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MUCOSAL LESIONS
53 terms share this category
Acanthosis

A process in which the skin becomes "spine" like and hardened.

  • Acanthus (Greek) - Point, Thorn, Spine
  • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • A type of epidermal hyperplasia, or pathologic thickening of the skin
  • Associated with acanthosis nigricans, seen in obese people
  • Present in Median Rhomboid Glossitis, Candidiasis
  • Amyloid

    "Starch" like, abnormal fibrous protein aggregates produced in the bone marrow and deposited in any tissue or organ

    • Amylon (Greek) - Fine meal, Starch
  • Cause of the disease "amyloidosis" where amyloid proteins build in organs. Associated with Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Weirdly folded proteins
  • Blanch

    A temporary "whitening" of skin due to transient ischemia

    • Blanc (Old French) - White
  • In the mouth, blanching indicates dilated blood vessels, while extravasated blood will not blanch
  • Bruit

    The abnormal "noise" produced by turbulent blood flow.

    • Bruit (Old French) - Noise
  • Can be heard in arteries all throughout the body
  • Always auscult for a carotid bruit before palpating for pulse
  • Usually a gurgling sound of an vascular problem that can be detected by auscultation with a stethoscope
  • Particularly used to detect vascular problems with the TMJ
  • Bullae

    Fluid filled "bubble" or lesion that appear when fluid is trapped under a thin layer of skin

  • A blister that is more than 1cm in diameter
  • Carcinoma in situ

    A "cancer" "tumor" that is held "in its position/place"

    • Karkinos (Greek) - Cancer, crab
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
    • In situe (Latin) - In its place or position
  • A malignant new growth localized in the epithelium, showing no tendency of invasion or metastasize to other host tissues
  • Will show dysplastic epithelium and malignant cell transformation throughout the full length of the epithelium, but does not penetrate the basal epithelial layer
  • "Cancer in you" that hasn't spread to other areas in your body
  • Carcinoma in situ

    A "cancer" "tumor" that is held "in its position/place"

    • Karkinos (Greek) - Cancer, crab
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
    • In situe (Latin) - In its place or position
  • A malignant new growth localized in the epithelium, showing no tendency of invasion or metastasize to other host tissues
  • Will show dysplastic epithelium and malignant cell transformation throughout the full length of the epithelium, but does not penetrate the basal epithelial layer
  • "Cancer in you" that hasn't spread to other areas in your body
  • Choristoma

    A "mass" of normal cells "separated" from their normal location into a place where they would not normally be present.

    • Choristos (Greek) - Separated
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • A tumor consisting of normal tissue that is found in the wrong location
  • Different from hamartoma, which is a benign tumor of abnormallooking cells, but composed of cells normally found in that region
  • Desquamative gingivitis

    "Scaly" "gums" that easily peel "away" and "pertain to a disease" or "inflammation"

    • De (Latin) - Away, Off, Down
    • Squama (Latin) - Scale, scaly
    • Gingiva (Latin) - Gums
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • An erythematous, desquamates and ulcerated appearance of the gums
  • A descriptive term that can be caused by several different disorders, like MMP and Pemphigus Vulgaris
  • Extends beyond the marginal gingiva, sometimes involving alveolar mucosa
  • Often show + Nikolsky's sign
  • Looks similar to your skin peeling after getting a sunburn
  • Diascopy

    A test used to differentiate discolored lesions, it is performed by pressing a glass slide on the lesion, and seeing if there is blanching "seeing" a loss of color "through" the pressed slide.

    • Dia (Greek) - Through, completely
    • Skopein (Greek) - To look, see
  • Diascopy is used to determine if a discolored lesion is a vascular one (these lesions blanch and can be inflammatory or congenital), as opposed to a nonvascular or hemorrhagic lesion (do not blanch).
  • Epitelial atrophy

    "Upper" Layers of skin degenerate

    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Thele (Greek) - Nipple, teat
    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Trophe (Greek) - Food, Nourishment
    Epithelial dysplasia

    “Abnormal” “molding” of the “above” surface layer of tissue

    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Thele (Greek) - Nipple, teat
    • Dys (Greek) - Bad, Ill, Abnormal, Evil
    • Plasis (Greek) - Molding, Formation
  • A histological description of epithelial cells that are abnormal in appearance, especially in proliferation and differentiation
  • May be clinically described by leukoplakia or erythroplakia
  • Epithelial hyperkeratosis

