptide
      • Synergistic with dalfopristine (trade me Synercid)
      • Dalfopristin

        Streptogramin antibiotics

        • Pristin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
      • Often combined with quinupristin to treat infections by staphylococci and by vancomycinresistant Enterococcus faecium
      • Binds to the 23S portion of the 50S ribosomal subunit, and changes its conformation. This enhances the affinity for quinupristin binding
      • Also inhibits peptidyl transfer
      • Synergistic with Quinupristin (trade me Synercid)
      • Linezolid

        Oxazolidinone antibiotics

        • Grampositive bacteria including spreptococci, vancomycinresistant enterococci (VRE), methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
        • (drug of last resort)
        • Protein synthesis inhibitor
        • Prevents the formation of the initiation complex during protein systhesis by binding to the 23S portion of the 50S subunit
        • Cross resistance with other drus is rare due to its unique MOA
        • Oxacillin

          Penicillin antibiotic

          • Cillin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
        • Penicillin resistant Staphlococcus aureus, similar to methicillin
        • First line tx for staph edocarditis in patients without artificial heart valves.
        • Peniciliseresistant Blactam, inhibit the formation of peptidoglycan crosslinks in the bacterial cell wall by binding to enzyme transpeptidase (also known as penicillinbinding proteins (PBP)), there by creating an imbalance in cell wall production and degradation, causing the cell to rapidly die
        • Nafcillin

          Penicillin antibiotic

          • Cillin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
        • Infections causes by penicillin resistant Staphlococcus aureus and other resistant gram positive bacteria (not including MRSA), clinically equivilant to oxacillin
        • First line tx for staph edocarditis in patients without artificial heart valves.
        • Peniciliseresistant Blactam, inhibit the formation of peptidoglycan crosslinks in the bacterial cell wall by binding to enzyme transpeptidase (also known as penicillinbinding proteins (PBP)), there by creating an imbalance in cell wall production and degradation, causing the cell to rapidly die
        • Dicloxacillin

          Penicillin antibiotic

          • Cillin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
        • Skin infections and cellulitis causes by beta-lactamase producing Staphyloccus aureus, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, endocarditis
        • Similar to flucloxacillin
        • Inhibit the formation of peptidoglycan crosslinks in the bacterial cell wall by binding to enzyme transpeptidase (also known as penicillinbinding proteins (PBP)), there by creating an imbalance in cell wall production and degradation, causing the cell to rapidly die.
        • Amoxicillin

          Penicillin antibiotic

          • Cillin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
        • Acute otitis media, streptococcal pharyngitis, pneumonia, skin infections, uriry tract infections, salmonella, lyme disease, and chlamydia
        • Inhibit the formation of peptidoglycan crosslinks in the bacterial cell wall by binding to enzyme transpeptidase (also known as penicillinbinding proteins (PBP)), there by creating an imbalance in cell wall production and degradation, causing the cell to rapidly die
        • Often given with clavulanic acid, a Blactamase inhibitor, to reducing its susceptibility to degradation to Blactamases.
        • Ampicillin

          Penicillin antibiotic

          • Cillin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
        • Gram postive bacteria: Streptococcus pneumonia, Strep pyogens, Staph aureus. Gram negative bacteria: Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenza, and Enterobacteriaceae.
        • Irreversible inhibitor of transpeptidase, which bacteria need to make cell walls.
        • Clavulanic Acid

          Beta lactamase inhibitor

          • Bacteria that have beta lactamase
          • Blocks the action of beta lactamase produced by bacteria to confer resistance
          • Often given with amoxicillin (trade me Augmentin)
          • Sulbactam

            Beta lactamase inhibitor

            • Bactam (English) - Medication Naming Convention
          • Pseudomos aeruginosa, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, and Serratia.
          • Irreversibly inhibits beta lactamase preventing degradation of enzyme
          • Tazobactam

            Beta lactamase inhibitor

            • Bactam (English) - Medication Naming Convention
          • Nosocomial pneumonia caused by Pseudomos aeruginosa
          • Inhibits the action of betalactamases in bacteria.
          • Cefazolin

            First generation cephalosporins

            • Bone, joint, lung, stomach, blood, heart valves, UTI infections. Used against staphylocci and streptococci, and MSSA
            • The most common use of this medication is the treatment of cellulitis caused by sensitive staph and strep species
            • Cefazolin, brand name ancef, is IV, whereas it's counterpart for outpatient use, cephalexin, is PO
            • Commonly used pre and introperatively to prevent wound infectons by skin flora
            • Disrupts synthesis of peptidoglycan layer of bacteria cell walls by mimicing the DAlaDAla site, thus irreversibly inhibiting PBP crosslinking of peptidoglycan.

