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IMMUNOLOGY
162 terms share this category
Abscess

A collection of pus thought to "carry" "away" dead, infected tissue.

  • A collection of pus that has accumulated within a tissue
  • Common seen at the site of infection, many times on the skin or within internal body cavities
  • Often times associated with redness, warmth and pus drainage
  • Acute

    To come to a point quickly or "to sharpen" when relating to the onset of something.

    • Acuere (Latin) - To Sharpen, sharply onset
    Adenosine deaminase

    Enzyme that converts adenosine to inosine during purine metabolism

    • Adenosine (English) - Blend of Adenine and Ribose
    • De (Latin) - Away, Off, Down
    • Amine (English) - Compound in which one of the hydrogens of ammonia is replaced by a hydrocarbon radical
  • Adenosine deaminase deficiency is a major cause of severe combined immunodeficiency
  • Cladribine is a treatment for hairy cell leukemia that inhibits adenosine deaminase
  • Albinism

    A condition in which a person is "white".

  • A congenital disorder characterized by a lack of pigment (melanin) in the skin, hair, and eyes causing the person to appear completely white.
  • Autosomal Recessive disease
  • A problem with the production of melanin
  • Defect in the enzyme Tyrosine
  • Many people affected by albinism are persecuted around the world. In Tanzania and Burundi, there has been a rise in albinorelated killings due to use of their body parts in potions created by witchdoctors.
  • Albumin

    The protein in the blood responsible for maintaining oncotic pressure. med for the "white part of an egg" that maintains most of the volume and size of the embryo.

  • Key protein of blood plasma which functions to regulate the colloidal osmotic pressure and serve as carriers for molecules with low blood solubility
  • Decreased albumin in plasma can indicate kidney or liver damage.
  • It is the most abundant protein in human serum and was first discovered in 1500 by Paracelsus
  • Allograft

    The transplant of tissue from a donor to some "other" recipient of the same species. Graphein refers to the "stylus" or surgical instrument used originally to transplant tissue.

  • Transplant between two members of one species i.e. human to human
  • One of the first successful modern transplants was a thyroid transplant done in 1883 by Swiss surgeon Theodore Kocher
  • Anaphylactic hypersensitivity

    When there is an "over" exaggerated "sensation" or reaction by the body in attempts to "guard" itself from reexposure to a perceived toxic substance "again".

    • Ana (Greek) - Again, on, upon
    • Phulaxis (Greek) - Precautiory, To guard or ward off
    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Sensitivus (Medieval Latin) - Capable of sensation
  • An allergic reaction in which the patient experiences widespread swelling, hives, itchiness, injected conjunctiva and running nose
  • Widespread degranulation of mast cells releasing histamine
  • Can lead to death if not addressed immediately
  • Treat right away with epinephrine in order to keep the airway patent
  • Often times associated with bee stings or the ingestion of peanuts if one is allergic to either.

  • Mnemonics
    ACID
    Hypersensitivity Reactions
    From I-IV: Anaphylactic, Cytotoxic, Immune Complex, Delayed
    The ABCDEs of Melanoma
    Moles: signs of trouble
    Asymmetry, Border irregular, Colour irregular, Diameter usually > 0.5 cm, Elevation irregular

    MedyQuestion
    • A 25-year-old man is brought to the emergency department 20 minutes after being stung by several bees.. He is altered and is struggling to breathe. His temperature is 100.9°F, pulse is 117/min, respirations are 30/min, and blood pressure is 85/43 mm Hg. Physical examination shows prolonged capillary refill. There are several red, raised, marks on the back and 2+ pitting edema of the ankles. In addition to the administration of 0.9% saline, the most appropriate next step in management is administration of what?

    USMLE Step 1

    Anaphylotoxin

    Pieces of complement activated during the complement cascade responsible for attracting and triggering degranulation of mast cells and phagocytic cells as part of an immune response.

    • Ana (Greek) - Again, on, upon
    • Phulaxis (Greek) - Precautiory, To guard or ward off
    • Toxikon (Greek) - Poison
  • C3A, C4A, C5A
  • Cause allergic like responses including increased vessel permeability, smooth muscle contraction, and attraction of white blood cells
  • Anemia

    Being "without" "blood".

    • An (Greek) - Without, not
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Microcytic, Megaloblastic, Iron Deficiency and Chronic Disease are major types of anemia and are characterized by lower than normal hemoglobin levels
  • During all of human history, blood has been revered as man's life force and has been treated with such severance going back to the Jews who would drain it from animals before eating, or the romans who would drink the blood of their vanquished foes to gain their strength.
  • Anergy

    When Tcells are "without" energy", or turned off due to inappropriate activation.

    • An (Greek) - Without, not
    • Ergon (Greek) - Activity, Work
  • T cells require a costimulatory signal in order to activate, otherwise they remain in a frozen active state
  • Part of self tolerance in which the immune system can select for WBCs that recognize self properly.
  • Antigenpresenting cell

    A type of "cell" that "shows or presents" "origins" of molecules from substances that act "against" the body to the immune system.

    • Anti (Greek) - Against, opposite, opposed to
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
    • Praesentare (Latin) - To place before
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Dendritic cells, Macrophages, B cells
  • Apoptosis

    The process of programmed cell death in which blebs of the cell "fall" "away" from the main body of the cell until demise.

    • Apo (Greek) - From, away from
    • Ptosis (Greek) - Falling, a fall
  • Biochemical events lead to characteristic cell changes (morphology) and death. These changes include blobbing, cell shrinkage, nuclear fragmentation, chromatin condensation, and chromosomal D fragmentation
  • Also used to refer to the falling off of the petals of the flower, or leaves from a tree
  • During programmed cell death, blobbing occurs and it's as if small pieces of the cell are falling off the main body

  • MedyQuestion
    • A young doctor banner, more commonly known as the Hulk, accidentally receives a high-power, dosage of ionizing radiation.. He is found dead in his home 1 week later. Autopsy examination of the skin reveals scattered, single epidermal cells, shrunken cytoplasm with eosinophilia and pyknotic, nuclei in fragments. These changes are most likely due to which process?