    A “condition” in which “excess” material that also makes up animal “horns” in is made in the “above” surface layer of tissue

    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Thele (Greek) - Nipple, teat
    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Keras (Greek) - Horn
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Thickening of the stratum corneum layer with an increased production of keratin that can be benign or due to friction
  • Benign frictional hyperkeratosis
  • Epithelial hyperplasia

    An “excess” “formation” of the “above” surface layer of tissue

    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Thele (Greek) - Nipple, teat
    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Plasis (Greek) - Molding, Formation
  • A thickening of the epithelium due to an increased formation of epithelial cells
  • Epithelial necrosis

    A “condition” in which there is “death” in the “above” surface layer of tissue

    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Thele (Greek) - Nipple, teat
    • Necro (Greek) - Dead Body
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Death of epithelial cells that may be due to infection of hypoxia
  • Epulis

    A benign tumor "on" the "gum"

    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Oulon (Greek) - Gum
  • Three forms exist: fibromatous, ossifying and acanthomatous
  • Describes only the location of the mass
  • Fibrinopurulent membrane

    A "skin" which covers certain lesions, such as ulcers, is "fibrous" (contains fibrin) and "festers" (contains pus).

    • Fibra (Latin) - A fiber, filament, entrail
    • Membrana (Greek) - A skin, parchment
  • Apthous ulcers and traumatic ulcers are two examples of oral lesions which exhibit a fibrinopurulent membrane
  • Fibrinous exudate

    Liquid "exuding" or "oozing" from a lesion, which contains mostly "fiber" (fibrinogen, fibrin)

    • Fibra (Latin) - A fiber, filament, entrail
    • Exsudare (Latin) - To Exhude
  • Fibrinous exudate contains mostly fibrin/fibrinogen, and appears cloudy. This is in contrast to other forms of exudate, such as hemorrhagic, which appears red.
  • Fistula

    Aberrant "pipe" or connection between two internal structures.

  • Caused by tissue damage. Allows for the discharge of inflammatory or suppurative material
  • Can be pathologic or therapeutic
  • Frank ulceration

    A "free" "sore" that represents a break in surface continuity due to loss of full thickness of surface epithelium, thereby exposing underlying connective tissue.

    • Francus (Latin) - Free, at liberty, exempt from service
    • Ulcus (Latin) - A sore, ulcer
  • The exposed connective tissue is often coated by a white or yellow membrane.
  • Granulation tissue

    A "granule" or localized tissue composed of a "belt of woven material"

  • New connective tissue and tiny blood vessels that are "woven" together and form on the surfaces of a wound during the healing process
  • Typically grows from the base of a wound
  • Typically fills the entire wound
  • Clinically, its color and texture looks like the inside of a watermelon
  • Heamartoma

    A disorganized "tumor" of nonmalignant cells, resulting from "faulty" development.

    • Hamartia (Greek) - Sin, pity, crime
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • While the growth can be disfiguring or impinge on normal structures, the tissue itself is normal (cells have normal growth pattern) and is located where the tissue normally grows (normal location).
  • An example is a hemangioma
  • Hyperkeratosis

    "Disease" resulting in an "excess horny" layer of the skin.

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Keras (Greek) - Horn
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Thickening of the outermost layer of the epidermis (stratum corneum)
  • Often associated with an abnormal increase in the amount of keratin
  • Associated with psoriasis, calluses, and verrucae
  • Literally "excess horny tissue disease." Horny tissue is keratin, which is found in skin.
  • Hypertrophy

    Growth of tissues due to “excess” “nourishment” of cells

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Trophe (Greek) - Food, Nourishment
  • Seen in congenital pyloric stenosis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, peptic ulcer disease (hypertrophy of Brunner glands), Menetrier disease (gastric hypertrophy), Gardener syndrome (congenital hypertrophy of retinal pigment epithelium), weight training (hypertrophy of muscle), asthma (hypertrophy of smooth muscle)
  • Koilocyte

    Ballooned epithelial cell due to cytoplasmic vacuolization, with nuclear pyknosis, seen in viral infections.