            • Medytoons
              Cephalexin

              First generation cephalosporins

              • Otitis media, streptococcal pharyngitis, bone and joint infections, pneumonia, cellulitis, and UTIs
              • Disrupts synthesis of peptidoglycan layer of bacteria cell walls by mimicing the DAlaDAla site, thus irreversibly inhibiting PBP crosslinking of peptidoglycan.

              • Medytoons
                Cefoxitin

                Second generation cephalosporin

                • Staphylococci, Enterococci, Streptococci and other gram positive and gram negative bacteria.
                • Disrupts synthesis of peptidoglycan layer of bacteria cell walls by mimicing the DAlaDAla site, thus irreversibly inhibiting PBP crosslinking of peptidoglycan.
                • Cefaclor

                  Second generation cephalosporin

                  • Septicaemia, meningitis, pneupmonia, biliary tract infections, peritonitis, and UTIs.
                  • Disrupts synthesis of peptidoglycan layer of bacteria cell walls by mimicing the DAlaDAla site, thus irreversibly inhibiting PBP crosslinking of peptidoglycan.
                  • Cefuroxime

                    Second generation cephalosporin

                    • Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Lyme disease
                    • Disrupts synthesis of peptidoglycan layer of bacteria cell walls by mimicing the DAlaDAla site, thus irreversibly inhibiting PBP crosslinking of peptidoglycan.
                    • Ceftriaxone

                      Third generation cephalosporin

                      • Broad spectrum against gram postive and gram negative bacteria. Used for bacterial meningitis caused by pneumococci, meningococci, and Haemophilus influenzae, also treats enteric gram negative rods
                      • Disrupts synthesis of peptidoglycan layer of bacteria cell walls by mimicing the DAlaDAla site, thus irreversibly inhibiting PBP crosslinking of peptidoglycan.
                      • Cefotaxime

                        Third generation cephalosporin

                        • Lower respiratory tract infection caused by S. pneumoniae, uriry tract infection casue by E.coly, S. epidermidis, P. mirabilis, and gonorrhea, PED, endometritis, bacteremia, peritonitis, bone and joint infection by S. aureus and streptococcus spp. and CNS infections by N. meningitidis, H. influenzae, and S. pneumoniae
                        • Disrupts synthesis of peptidoglycan layer of bacteria cell walls by mimicing the DAlaDAla site, thus irreversibly inhibiting PBP crosslinking of peptidoglycan.
                        • Ceftazidime

                          Third generation cephalosporin

                          • Lower respiratory tract, skin, uriry tract, blood stream, joint, abdomil infections, and meningitis, Pseudomos aeruginosa, gram negative, aerobic infections
                          • Disrupts synthesis of peptidoglycan layer of bacteria cell walls by mimicing the DAlaDAla site, thus irreversibly inhibiting PBP crosslinking of peptidoglycan.
                          • Cefepime

                            Fourth generation cephalosporin

                            • Moderate to severe nosocomial pneumonia, febrile neutropenia empirical treatment, infections from multiple drug resistant organisms like Pseudomos, S. aureus, Enterobacteriae and multi drug resistant S. pneumonia
                            • Block cell wall synthesis by inhibiting peptidoglycan cross linking, less susceptible to penicillises
                            • Gentamicin

                              Aminoglycoside

                              • Severe gram negative infections
                              • Bind to 30S rR subunit and prevent formation of the initiation complex which is required for translation
                              • Neomycin

                                Aminoglycoside

                                • Neosporin, preventative therapy for hepatic encephalogpathy and hypercholesterolemia
                                • Bind to 30S rR subunit and prevent formation of the initiation complex which is required for translation
                                • Amikacin