    USMLE Step 1

    Arthus reaction

    Local Type III hypersensitivity reaction (deposition of AntigenAntibody complex) following intradermal injection of antigen (ex: tetanus vaccine).

    • Presents as: edema, necrosis and activation of complement
    • Can occur
    • Discovered by Nicolas Maurice Arthus in 1903, Arthus repeatedly injected horse serum subcutaneously into rabbits. After four injections, he found that there was edema and that the serum was absorbed slowly and further injections eventually led to gangrene
    • Ataxiatelangiectasia

      An inherited condition in which a person becomes "without" an "ordered" or balanced gait, and develops small "dilations" at "the end" of "blood vessels" within the skin.

      • A (Greek) - Not, Without
      • Taxis (Greek) - Arrangement, order
      • Telos (Greek) - The end
      • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
      • Ektasis (Greek) - A Stretching Out, Extension, Dilation
    • Presentation: triad f cerebellar defects, spider angiomas, IgA deficiency (repeated sinopulmonary infections)
    • Weak immune system leads to predisposition to infection and increased risk of cancer due to defective D repair system
    • Atherosclerosis

      A "hardening" of the "arteries" that are "on the inside".

      • Athere (Greek) - Groats, referring to what's on the inside
      • Skleroun (Greek) - To Harden
    • Intimal plaques obstruct blood flow
    • Abdominal aorta most commonly affected
    • Rupture of plaques can cause myocardial infarction
    • Atopic

      The process in which there is an "out" of "place" reaction.

      • A (Greek) - Not, Without
      • Topos (Greek) - Place
    • Characterized by excessive IgE mediated reaction
    • Examples of atopic reactions: rhinitis, hay fever, eczema hives, asthma
    • Autograft

      A transplantation of tissue from "one's own self" to themselves. The med graft comes from the original "stylus" instrument used to perform the transplants.

    • Graft: a piece of living tissue that is transplanted surgically
    • Autoimmune

      A process by which the system that keeps the body "exempt from disease" attacks "one's own self" or body.

      • Auto (Greek) - Self, one's own
      • Immunis (Latin) - Free, exempt
    • Examples of Autoimmune diseases: Celiac disease, diabetes mellitus type 1, Sarcoidosis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjögren's syndrome, ChurgStrauss Syndrome, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Graves' disease, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, Addison's Disease, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), polymyositis (PM), and Dermatomyositis (DM)
    • Autosomaldominant hyperIgE syndrome (Job syndrome)

      Immune disease due to a mutation in Th17 cell leading to impaired recruitment of neutrophils to sites of infection, allowing for opportunistic infections.

      • Auto (Greek) - Self, one's own
      • Soma (Greek) - Body
      • Domint (Latin) - Ruling
      • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
      • Immunis (Latin) - Free, exempt
      • Globus (Latin) - Sphere, globe
      • Syn (Greek) - With, together
      • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
    • Presentation: FATED: course Facies, noninflamed staphylococcal Abscess, retained primary Teeth, increased IgE, Dermatologic problems (eczema)
    • The disease is med after the biblical character Job, whose body was covered with boils by Satan
    • Bronchiectasis

      The permanent "dilation or stretching out" of the windpipe.

      • Bronkhos (Greek) - Windpipe, throat
      • Ektasis (Greek) - A Stretching Out, Extension, Dilation
    • Symptoms include chronic cough, shortness of breath, coughing up blood, foul smelling sputum and recurrent lung infections
    • Causes include cystic fibrosis, Kartagener syndrome, airway obstruction, necrotizing infection, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
    • The inventor of the stethoscope, Rene Laennec, used his invention to first discover this disease in 1819.
    • Bronchiolitis obliterans

      An "inflammation" of the lungs and "windpipe" caused by the "blotting out" or destruction of transplanted lung tissue by the immune system.

      • Bronkhos (Greek) - Windpipe, throat
      • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
      • Obliterare (Latin) - Cause to disappear, blot out, erase
    • Obstructive lung disease caused by chronic rejection of a lung transplant
    • Affects the bronchioles, first there is inflammation and necrosis of the bronchiolar walls followed by fibrous, purulent exudate and granulation tissue in the lumen that is later replaced by connective tissue
    • Creactive protein

      A protein produced by the liver that increases in concentration in response to inflammation

      • React (Medieval Latin) - Done again
      • Protos (Greek) - First
    • Acute phase reactant, used diagnostically as an inflammatory marker
    • Calcineurin

      Protein phosphatase that activates T cells.

      • Activates a transcription factor, nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), which goes into the nucleus and increases production of interleukin2 which stimulates growth and maturation of T cells
      • Inhibited by cyclosporine and tacrolimus
      • Activated by increased levels of calcium in the cytoplasm
      • Catalase

        An "enzyme" that breaks down or "dissolves" hydrogen peroxide into oxygen and water.

      • Obligate aerobes lack catalase
      • Catalase positive organisms include Pseudopods, Listeria, Aspergillus, Candida, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Serratia. Mnemonic: You need PLACESSS for your CATs people with chronic granulomatous disease have recurrent infections with these organisms
      • Cataract

        Painless clouding of the lens that leads to decrease in vision; the white opacities resemble the bottom of a "waterfall"

        • Katarhaktes (Greek) - Waterfall, broken water; a kindof portcullis
      • Most commonly due to aging
      • Seen in congenital rubella along with patent ductus arteriosus and deafness
      • Large amounts of galactitol in galactosis deficiency
      • Classic galactosemia, galactosis deficiency, diabetes, sorbitol, chronic steroid use
      • Cellular immunity

        Specialized cells that allow the body to stay "free from disease."

        • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
        • Immunis (Latin) - Free, exempt
      • Phagocytes, cytotoxic T cells, cytokines, helper T cells, apoptosis, macrophages, natural killer cells, virusinfected cells
      • Hat doesn't involve antibodies, but involves the activation of phagocytes, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and cytokine release in response to an antigen
      • Chemokine

        A small protein that uses "chemicals" to direct "movement" of other substances or cells.

        • Chemic (Medieval Latin) - Of Alchemy, relation to chemical action or chemicals
        • Kinein (Greek) - Motion, to move
      • (Cytokine) that can induce directed chemotaxis in nearby responsive cells
      • Can be considered proinflammatory when they are induced to recruit cells to the site of infection or homeostatic when they control normal cell migration during development.
      • Exert biological effect by interacting with Gprotein transmembrane receptors (chemokine receptors) on surfaces of target cells
      • Chemotaxis

        "Arrangement" or "movement" of an organism or cell in response to a "chemical" stimulus.

        • Chemic (Medieval Latin) - Of Alchemy, relation to chemical action or chemicals
        • Taxis (Greek) - Arrangement, order
      • Movement, chemical stimulus
      • Positive chemotaxis: movement is toward a higher concentration of the chemical, Negative chemotaxis: movement is in the opposite direction
      • Chronic

        Any disease that persists over "time".

      • Longlasting, disease
      • Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis

        A "condition" of the "skin" and "slimy" surfaces caused by "white" fungi lasting a long "time"

        • Khronikos (Greek) - Of time, concerning time
        • Mucus (Latin) - Slime, mold, snot
        • Cutis (Latin) - Skin
        • Candidus (Latin) - White
        • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
      • Hereditary, immunodeficiency, cellmediated immunity disorder, T cell, Candida
      • Hereditary immunodeficiency characterized by chronic infections with Candida (usually C. albicans) limited to mucosal surfaces, skin, and cells due to impaired cellmediated immunity (T cells)
      • Chronic infections with Candida that are limited to mucosal surfaces, skin, and nails
      • In infants, the first symptoms are thrush and diaper rash that may eventually lead to a thick, oozing disfiguring rash that covers the face and scalp, causing hair to fall out.
      • Coagulation

        A process, similar to "curdling," in which a liquid (such as blood) changes into a gellike or semi solid consistency.

      • Aka clotting, stop blood loss, hemostasis, repair, platelet, fibrin, coagulation factor
      • Platelets and coagulation factors are involved in the creation of a hemodynamic plug that results in the cessation of blood loss and is followed by repair
      • The process of coagulation involves activation, adhesion, and aggregation of platelets, followed by deposition and maturation of fibrin. Disorders of coagulation can result in diseases with excessive bleeding (hemorrhage or bruising) or obstructive clotting (thrombosis).
      • Common variable immunodeficiency

        An immune dysfunction in which both B and T cells are affected differently normal B cell number but defunct gamma globulins, and variably affected CD4+ and CD8+ cells.

        • Communis (Latin) - In Common, Shared by all or many, Familiar, Not Specific
        • Variare (Latin) - To change
        • Immunis (Latin) - Free, exempt
        • Deficere (Latin) - To Desert, Revolt, Fail
      • CVID, hypogammaglobulinemia, antibodies, bacterial, viral, parasitic, infection
      • Most commonly encountered primary immunodeficiency that is characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia (where the patient doesn't produce enough antibodies in response to a pathogen) causing the immune system to fail to protect the patient against bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections, thus increasing susceptibility to illnesses.
      • CVID, usually diagnosed in adulthood, has normal B cell numbers with deficient antibody production, as opposed to severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), diagnosed in infancy, which has deficient numbers of B and T cells.
      • Complement

        Part of the immune system med because it "fills up" or completes the immune system response.

      • Part of the innate immune system that helps antibodies and phagocytic cells clear pathogens using small proteins that initiate an amplification cascade of further cleavages that ultimately results in amplification of the immune response and activation of cellkilling membrane attack complexes (MAC)
      • In the 19th century, Hans Buchner found that serum contains a factor capable of killing bacteria. It was later shown that this factor had 2 components, a heatstabile component, which had specific antimicrobial activity even after being heated, and a heatsensitive component that had nonspecific antimicrobial activity that stopped after being heated. This heatsensitive component is what we now call complement, earlier known as alexine. In the 20th century, it was discovered that complement can act in combination with specific antibodies, or on its own in a nonspecific way.
      • Conotruncal abnormalities

        A group of congenital heart defects "departing from the normal" that result from malformations in the "cone" like "trunk"structure that ultimately gives rise to the outflow tracts of the heart.

        • Conus (Latin) - Cone
        • Truncus (Latin) - Trunk of a tree, trunk of the body
        • Abnormis (Latin) - Departing From Normal
      • Congenital, outflow tracts, cyanotic
      • Group of congenital heart defects resulting from malformations of the outflow tracts of the heart or impaired development of the branchial arches and arteries
      • They are a major cause of symptomatic cyanotic cardiac disease diagnosed in utero via ultrasound.
      • Due to parallel fetal circulation, these defects are well tolerated in utero, however, patients present with acute hypoxia within a few days of birth. Examples of conotruncal heart defects include: Tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of great vessels, truncus arteriosus, interrupted aortic arch, double outlet right (or left) ventricle.
      • Cyclophilin

        A group of "circular" proteins that "love" to bind to cyclosporine, an immunosuppressant that use usually used in transplant procedures to suppress rejection of an transplanted organ.

      • Cyclosporine, transplant rejection prevention
      • Cytokine

        A group of molecules signaling "cells" to "move" from one location to another.

        • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
        • Kinein (Greek) - Motion, to move
      • Inflammation
      • Cell signaling
      • Fighting infection
      • A group of small proteins that are involved in cell signaling. They include chemokines, interferons, interleukins, and others. They act through receptors and are important in fighting infections, and in mediating inflammation, trauma, and sepsis.
      • Cytoskeleton

        A set of proteins giving the "cell" structure.

        • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
        • Skeletos (Greek) - Dried up
      • Cellular skeleton
      • Microfilaments
      • Microtubules
      • The cellular skeleton contained within the cytoplasm of a cell. It is made of three different protein filaments microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules.
      • Cytotoxic Tlymphocyte

        A type of T cell that "kills" other infected cells, and resides in "waterlike" lymphatic system (lymph is clear fluid), derived from the "thymus".

        • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
        • Toxikon (Greek) - Poison
        • Thumos (Greek) - Excrescence like a thyme bud, thymus gland
        • Lympha (Latin) - Water, clear water, a goddess of water
      • Killer Tcell
      • CD8+
      • Perforin
      • Granzymes
      • A subset of T lymphocytes that express CD8 receptors and directly kills infected cells via the release of perforin and granzymes.

      • Mnemonics
        Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas
        The concentrations of the various immune cell types
        Neutrophils (the most), Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Erythrocytes, Basophils (least)
        Cytotoxicdependent hypersensitivity

        • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
        • Toxikon (Greek) - Poison
        • Dependant (Middle English) - Hanging Down
        • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
        • Sensitivus (Medieval Latin) - Capable of sensation
      • Cytotoxic hypersensitivity
      • IgG
      • Ab against cell
      • Antibodies directed against cell surface antigens leading to destruction via complement activation or ADCC. IgG mediated. Examples include blood transfusions and autoimmune hemolytic anemia.
      • Decayaccelerating factor

        A protein that "speeds up" the "destruction" of cells attacked by the complement system.

      • DAF
      • Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
      • GPIanchored protein
      • Complement mediated hemolysis
      • A membrane protein that interacts with C4b and C3b and interferes with the activation of the complement system. Since DAF is a GPI anchored protein, decreased levels of GPI (as seen in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria) leads to complement mediated hemolysis.
      • Defensin

        A protein involved in "protecting" the body from pathogens.

      • Small cysteine rich cationic proteins
      • Protection
      • Host
      • Bacteria
      • Fungi
      • Viruses
      • Neutrophilic granulocytes
      • Defensins are small cysteine rich cationic proteins that function to protect the host from other agents such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses. They can be found in neutrophilic granulocytes.
      • Delayedtype hypersensitivity

        A type IV sensitivity response which takes 34 days to occur.

        • De (Latin) - Away, Off, Down
        • Laier (Old French) - Leave
        • Tupos (Greek) - Impression
        • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
        • Sensitivus (Medieval Latin) - Capable of sensation
      • Type 4 hypersensitivity
      • Cell mediated response
      • CD4+ helper Tcell
      • CD8+ Tcell
      • Type 4 hypersensitivity which takes two to three days to occur. This is a cell mediated response.
      • Ectopic pregnancy

        The implantation of the fetus at a location that is "out" of "place", i.e. not in the uterus.

        • Ek (Greek) - Out
        • Topos (Greek) - Place
        • Praegnans (English) - With child, before birth
      • Commonly occurs in the fallopian tubes. Can lead to bleeding, pain, and lifethreatening complications.
      • Endothelium

        The "inner" most layer of flat cells that lines blood vessels and lymphatic vessels.

        • Endon (Greek) - Within, Inside, Interl
        • Thele (Greek) - Nipple, teat
      • Blood vessels
      • Lymphatics
      • Inner layer
      • Flat cells
      • Enterococcus

        Gram positive "spherical bacterium" that live in the human "intestine."

        • Enteron (Greek) - Intestine, Small intestint, Piece of Gut, Bowel
        • Coccus (Latin) - Berry shaped, spherical
      • Gram positive organisms that can tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions
      • The two main subsets are E. faecalis and E. faecium
      • Bacteria
      • Gram positive
      • Cocci
      • Lactic acid
      • Facultative aerobes
      • E. faecalis
      • E. faecium
      • Eosinopenia

        A condition in which there is a "lack" of expected immune cells, med for their "dawn", or pinkred color.

        • Eos (Greek) - Dawn
        • Penia (Latin) - Deficiency, a lack
      • Common in agranulocytosis
      • Can be induced by stress or steroid use
      • Erythropoiesis

        Process "to make" "red" blood cells.

      • Stimulated by release of erythropoietin from kidneys in response to decreased oxygen in circulation
      • Femur

        Only bone in the "thigh."

      • Proximal fracture may be called a hip fracture
      • Fibrin

        "Fibrous" blood clotting protein.

        • Fibra (Latin) - A fiber, filament, entrail
      • Activated from fibrinogen by thrombin
      • Also known as Factor Ia
      • Genitofemoral nerve

        A "cord" which carries sensory and motor information from the "thigh" and the "external organs" "pertaining to birth"

        • Genitalis (Latin) - Pertaining to generation or birth, Exterl sexual organs
        • Femur (Latin) - Thigh, but applide to the one of the upper leg
        • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
      • Controls the cremasteric reflex
      • Composed of L1L2 of the lumbar plexus
      • Sensation of the upper anterior thigh and scrotum
      • The me of this nerve comes from its terminal branches, the genital nerve that innervates the cremasteric reflex, and the femoral nerve that supplies sensory innervation to the anterior thigh.
      • Glomerulonephritis

        "Inflammation" of the "balllike structure", or small vessels of the "kidneys".

        • Glomus (Latin) - Ballshaped mass
        • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
        • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
      • Leads to blood and/or excess protein in the urine.
      • Glucagon

        Metabolic hormone released by the alpha cells of the pancreas involved in "bringing" "sweet wine" or sugar, into the blood.

        • Glykys (Greek) - Sweet, sweet wine
        • Agon (Greek) - Leading, Bringing
      • Stimulates gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis, lipolysis, ketogenesis
      • Acts via a cAMP pathway
      • Gracilis

        "Slender" thigh muscle of the leg.