    • Koilos (Greek) - Hollow
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    Lentigines

    A “freckle” that is shaped like a “lentil”

  • A pigmented lesion that represents the benign proliferation of melanocytes
  • Leukoplakia

    A "white" "plate" or patch found on the mucous membrane of the oral cavity

  • EBV is associated with oral leukoplakia
  • Occurs more commonly in smokers
  • Etiology is believed to be from chronic irritation, although exact cause is unknown
  • Cannot be scraped off
  • Mass

    A “lump” or tumor

    • Masse (Old French) - Lump, heap, pile, crowd, large amount, ingot, bar
  • This may refer to a proliferation of tissue that can be benign, like a mucocele, or malignant, like SCC
  • Masticatory mucosalami propria

    A general term that refers to the “proper” “thin slice” of tissue covered in “slime” or mucous that borders the “teeth”

  • See masticatory mucosa
  • Melanotic macules

    "Dark/black" "spots" on the skin

    • Melas (Greek) - Dark, black, murky
    • Macula (Latin) - Spot, stain
  • Usually present as benign multiple dark spots on the skin, lip (most commonly), or inside the mouth on the gingiva or other oral mucosa
  • Linked with certain syndromes, such as, Neurofibromatosis, PeutzJeghers, and McCuneAlbright syndrome
  • Also appear in Addison's Disease, smoking, medication use, autoimmune mucocutaneous disorders and physiological/racial melanosis
  • May look like freckles on someone's lip
  • Melanotic macules

    "Dark/black" "spots" on the skin

    • Melas (Greek) - Dark, black, murky
    • Macula (Latin) - Spot, stain
  • Usually present as benign multiple dark spots on the skin, lip (most commonly), or inside the mouth on the gingiva or other oral mucosa
  • Linked with certain syndromes, such as, Neurofibromatosis, PeutzJeghers, and McCuneAlbright syndrome
  • Also appear in Addison's Disease, smoking, medication use, autoimmune mucocutaneous disorders and physiological/racial melanosis
  • May look like freckles on someone's lip
  • Multilocular

    A radiographic appearance of a lesions that have “many” “positions”

    • Multus (Latin) - Much, many
    • Locus (Latin) - A place, spot, position
  • Multilocular radiolucencies usually include the differential diagnosis of ameloblastoma and KCOT
  • Neoplasm

    A "new" appearing "shape/mold" on the body

    • Neos (Greek) - New, young, youthful
    • Plasm (Greek) - Mold, shape
  • An abnormal growth of tissue
  • Classified into four main groups benign neoplasms, in situ neoplasms, malignant neoplasms (aka cancer), and neoplasms of uncertain or unknown behavior
  • Often cells undergo an abnormal pattern of growth, such as metaplasia or dysplasia, prior to abnormal neoplastic growth
  • When it forms into a mass, it is commonly referred to as a tumor or tumour
  • Nevomelanocytic nevi

    A "dark" colored "birth mark"

    • Naevus (Latin) - Birthmark related to tus, birth
    • Melas (Greek) - Dark, black, murky
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Benign proliferation of melanocytes
  • Brown to black in color
  • Very common
  • Almost all adults have at least one, usually more
  • May be congenital or acquired (usually at puberty)
  • These are those dark colored birthmarks you may have noticed on your body
  • Nevus

    "Birthmark"

    • Naevus (Latin) - Birthmark related to tus, birth
  • Nevi can occur due to an overgrowth of melanocytes, keratinocytes, blood vessels, or connective tissue, causing an irregular area on the skin.
  • Papule

    A small "swelling" of the skin

    • Papula (Latin) - Pimple, swelling, pustule
  • A small, solid, usually inflammatory raised skin lesion less than 1 cm in diameter
  • Does not contain pus
  • May be pedunculated, sessile, or filiform
  • Patch

    A condition where "a portion" of the skin is abnormal

    • Piece (Old French) - A portion of
  • A patch describes lesions which are circumscribed, flat, and greater than 5mm in diameter
  • Macule greater than 1 cm
  • Compare to macules, which are circumscribed, flat, and 5mm or smaller in diameter
  • Petechiae

    A “spot” or “freckle” resulting from a broken blood vessels

  • Differentiated from purpura by its size
  • Petechiae are by definition smaller than 3mm
  • Petechial rash is characteristic of Neisseria meningitidis infection
  • Petechial rash on the chest is found in fat embolization
  • May be a sign of thrombocytopenia(DIC, etc.)
  • Associated with vasculitis
  • Pseudocysts

    A "fake" "anatomical pouch or sac" not lined by epithelium

    • Pseudein (Greek) - To deceive, cheat by lies, fake
    • Kustis (Greek) - Bladder, atomical pouch or sac
  • An abnormal or dilated space resembling a cyst but not lined with epithelium
  • Usually lined with granulation tissue or connective tissue
  • These are 'fake cysts' since they are not lined by epithelium
  • Psuedoepitheliomatous hyperplasia