                                  Aminoglycoside

                                  • Severe hospital acquired infections with multi drug resistant organisms
                                  • Bind to 30S rR subunit and prevent formation of the initiation complex which is required for translation
                                  • Tobramycin

                                    Aminoglycoside

                                    • Bacterial eye infections and infections with Pseudomos
                                    • Bind to 30S rR subunit and prevent formation of the initiation complex which is required for translation
                                    • Streptomycin

                                      Aminoglycoside

                                      • Infective endocarditis, tuberculosis and plague
                                      • Bind to 30S rR subunit and prevent formation of the initiation complex which is required for translation
                                      • Tetracycline

                                        Tetracycline

                                        • Cycline (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                      • Infections from intracellular organisms like Rickettsia, Chlamydia. Also infections with Mycoplasma pneumonia and Borrelia burgdorferi
                                      • Bind to 30S rR subunit and prevent binding of aminoacyltR to the R
                                      • Doxycycline

                                        Tetracycline

                                        • Cycline (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                      • Infections with intracellular organisms and chronic prostatitis, sinusitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, rosacea and acne
                                      • Bind to 30S rR subunit and prevent binding of aminoacyltR to the R
                                      • Demeclocycline

                                        Tetracycline

                                        • Cycline (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                      • Lyme disease, bronchitis, hypotremia due to syndrome of ippropriate antidiuretic hormone
                                      • Bind to 30S rR subunit and prevent binding of aminoacyltR to the R
                                      • Minocycline

                                        Tetracycline

                                        • Cycline (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                      • More penetration into the brain and prostate compared to other tetracyclines
                                      • Bind to 30S rR subunit and prevent binding of aminoacyltR to the R
                                      • Azithromycin

                                        Macrolide

                                        • Atypical pneumonias caused by Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, Legionella
                                        • STDs caused by Gonorrhea and Chlamydia
                                        • Infections from gram positive cocci
                                        • Bind to 23S rR of the 50S subunit and prevent translocation of the ribosome
                                        • Clarithromycin

                                          Macrolide

                                          • Respiratory infections, skin infections, Lyme disease and Helicobactor pylori infections
                                          • Bind to 30S rR subunit and prevent binding of aminoacyltR to the R
                                          • Erythtromycin

                                            Macrolide

                                            • Respiratory infections from atypical organisms, neotal conjunctivitis due to chlamydia or gonorrhea
                                            • Bind to 30S rR subunit and prevent binding of aminoacyltR to the R
                                            • Chloramphenicol

                                              • Meningitis
                                              • Binds to 50S subunit and blocks peptidyltransferase
                                              • Clindamycin

                                                • Aerobic infections above the diaphragm like lung abscesses, aspiration pneumonia and oral aerobic infections
                                                • Binds to 50S subunit and prevents peptide transfer
                                                • Sulfamethoxazole (SMX)

                                                  Sulfomide

                                                  • Drug of choice for Pneumocystic pneumonia, also used to treat uriry tract infections, toxoplasmosis
                                                  • Paraaminobenzoic acid alogs that prevent synthesis of folic acid by inhibiting dihydropteroate synthetase
                                                  • Sulfisoxazole

                                                    Sulfomide

                                                    • Used in combition with erythromycin to treat eat infections
                                                    • Paraaminobenzoic acid alogs that prevent synthesis of folic acid by inhibiting dihydropteroate synthetase
                                                    • Sulfadiazine

                                                      Sulfomide

                                                      • Given with pyrimethamine to treat toxoplasmosis
                                                      • Paraaminobenzoic acid alogs that prevent synthesis of folic acid by inhibiting dihydropteroate synthetase
                                                      • Trimethoprim

                                                        • Used in combition with sulfomides to treat uriry tract infections, Shigella, Salmonella, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia
                                                        • Prevents synthesis of folic acid by inhibiting dihydrofolate reductase
                                                        • Ciprofloxacin

                                                          Fluoroquinolone

                                                          • Floxacin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                        • Gastroenteritis, malignt otitis exter, cellulitis, anthrax, uriry tract infections, chancroid
                                                        • Inhibit D topoisomerase II

                                                        • MedyQuestion
                                                          • A 72 year old man presents to the emergency with abdominal pain that began abruptly last night that woke him from sleep. He had one bloody bowel movement. The pain is localized to the left lower quadrant. Ct scan of the pelvis demonstrates diverticulitis. What 2 antibiotics should be started?