        • Gracilis (Latin) - Slender, thing, fine; plain, simple
      • Adducts, medially rotates, and flexes the hip and flexes the knee
      • Innervated by the obturator nerve
      • This muscle can be used to repair muscles in your hand.
      • Granulocyte

        A group of white blood "cells" that look like they contain "seeds," or granules, within their cytoplasm

        • Granum (Latin) - Grain, seed
        • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
      • Granulocytes include neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
      • Granules contain different types of enzymes specific for each type
      • Granulomatous

        A term that means characterized by "seedlike" "masses".

        • Granum (Latin) - Grain, seed
        • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
        Heliotrope rash

        A purple rash commonly on eyelids that may be pruritic; the color resembles that of the Heliotropium genus of flowers, which "turn" to the "sun"

        • Helios (Greek) - Sun
        • Trope (Greek) - A turn, direction, course, way; manner, fashion
      • Associated with dermatomyositis
      • Raccoon eyes
      • Hemochromatosis

        "Disease" caused by the accumulation of iron in the body causing skin to become "blood" "colored"

        • Haima (Greek) - Blood
        • Chromo (Greek) - Color
        • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
      • Clinical triad of cirrhosis, diabetes, and skin pigmentation
      • Bronze diabetic
      • Associated with a HFE gene mutation and HLAA3
      • Treated with deferoxamine
      • Lab values show increased ferritin, increased serum iron, decreased TIBC, and increased transferrin saturation
      • Hepadnavirus

        A "toxic substance" with "DNA" genetic material that infects the "liver."

        • Hepatos (Greek) - Liver
        • Virus (Latin) - Poison, poisonous substance
      • Enveloped
      • Icosahedral
      • Double-stranded, partially circular DNA
      • May be chronic or acute
      • Transmitted primarily sexually
      • The name is derived literally from this class being a DNA virus that infects the liver, hence Hepa-DNA virus. A quick and easy way to remember the genetic material within these viruses.
      • Hepatomegaly

        "Abnormal enlargement" of the "liver."

      • Presents as RUQ pain
      • May be due to due to infectious, neoplastic, cirrhotic, metabolic, toxic, or congenital processes
      • Hepatosplenomegaly

        "Abnormal enlargement" of the "liver" an "spleen."

        • Hepatos (Greek) - Liver
        • Splen (Greek) - The milt, spleen
        • Megas (Greek) - Great, large, vast
      • Presents as upper abdominal pain
      • Associated with a number of conditions, including histoplasmosis, viral hepatitis, and mononucleosis.
      • HER2 (EGFR)

        Protein receptor that, when activated, becomes an overexpressed oncogene for aggressive breast cancers

        • Targeted by trastuzumab
        • Hippocampus

          Component of the limbic system in that brain that resembles a "sea horse"

        • Plays a role in memory, emotion, olfaction, behaviors, and the autonomic nervous system
        • Lesion leads to the inability to make new memories
        • Humor

          Mature defense mechanism in which a patient's mental disposition was thought to be an imbalance in the "moist" fluids that composed the body; this mental disposition involves finding situations amusing

        • Mature ego defense form that occurs when the patient finds an anxietyprovoking situation as amusing or laughable
        • Hyoid bone

          "Ushaped" "bone" located at the anterior midline of the neck between the chin and the thyroid cartilage

          • Hyoides (Greek) - Shaped like the letter u
          • Ban (Old English) - Bone, tusk
        • Site of attachment for muscles at the floor of the mouth, tongue, larynx, epiglottis, and pharynx
        • Necessary for speech and swallowing
        • Derived from the second and third pharyngeal arches
        • Unique in that it does not articulate with any other bone in the body. Its fracture or deformation is used in forensics to be indicative of strangulation
        • HyperIgM syndrome

          A condition in which an "excess" of "spherical" proteins which "exempt" the body from disease (IgM) causes a set of symptoms that 'run" "together".

          • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
          • Immunis (Latin) - Free, exempt
          • Globus (Latin) - Sphere, globe
          • Syn (Greek) - With, together
          • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
        • Xlinked recessive disorder in which a defective CD40 ligand on T helper cells prevents the ability of B cells to undergo antibody class switching to IgG, IgA, and IgE
        • Severe pyogenic infections early in life
        • Infections with opportunistic pathogens, such as Pneumocystis, Cryptosporidium, CMV
        • Literally "excess IgM."
        • Hypoblast

          "Germ" cells located "under" the epiblast within a developing blastocyte.

          • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
          • Blastos (Greek) - Germ, sprout, bud or budding, immature
        • Gives rise to the endoderm (respiratory tract and digestive tract)
        • Idiopathic

          A "disease" or condition of "it's own" kind due to unknown or uncertain cause or origin

          • Idios (Greek) - One's own
          • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
          Immune thrombocytopenia

          A syndrome in which a decreased number of circulating platelets (thrombocytopenia) manifests as a bleeding tendency, easy bruising (purpura), or extravasation of blood from capillaries into skin and mucous membranes (petechiae)

          • Immunis (Latin) - Free, exempt
          • Thrombos (Greek) - Clump of blood, clot of blood
          • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
          • Penia (Latin) - Deficiency, a lack
        • May be triggered by viral illness
        • Labs show increased megakaryocytes on bone marrow biopsy
        • Decreased platelet count and increased bleeding time
        • Defective antiGpIIb/IIIa antibodies lead to splenic macrophage consumption of platelet/antibody complex
        • Immunecomplex mediated hypersensitivity

          A "plait" of antigenantibody (cells that help "exempt" body from disease) complexes that act as the "middle" man of a condition where the body feels "excess" "sensation"

        • Also known as Type III Hypersensitivity
        • AbAg complexes not adequately cleared by innate immune cells accumulate, giving rise to an inflammatory response and attraction of leukocytes
        • Serum sickness, Arthus reaction
        • SLE
        • Polyarteritis nodosa
        • Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
        • Immunofluorescence

          A laboratory technique that utilizes "fluorescent"labeled antibodies (cells that help "exempt" the body from disease) to detect specific target antigens

          • Immunis (Latin) - Free, exempt
          • Escentia (Latin) - Process or State of Being
        • Pemphigus vulgaris
        • Bullous pemphigoid
        • Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
        • Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
        • Immunoglobulin

          A "spherical" protein made my the cells that keep the body "exempt from disease" in order to fight off infection.