    "Overformation" (hyperplasia) of epithelial cells, which "deceptively" resembles squamous cell carcinoma

    • Pseudein (Greek) - To deceive, cheat by lies, fake
    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Thele (Greek) - Nipple, teat
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Plasis (Greek) - Molding, Formation
  • This type of hyperplasia results from chronic inflammation and resembles squamous cell carcinoma on histology however, there is no cellular dysplasia
  • Radiolucent

    A radiographic term used to describe a lesion that is transparent to Xrays.

  • Many periapical pathologies and pathologies of the jaw represent as this.
  • Radiolucent appears as the dark areas on the radiograph
  • Radiopaque

    A radiographic term used to describe a lesion that is blocks radiations.

  • Many periapical pathologies and pathologies of the jaw represent as this.
  • Appears white on radiograph
  • Sequestrum

    A piece of necrotic bone which has separated from sound bone. The bacteria in this piece of bone are "kept safe" from antibiotics travelling through the bloodstream, since there is no blood supply to this bone.

  • Sequestrum formation is a sequela of osteomyelitis (bone infection) and often requires excision to remove the infection
  • Sessile

    Describes polyps which are "seated" on the mucous membrane

  • Sessile is used to describe a polyp which is attached to the mucous membrane, but not via a stalk. In contrast, polyps which project off the membrane with a stalk are called "pedunculated"
  • Sinus tract

    A arrow and "hollow" elongated channel "in the body" that allows the escape of fluid.

    • Sinus (Latin) - Bend, fold, curve, a bent surface; a bay, bight, gulf; a fold in land; hollow curve or cavity in the body
    • Trahere (Latin) - To draw
    Telangiectasia

    "Dilation" of the "ends" of blood "vessels"

    • Telos (Greek) - The end
    • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
    • Ektasis (Greek) - A Stretching Out, Extension, Dilation
  • Abnormal dilation of preexisting capillary vessels
  • Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia is a hereditary form that may appear intraorally
  • AKA spider viens due to their appearence
  • These may sometimes look like arteries in the shape of 'spiders'
  • Teratoma

    A "monstrous mass"

    • Terato (Greek) - Marvel, monster
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Teratomas are tumors formed from the three germ cell layers, and are "monstrous" because they can contain recognizable tissues normally found in other parts of the body. For example, an ovarian teratoma occurs in the ovary but may contain teeth and hair.
  • Tumor

    A mass or “swelling”.

  • Presents as a large mass that may be benign or malignant
  • As one of the cardinal signs of inflammation, tumor simply means swelling. In other cases, tumor is an abnormal growth of tissue.
  • One of the 5 classic signs of inflammation, along with rubor, dolor, calor, and functio laesa
  • Ulcer

    A “sore” that appears when a lesion lacks an epithelial covering

    • Ulcus (Latin) - A sore, ulcer
  • Some differential diagnosis for ulcers include apthous, traumatic ulcer, eosinophilic ulcer, squamous cell carcinoma, deep fungal infection, gumma, or necrotizing sialometaplasia depending on the clinical appearance and history

  • Mnemonics
    Think layers of tissue for staging! - Some are Fat, Most are Bone
    Stages of Ulcerations
    Stage 1- Skin layer involvement, Stage 2- Fat layer involvement Stage 3- Muscle layer Involvement Stage 4- Bone layer involvment
    Unilocular

    A radiographic appearance of a lesions that has just “one” “position”

    • Uni (Latin) - One
    • Locus (Latin) - A place, spot, position
  • Unilocular radiolucencies usually include the differential diagnosis of dentigerous cyst, lateral periodontal cyst, residual cyst, etc.
  • Vascular swellings

    A "swollen" "small vessel" typically on the skin or oral mucosa

  • Blood vessels that appear swollen or enlarged
  • Verrucous

    Description of a lesions that looks like "a wart"

  • A lesion covered with wartlike or rough/bumpy projections
  • Vesicle

    A tiny "bladder" typically found on the skin or oral mucosa

  • A well circumscribed, epidermal elevation containing fluid or air
  • Usually appears less than 510mm in diameter
  • Linked with certain viral diseases, such as Herpes Zoster
  • MEDYMOLOGY