                                                          USMLE Step 1

                                                          Norfloxacin

                                                          Fluoroquinolone

                                                          • Floxacin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                        • Uriry tract infections and prostatitis
                                                        • Inhibit D gyrase and topoisomerase IV on D
                                                        • Levofloxacin

                                                          Fluoroquinolone

                                                          • Floxacin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                        • Respiratory tract infections, uriry tract infections, prostatis, endocarditis, meningitis, traveler's diarrhea
                                                        • Inhibit D gyrase and topoisomerase IV on D
                                                        • Ofloxacin

                                                          Fluoroquinolone

                                                          • Floxacin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                        • Chronic bronchitis, community acquired pneumonia, acute pelvic inflammatory disease, nongonococcal uveitis and cervicitis
                                                        • Inhibit D gyrase and topoisomerase IV on D
                                                        • Sparfloxacin

                                                          Fluoroquinolone

                                                          • Floxacin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                        • Respiratory tract infections caused by bacteria
                                                        • Inhibit D gyrase and topoisomerase IV on D
                                                        • Moxifloxacin

                                                          Fourth generation fluoroquinolone

                                                          • Floxacin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                        • Bacterial pneumonia, bronchitis, skin, sinus and abdomil bacterial infections
                                                        • Inhibit D gyrase and topoisomerase IV on D
                                                        • Gatifloxacin

                                                          Fourth generation fluoroquinolone

                                                          • Floxacin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                        • Bacterial conjunctivitis (pink eye)
                                                        • Inhibit D gyrase and topoisomerase IV on D
                                                        • Enoxacin

                                                          Second generation fluoroquinolone

                                                          • Floxacin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                        • Uriry tract infection and gonorrhea
                                                        • Bind and inhibit topoisomerase II which is responsible for preventing supercoiling of the D
                                                        • Lidixic acid

                                                          First generation fluoroquinolone

                                                          • Uriry tract infections with Escherichia coli, Shigella, Proteus, Enterobacter, and Klebsiella
                                                          • Bind and inhibit topoisomerase II which is responsible for preventing supercoiling of the D
                                                          • Metronidazole

                                                            Nitroimidazole

                                                            • Bacterial infections such as trichomoniasis, giardiasis, amoebiasis, bacterial vaginosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, pseudomembranous colitis, aspiration pneumonia, rosacea, lung abscess, gingivitis, and certain aerobic organisms. Can also be used to treat Helicobacter pylori.
                                                            • Inhibits nucleic acid synthesis in aerobic cells.

                                                            • MedyQuestion
                                                              • A 66 year old man with medical history significant for hypertension and type II diabetes currently being hospitalized for pneumonia begins to develop foul smelling, watery diarrhea on the fourth day of his hospitalization. The patient is started on oral metronidazole and C.diff stool samples are sent. After 3 days on metronidazole, the diarrhea persists. What drug and through which route should it be administered to treat this patient?

                                                              USMLE Step 1

                                                              • A 72 year old man presents to the emergency with abdominal pain that began abruptly last night that woke him from sleep. He had one bloody bowel movement. The pain is localized to the left lower quadrant. Ct scan of the pelvis demonstrates diverticulitis. What 2 antibiotics should be started?

                                                              USMLE Step 1

                                                              Isoniazid

                                                              Antimycobacterial

                                                              • Tuberculosis
                                                              • Needs to be activated by bacterial catalaseperoxidase enxyme, KatG. Blocks fatty acid synthase.

                                                              • Medytoons
                                                                Rifampin

                                                                Antibiotic rifamycin class

                                                                • Tuuberculosis, MRSA, Listeria, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Haemophilis influenza, Legionella pneumonia
                                                                • Inhibits D dependent R synthesis by inhibiting bacterial D dependent R polloimerase

                                                                • Medytoons
                                                                  Pyrazimide

                                                                  Antimycobacterial

                                                                  • Tuberculosis
                                                                  • Pyrazimidase converts the prodrug pyrazimide to the active form pyrazinoic acid. Pyrazinoic acid builds up in the cells and distrupts the membrane potential and energy production. It may also interfere with fatty acid synthase.