        • Mature B lymphocytes differentiate in germinal centers of lymph nodes by isotype switching into plasma cells that secrete IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, IgE
        • Decreased in Bruton agammaglobulinemia, Selective IgA deficiency, common variable immunodeficiency
        • Imprinting

          Genetic phenomenon in which though two copies of a gene is inherited, only one "has a strong effect" because the other gene is silenced, or imprinted.

          • Impressus (Latin) - Have strong effect on the mind or heart
        • Person inherits only one working copy of genes from either their mother or father, while the other copy is imprinted
        • In Angelman syndrome, the paternal gene is imprinted and the maternal gene is nonfunctional
        • In Praderwilli syndrome, the maternal gene is imprinted and the paternal gene is nonfunctional
        • Intercostals internal

          Skeletal muscles located "deep" and "in between" the ribs.

          • Inter (Latin) - Among, between, betwixt, in the midst of
          • Costa (Latin) - A Rib
          • Internus (Latin) - Interl, inside, inward, within
        • Function to depress the ribs during forced expiration
        • Iron deficiency anemia

          A common anemia (low hemoglobin levels in the "blood") caused by a "failure" of the body to have enough "iron".

          • Iron (Old English) - The metal iron; an iron weapon
          • Deficere (Latin) - To Desert, Revolt, Fail
          • An (Greek) - Without, not
          • Haima (Greek) - Blood
        • Could be due to a problem with iron intake, iron absorption, or from loss of iron due to bleeding
        • Causes a microcytic, Hypochromic anemia
        • Most common type of anemia worldwide
        • Can sometimes be caused by parasitic infections.

        • Mnemonics
          These conditions make your red blood cells small really F. A. S. T.
          The Causes of Microcytic Anemia
          Fe (iron) deficiency anemia. Anemia of chronic Disease. Sideroblastic Anemia. Thalassemia
          Janeway lesions

          Nontender, small erythematous nodular lesions on the palms or soles (only a few millimeters in diameter) that indicate infective endocarditis.

          • Laedere (Latin) - To strike, hurt, damage
        • Pathologically, the lesion is described to be a microabscess of the dermis with marked necrosis and inflammatory infiltrate that does not involve the epidermis.
        • Med after Theodore Caldwell Janeway (1872–1917), an American cardiologist and professor of medicine
        • LeschNyhan Syndrome

          Rare inherited disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme HGPRT because of Xlinked mutations.

          • This is an Xlinked disorder that causes a buildup of uric acid in all body fluids
          • This results in both hyperuricemia and hyperuricosuria, associated with severe gout and kidney problems
          • Neurological signs include poor muscle control and moderate intellectual disability
          • These complications usually appear in the first year of life.
          • Med after Michael Lesch and William Nyhan
          • Known as Nyhan's syndrome, KelleySeegmiller syndrome and juvenile gout,[1] is a rare inherited disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme hypoxanthineguanine phosphoribosyltransferase
          • Leukemoid reaction

            A reaction involving "white" blood cells which "resembles" leukemia (although it is not actually leukemia)

            • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
            • Eidos (Greek) - Form, Resemblance or Shape, Likeness
            • React (Medieval Latin) - Done again
          • Occurs during infection, stress, decay or sulfa drugs/steroids
          • Distinguished from acute leukemia by the presence of early mature neutrophil precursors
          • Leukoencephalopathy

            A "disease" of the "white" matter of the "brain."

            • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
            • En (Greek) - Within
            • Kephale (Greek) - Head
            • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
            Lipoma

            A "tumor or mass" of "fat."

            • Lipos (Greek) - Fat
            • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
            Lunate bone

            A "crescent shaped" "bone."

            • Lunatus (Latin) - Crescent shaped
            • Ban (Old English) - Bone, tusk
          • Most frequently dislocated carpal bone, fragmentation may lead to avascular necrosis

          • Mnemonics
            So Long To Pinky, Here Comes The Thumb
            The bones of the wrist
            Scaphoid, Lunate, Triqutrim, Pisiform, Hamate, Capitate, Trapezoid, Trapezium
            Lymphocyte

            A "Clear water" "cell" med for living primarily within the "clear water" system of the body, mely B and T cells.

            • Lympha (Latin) - Water, clear water, a goddess of water
            • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
          • Count commonly increased in viral infections, chronic intracellular bacterial infections, protozoal infections, leukemia, and lymphoma
          • Count commonly decreased in recent infection (e.g. common cold), HIV infection (primarily T cells),corticosteroid use, malnutrition, lupus, and sarcoidosis.

          • Mnemonics
            Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas!
            % Concentrations of the Types of White Blood Cells
            Neutrophils (65%). Lymphocytes (25%). Monocytes (6%). Eosinophils (3%). Basophils (1%)
            Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas
            The concentrations of the various immune cell types
            Neutrophils (the most), Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Erythrocytes, Basophils (least)
            Lymphopenia

            A "deficiency" of cells that exist within the "clear water" system of the body, mely B and T cells.

            • Lympha (Latin) - Water, clear water, a goddess of water
            • Penia (Latin) - Deficiency, a lack
          • Common after recent infection (e.g. common cold), HIV infection (primarily T cells), corticosteroid use, malnutrition, lupus, sarcoidosis, physical exercise, and rheumatoid arthritis
          • Macroangiopathic anemia

            To be "without" "blood" due to damaged RBCs in systemic circulation due to "large" amounts of force in small "vessels".

            • Makros (Greek) - Large, large to scale
            • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
            • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
            • An (Greek) - Without, not
            • Haima (Greek) - Blood
          • Mechanical heart valves, calcified or stenotic heart valves, schistocyte (helmet cells)
          • Maculopapular rash

            "Eruptive sores" that look like "large" "pimples, or pustules".

            • Macula (Latin) - Spot, stain
            • Papula (Latin) - Pimple, swelling, pustule
            • Rasche (Old French) - Eruptive sores
          • Seen in measles, rubella, scarlet fever, secondary syphilis, parvovirus B19, as well as other conditions.
          • Maintenance

            Stage in overcoming substance addiction that involves "upholding" the change in behavior.

            • Maintenir (Old French) - Action of upholding or keeping being
            Microscopic polyangiitis

            Necrotizing "inflammation" of "many" "small" blood "vessels" commonly involving lung, kidneys, and skin with pauciimmune glomerulonephritis and palpable purpura.

            • Mikros (Greek) - Small, little, petty, trivial, slight
            • Skopein (Greek) - To look, see
            • Polloi (Greek) - Many
            • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
            • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
          • Treat with cyclophosphamide
          • PANCA positive, No granulomas
          • Monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS)

            "Suffering" caused by expansion of "one" specific "branch" of blood cells leading to an increase in antibodies such as "gamma".

            • Monos (Greek) - Single, alone
            • Klon (Greek) - A twig, Branch
            • Gamma (Greek) - The me of the third letter of the Greek alphabet; signifies gamma globulin
            • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
            • Un (Old English) - Prefix of negation
          • M spike can be seen, but no other symptoms of multiple myeloma
          • Precursor to multiple myeloma in that patients with MGUS develop MM at a rate of 12% per year
          • Natriuretic peptide

            Peptide which induces "sodium" loss via "urine". Includes atrial natriuretic peptide which is "digested" and released by heart in response to increased blood pressure.

          • Atrial natriuretic peptide
          • Brain natriuretic peptide
          • ANP is the functional opposite of aldosterone
          • Necator Americanus

            "American" hookworms that burrow into feet from ground, migrate to intestines where they "kill" cells by sucking blood from mucosal wall

          • Barefoot
          • Fe deficiency anemia
          • Ground itch
          • Similar to Ancylostoma duodenale

          • MedyQuestion
            • An 8 year old boy from Georgia is brought to his primary care doctor because of a 3 month history of increasing feelings of fatigue. The patient’s parents say that over the summer, he would often times play outside barefoot with his brothers. On physical exam, the patient’s conjunctiva appears pale with dry pale mouth and tongue. The physician orders an iron study which demonstrated iron deficiency anemia. Given the patient’s symptoms, what is the most appropriate treatment for this patient?

            USMLE Step 1

            Necrotizing fasciitis

            Infection and "death" of "band" of deep tissues from S. pyogenes. Aerobic process that produces CH4 and CO2.

            • Nekros (Greek) - Dead body, Corpse, Death
            • Fascia (Latin) - Band, doorframe
          • Flesh eating bacteria
          • Hospital gangrene
          • Bullae formation
          • Gas production
          • Spreads quickly and requires surgical removal of affected area
          • Severe pain and terrible smell with a history of deep puncture wounds
          • Neuroblastoma

            Abdominal "growth" that "buds" over the midline. Can be found anywhere along the sympathetic "nerve" chain ganglia.

            • Neuron (Greek) - Nerve, straw, tendon
            • Blastos (Greek) - Germ, sprout, bud or budding, immature
            • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
          • Bombesin tumor marker
          • Nmyc oncogene activation
          • Most common adrenal medulla tumor in children
          • Neutropenia

            A condition in which there is a "deficiency" of immune cells that are "neither male nor female", med for their lack of staining by either basic or acidic solutions.

            • Neutro (Latin) - Neither masculine or feminine
            • Penia (Latin) - Deficiency, a lack
          • Immunodeficiency
          • Aplastic anemia
          • Increased risk of infection
          • Oppositional defiant disorder

            A disorder where an individual "opposes" and "challenges" authority without a cause. Their behavior is unruly and is "in a different direction" from "regular" behavior.

            • Opponere (Latin) - To oppose
            • Desfier (Old French) - To Challenge, Defy, Provoke
            • Dis (Latin) - Not, In a Different Direction, Between
            • Ordinare (Latin) - Ordain, regular
          • Are not aggressive towards people or destroy property, as in conduct disorder
          • Osteoclast

            Cells that resorb bone and "break" down "bone."

          • Derived from monocytes
          • Pancreatitis

            "Inflammation" of the organ that "creates" various hormones for the "entire" body.

            • Pan (Greek) - All, every
            • Kreas (French) - Flesh, meat
            • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
            Parasympathetic

            The system that acts "against" the "sympathetic" system.

            • Para (Greek) - Along, side, beside, near, against, contrary to
            • Sympathicus (Latin) - Subject to a common nervous influence
          • Part of the autonomic nervous system that balances and counteracts the sympathetic nervous system
          • Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea

            A "sudden onset" of "bad" "breathing" occurring at "night."

            • Paroxysmos (Greek) - Sudden attack, convulsion
            • Nocturnus (Latin) - Of the night
            • Dys (Greek) - Bad, Ill, Abnormal, Evil
            • Pnoia (Greek) - Breath
          • Recurrent shortness of breath and coughing usually occurring at night
          • Caused by collapse of pharyngeal muscles. Major risk factor is obesity
          • Patent foramen ovale

            An "oval" "hole" between the left and right atrium that remains "open"

            • Patens (Latin) - Open, lying open
            • Foramen (Latin) - Hole, opening, aperture, orifice
            • Ovalis (Latin) - Eggshaped
          • A persisting hole between the right and left atrium due to failure of the foramen ovale to close
          • Perforating cutaneous nerve

            A "piercing" of the muscle by a nerve in order to supply the "overlying skin."