                                                                  • Medytoons
                                                                    Ethambutol

                                                                    Bacteriostatic antimycobacterial

                                                                    • Tuberculosis
                                                                    • Blocks the formation of cell wall

                                                                    • Medytoons
                                                                      Amphotericin B

                                                                      Polloiene antifungal drug

                                                                      • Treats thrush, cryptococcal meningitis, parasitic protozoan infections such as visceral leishmaniasis, and primary amoebic meningoencephalitits
                                                                      • Binds ergosterol, which is a component of the cell membranes of fungi and it fomrs a transmembrane channel that leaks out potassium, sodium, hydrogen, and chloride ions.
                                                                      • Nystatin

                                                                        Polloiene antifungal drug

                                                                        • Candidiasis, oral candidiasis, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, vulvovagil candidiasis
                                                                        • Binds ergosterol, which is a component of the cell membranes of fungi and it fomrs a transmembrane channel that leaks out potassium, sodium, hydrogen, and chloride ions.

                                                                        • MedyQuestion
                                                                          • A 21-year-old female presents to the doctor’s office with a 3-day history of sore throat. She is currently taking an inhaled corticosteroid for her asthma. Her temperature is 99.4°F. A KOD prep taken from a sample of one of the plaques shows budding year. An illustration of her tongue is shown. Which is the most likely course of pharmacotherapy that the doctor will prescribe for this patient.

                                                                          USMLE Step 1

                                                                          Flucozole

                                                                          Triazole antifungal

                                                                          • Azole (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                        • Candidiasis, tinea corporis, tinea cruris, tinea pedis, onychomycosis, cryptococcal meningitis, coccidioidomycosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis
                                                                        • Inhibitis cytochrome P450 enzyme 14 aplhademethylase.
                                                                        • Ketocozole

                                                                          Imidazole antifungal

                                                                          • Azole (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                        • Athlete's foot, ringworm, candidiasis, jock itch, and intea versicolor, candida, histoplasma, coccidiodes, and blastomyces
                                                                        • Inhibits ergosterol synthesis
                                                                        • Clotrimazole

                                                                          Antifungal

                                                                          • Azole (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                        • Vulvovagil candidiasis, yeast infection, oropharyngeal candidiasis
                                                                        • Alters the permeability of the fungal cell wall. Binds phospholipids, and inhibits ergosterol synthesis.
                                                                        • Micozole

                                                                          Imidazole antifungal

                                                                          • Azole (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                        • Athlete's foot, ringworm, jock itch
                                                                        • Itracozole

                                                                          Triazole antifungal

                                                                          • Azole (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                        • Aspergillus, blastomycosis, sporotrichosis, histoplasmosis, onychomycosis
                                                                        • Inhibits ergosterol synthesis and inhibits cytochrome P450
                                                                        • Voricozole

                                                                          Triazole antifungal

                                                                          • Azole (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                        • Candidiasis, aspergillosis
                                                                        • Flucytosine

                                                                          Fluorited pyrimidine alogue, antimycotic drug

                                                                          • Candida, cryptococcus neoformans, chromomycosis
                                                                          • Converted to cytostatic fluorouracil which interacts with 5fluorouridinetriphosphate with R synthesis and building of essentail proteins. It also inhibits D synthesis in fungi by being converted to 5fluorodeoxyuridinemonophosphate
                                                                          • Caspofungin

                                                                            Lipopeptide antifungal

                                                                            • Aspergillus, candida
                                                                            • Micafungin

                                                                              Echinocandin antifungal

                                                                              • Candidemia, acute dissemited candidiasis, candia peritonitis, and esophageal candidiasis
                                                                              • Inhibits 1,3betaDglucan synthase which decreases 1,3betaDglucan which is a polloisaccharide present in candida cell walls.
                                                                              • Terbifine

                                                                                Allylamine antifungal

                                                                                • Fungal il infections, athlete's foot, tinea versicolor, tinea captis, mucocutaneous candidiasis
                                                                                • Inhibits synthesis of ergosterol by inhibiting squalene epoxidase.
                                                                                • Griseofulvin

                                                                                  Antifungal

                                                                                  • Tinea captitis, athlete's foot
                                                                                  • Binds tubulin, and inhibits mitosis
                                                                                  • Pyrimethamine

                                                                                    Antimalarial

                                                                                    • Plasmodium falciparum, plasmodium vivax
                                                                                    • Blocks tetrahydrofolic acid synthesis by inhibiting dihydrofolate reductase
                                                                                    • Nifurtimox

                                                                                      • Chagas disease, african trypanosomiasis
                                                                                      • It is a 5nitrofuran
                                                                                      • Sodium Stiboglucoste

                                                                                        Pentavalent antimonials

                                                                                        • Leishmaniasis
                                                                                        • Chloroquine

                                                                                          4aminoquinoline

                                                                                          • Malaria
                                                                                          • Chloroquine binds heme forming the hemechloroquine complex, which is toxic to the cell and distrupts membrane function.
                                                                                          • Mebendazole

                                                                                            • Pinworm, roundworm, tapeworm, hookworm,whipworms
                                                                                            • Inhibits the synthesis of microtubules in parasites
                                                                                            • Pyrantel Pamoate

                                                                                              Deworming agent

                                                                                              • Hookworms, roundworms
                                                                                              • Depolarizes neuromuscular blocking agent leading to contraction and paralysis of worms
                                                                                              • Ivermectin

                                                                                                Antiparasitic

                                                                                                • Broad spectrum antiparasitic drug
                                                                                                • Increases inhibitory neurotrasmission such as glutamate gated chloride channels
                                                                                                • Diethylcarbamazine

                                                                                                  Antihelmintic

                                                                                                  • Lymphatic filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, Brugia timori, loa loa
                                                                                                  • Inhibits arachidonic acid metabolism increasing damage by immune attack
                                                                                                  • Praziquantel

                                                                                                    Antihelmintic

                                                                                                    • Echinococcus, cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium, taeniasis, tococariasis, schistosomiasis
                                                                                                    • Increases permeability of calcium ions leading to contraction of the parasites and thus paralysis
                                                                                                    • Zamivir

                                                                                                      Antiviral

                                                                                                      • Treatment and prevention of Influenza A and B.
                                                                                                      • Inhibit influenza neuraminidase, decreasing the release of progeny virus.
                                                                                                      • Oseltamivir

                                                                                                        Antiviral

                                                                                                        • Treatment and prevention of Influenza A and B.
                                                                                                        • Inhibit influenza neuraminidase, decreasing the release of progeny virus.
                                                                                                        • Ribavirin

                                                                                                          Antiviral

                                                                                                          • RSV, chronic Hepatitis C
                                                                                                          • Inhibits synthesis of guanine nucleotides by competitively inhibiting IMP dehydrogese
                                                                                                          • Acyclovir

                                                                                                            Antiviral

                                                                                                            • Clovir (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                                          • HSV and VZV. Weak activity against EBV. No activity against CMV. Used for HSVinduced mucocutaneous and genital lesions as well as for encephalitis. Prophylaxis in immunocompromised patients. No effect on latent forms of HSV and VZV. Valacyclovir, a prodrug of acyclovir, has better oral bioavailability. For herpes zoster, use a related agent, famciclovir.
                                                                                                          • Monophosphorylated by HSV/VZV thymidine kise and not phosphorylated in uninfected cells, meaning few adverse effects. Guanosine alog. Triphosphate formed by cellular enzymes. Preferentially inhibits viral D polymerase by chain termition.
                                                                                                          • Ganciclovir

                                                                                                            Antiviral

                                                                                                            • Clovir (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                                          • CMV, especially in immunocompromised patients. Valganciclovir, a prodrug of ganciclovir, has better oral bioavailability.
                                                                                                          • 5′monophosphate formed by a CMV viral kise. Guanosine alog. Triphosphate formed by cellular kises. Preferentially inhibits viral D polymerase.
                                                                                                          • Foscarnet

                                                                                                            Antiviral

                                                                                                            • CMV retinitis in immunocompromised patients when ganciclovir fails
                                                                                                            • Acyclovirresistant HSV.
                                                                                                            • Viral D polymerase inhibitor that binds to the pyrophosphatebinding site of the enzyme. Does not require activation by viral kise.
                                                                                                            • Cidofovir

                                                                                                              Antiviral

                                                                                                              • CMV retinitis in immunocompromised patients
                                                                                                              • Acyclovirresistant HSV. Long halflife.
                                                                                                              • Preferentially inhibits viral D polymerase. Does not require phosphorylation by viral kise.
                                                                                                              • Lopivir

                                                                                                                Protease Inhibitor

                                                                                                                • Vir (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                                              • Used in HAART for AIDSdefining illness
                                                                                                              • Assembly of virions depends on HIV1 protease (pol gene), which cleaves the polypeptide products of HIV mR into their functiol parts. Thus, protease inhibitors prevent maturation of new viruses.
                                                                                                              • Atazavir

                                                                                                                Protease Inhibitor

                                                                                                                • Vir (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                                              • Used in HAART for AIDSdefining illness
                                                                                                              • Assembly of virions depends on HIV1 protease (pol gene), which cleaves the polypeptide products of HIV mR into their functiol parts. Thus, protease inhibitors prevent maturation of new viruses.
                                                                                                              • Daruvir

                                                                                                                Protease Inhibitor

                                                                                                                • Vir (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                                              • Used in HAART for AIDSdefining illness
                                                                                                              • Assembly of virions depends on HIV1 protease (pol gene), which cleaves the polypeptide products of HIV mR into their functiol parts. Thus, protease inhibitors prevent maturation of new viruses.
                                                                                                              • Fosamprevir

                                                                                                                Protease Inhibitor

                                                                                                                • Vir (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                                              • Used in HAART for AIDSdefining illness
                                                                                                              • Assembly of virions depends on HIV1 protease (pol gene), which cleaves the polypeptide products of HIV mR into their functiol parts. Thus, protease inhibitors prevent maturation of new viruses.
                                                                                                              • Saquivir

                                                                                                                Protease Inhibitor

                                                                                                                • Vir (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                                              • Used in HAART for AIDSdefining illness
                                                                                                              • Assembly of virions depends on HIV1 protease (pol gene), which cleaves the polypeptide products of HIV mR into their functiol parts. Thus, protease inhibitors prevent maturation of new viruses.
                                                                                                              • Ritovir

                                                                                                                Protease Inhibitor

                                                                                                                • Vir (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                                              • Used in HAART for AIDSdefining illness
                                                                                                              • Assembly of virions depends on HIV1 protease (pol gene), which cleaves the polypeptide products of HIV mR into their functiol parts. Thus, protease inhibitors prevent maturation of new viruses.
                                                                                                              • Indivir

                                                                                                                Protease Inhibitor

                                                                                                                • Vir (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                                              • Used in HAART for AIDSdefining illness
                                                                                                              • Assembly of virions depends on HIV1 protease (pol gene), which cleaves the polypeptide products of HIV mR into their functiol parts. Thus, protease inhibitors prevent maturation of new viruses.
                                                                                                              • Tenofovir

                                                                                                                NRTI

                                                                                                                • Used in HAART for AIDSdefining illness
                                                                                                                • Competitively inhibit nucleotide binding to reverse transcriptase and termite the D chain (lack a 3′ OH group). Tenofovir is a nucleoTide and does not need to be phosphorylated to be active.
                                                                                                                • Emtricitabine

                                                                                                                  NRTI

                                                                                                                  • Used in HAART for AIDSdefining illness
                                                                                                                  • Competitively inhibit nucleotide binding to reverse transcriptase and termite the D chain (lack a 3′ OH group). A nucleoside that needs to be phosphorylated to be active.
                                                                                                                  • Abacavir

                                                                                                                    NRTI

                                                                                                                    • Used in HAART for AIDSdefining illness
                                                                                                                    • Competitively inhibit nucleotide binding to reverse transcriptase and termite the D chain (lack a 3′ OH group). A nucleoside that needs to be phosphorylated to be active.
                                                                                                                    • Lamivudine

                                                                                                                      NRTI

                                                                                                                      • Used in HAART for AIDSdefining illness
                                                                                                                      • Competitively inhibit nucleotide binding to reverse transcriptase and termite the D chain (lack a 3′ OH group). A nucleoside that needs to be phosphorylated to be active.
                                                                                                                      • Zidovudine (AZT)

                                                                                                                        NRTI

                                                                                                                        • ZDV is used for general prophylaxis and during pregncy to lower risk of fetal transmission.
                                                                                                                        • Competitively inhibit nucleotide binding to reverse transcriptase and termite the D chain (lack a 3′ OH group). A nucleoside that needs to be phosphorylated to be active.
                                                                                                                        • Didanosine

                                                                                                                          NRTI

                                                                                                                          • Used in HAART for AIDSdefining illness
                                                                                                                          • Competitively inhibit nucleotide binding to reverse transcriptase and termite the D chain (lack a 3′ OH group). A nucleoside that needs to be phosphorylated to be active.
                                                                                                                          • Stavudine

                                                                                                                            NRTI

                                                                                                                            • Used in HAART for AIDSdefining illness
                                                                                                                            • Competitively inhibit nucleotide binding to reverse transcriptase and termite the D chain (lack a 3′ OH group). A nucleoside that needs to be phosphorylated to be active.
                                                                                                                            • Nevirapine

                                                                                                                              NNRTI

                                                                                                                              • Used in HAART for AIDSdefining illness
                                                                                                                              • Bind to reverse transcriptase at site different from NRTIs. Do not require phosphorylation to be active or compete with nucleotides.
                                                                                                                              • Efavirenz

                                                                                                                                NNRTI

                                                                                                                                • Used in HAART for AIDSdefining illness
                                                                                                                                • Bind to reverse transcriptase at site different from NRTIs. Do not require phosphorylation to be active or compete with nucleotides.
                                                                                                                                • Delaviridine

                                                                                                                                  NNRTI

                                                                                                                                  • Used in HAART for AIDSdefining illness
                                                                                                                                  • Bind to reverse transcriptase at site different from NRTIs. Do not require phosphorylation to be active or compete with nucleotides.
                                                                                                                                  • Raltegravir

                                                                                                                                    Integrase Inhibitors

                                                                                                                                    • Used in HAART for AIDSdefining illness
                                                                                                                                    • Inhibits HIV genome integration into host cell chromosome by reversibly inhibiting HIV integrase.
                                                                                                                                    • IFNalpha

                                                                                                                                      Antiviral

                                                                                                                                      • Chronic hepatitis B and C, Kaposi sarcoma, hairy cell leukemia, condyloma acumitum, rel cell carcinoma, malignt melanoma.
                                                                                                                                      • Glycoproteins normally synthesized by virusinfected cells, exhibiting a wide range of antiviral and antitumoral properties.
                                                                                                                                      • IFNbeta

                                                                                                                                        Antiviral

                                                                                                                                        • Multiple sclerosis.
                                                                                                                                        • Glycoproteins normally synthesized by virusinfected cells, exhibiting a wide range of antiviral and antitumoral properties.
                                                                                                                                        • IFNgamma

                                                                                                                                          Antiviral

                                                                                                                                          • Chronic granulomatous disease.
                                                                                                                                          • Glycoproteins normally synthesized by virusinfected cells, exhibiting a wide range of antiviral and antitumoral properties.
                                                                                                                                          • Cyclosporine

                                                                                                                                            Immunomodulator

                                                                                                                                            • Immunosuppressant in transplant patients
                                                                                                                                            • GVHD
                                                                                                                                            • Rheumatoid arthritis
                                                                                                                                            • Cyclosporine binds cyclophilin in T cells and this complex inhibits calcineurin > decreasing IL2 production > decreased T cell activation
                                                                                                                                            • Tacrolimus (FK506)

                                                                                                                                              Immunomodulator

                                                                                                                                              • Immunosuppressant in transplant patients
                                                                                                                                              • Tacrolimus binds FKBP12 and this complex inhibits calcineurin > decreasing IL2 production > decreased T cell activation
                                                                                                                                              • Sirolimus (Rapamycin)

                                                                                                                                                Immunomodulator

                                                                                                                                                • Immunosuppressant in transplant patients
                                                                                                                                                • Sirolimus binds FKBP12 and this complex inhibits mTOR > decreased T cell activation and production
                                                                                                                                                • MEDYMOLOGY