            • Perforare (Latin) - To bore or pierce through
            • Cutis (Latin) - Skin
            • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
          • Cutaneous sensory innervation supplying skin over gluteus maximus muscle
          • Gluteus maximus muscle
          • Arises from pudendal nerve in most people
          • Often absent in people, with its place being taken by posterior cutaneous nerve of thigh
          • Perineurium

            The material that sits "on top of" and surrounding the nerve fascicles, making up the subunits of the nerve.

            • Peri (Greek) - Around, about, beyond
            • Neuro (Greek) - Nerve, sinew, tendon
            • Ium (Greek) - Structure, tissue
          • Connective tissue
          • Phagocyte

            A cell that "eats" extracellular material.

            • Phagein (Greek) - To eat, eater of
            • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
          • A cell which is capable of engulfing/ingesting other molecules/cells.
          • Neutrophils, macrophages, monocytes, dendritic cells, and mast cells are phagocytes and are involved in the immune response
          • Antigen presenting cells phagocytose in order to present antigen to the immune system.
          • Phagocytosis

            The process by which a "cell" "eats" extracellular material.

            • Phagein (Greek) - To eat, eater of
            • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
          • The process by which phagocytes engulf cells, foreign bodies, bacteria, etc.
          • Opsonins facilitate phagocytosis
          • Entamoeba histolytica phagocytizes red blood cells.
          • Plaque

            An elevated solid "sticky" skin lesion larger than 1 cm in diameter

          • Commonly seen in psoriasis
          • In dentistry, Appears as a white/pale yellow "slime layer"
          • Commonly found in between the teeth and along the cervical margins
          • Its formation is a normal process that can't be prevented
          • Associated with caries and periodontal diseases
          • Platypnea

            A shortness of breath or "air" when a patient lies down "flat" on their back.

          • Platypnea may be caused by hepatopulmonary syndrome, in which there is vasodilation in the lungs in patients who have liver disease, or an anatomical defect in which a right to left shunt causes blood to bypass either the lungs or portal circulation.
          • Positive endexpiratory pressure

            Force remaining that "keeps pushing" at the lung walls at the "end/termination" of breathing out; this force is greater than/"on top of" atmospheric pressure.

            • Positivus (Latin) - Settled by agreement, to place on top of
            • Ende (Old English) - End, Conclusion
            • Expirare (Latin) - Termition, End, Close
            • Pressare (Latin) - Keep pressing
          • Air trapping, decrease systemic venous return
          • Progeria

            A condition in which children become "old age" appearing "before" they are supposed to.

            • Pro (Greek) - Before, Forward
            • Geras (Greek) - Old age
          • Progeria is an extremely rare genetic disorder
          • Symptoms appear during first months of life and aging occurs at a rate 810 times faster than normal
          • Affected patients rarely live past their teens.
          • Also known as HutchinsonGilford syndrome after the two doctors who described it around the same time, independently of one another.
          • Proximal phalanges

            The "nearest" bones of the fingers or toes med because of their resemblance to the Greek "line of battle".

            Purpura

            When the skin "becomes purple" as a result of bleeding under the skin.

          • Often seen in vasculitis
          • HenochSchonlein Purpura, Thrombocytopenic Purpura, Scurvy
          • Pyrimidine

            Nitrogenous base that "originates from ammonia" and comprises data stored in D and R, with cytosine, thymine, and uracil being the main pyrimidines.

            • Pyr (Greek) - Fire, heat
            • Amide (French) - Origited from ammonia + ide
          • Nitrogen containing molecule that serves as part of the building blocks of D and R, storing data. In D there is cytosine and thymine. In R thymine is replaced with uracil
          • Regression

            "Going back" or "returning" to childish mannerisms or an earlier stage of development to avoid an adverse experience.

          • Immature defense mechanism
          • One of the famous defense mechanisms described by S. Freud
          • Respiratory alkalosis

            A "condition" in which "breathing" is decreased, leading to an "increase in pH", or alkalosis; alkalotic soil, or soil with high pH, is where saltwort grows, and "alkali" refers to the burnt ashes of this plant.

            • Respirare (Latin) - To breath in and out
            • Alkali (Greek) - Cacined ashed
            • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
            Seizure

            A "sudden attack or convulsion" that "takes possession of your mind"

            • Seisir (French) - To take possession of
          • Changes in the brain's electrical activity, which can cause violent shaking and a change or loss of consciousness. Usually come suddenly and vary in severity and duration. Can be categorized as general or partial (focal) seizures.' Epilepsy, EEG
          • Originated from the ancient Greek language. Was not considered a disease in ancient times
          • Was considered a supernatural event, commonly thought as a form of demonic possession.
          • Separation anxiety

            "Anguish" caused by "a pulling apart" from an emotional connection to a person or object

          • A condition in which a person experiences severe emotional distress upon separation from someone or something to which they have a strong emotional connection
          • Can be separation from anything from objects to people to homes
          • Sertoli cells

            Male nongerm cells that form the bloodtestis barrier and is responsible for synthesis of sperm, med eponymously

            • Sertoli - Med for Italian physiologist Enrico Sertoli
            • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
          • Sperm synthesis
          • Inhibin secretion
          • Synthesizes androgen binding proteins
          • Bloodtestis barrier formed by tight junctions which protects spermatogonia from autoimmune attack
          • ABP
          • Also known as nurse cells because they help develop and feed forming sperm
          • Sesamoid bones

            A "bone" "shaped like a sesame seed" embedded in a tendon, usually over a joint

            • Sesame (English) - Shaped like the seed
            • Ban (Old English) - Bone, tusk
          • Bones that are found within tendons of joints
          • Commonly known sesamoid bones include patella, pisiform of the wrist, and sesamoid bones of the foot and hands
          • Sesamoiditis is inflammation of the sesamoid bones, most commonly just behind the big toe on the bottom of the foot
          • Soleus

            A muscle of the calf or the leg, socalled due to it's flatness, as in a "sole".

          • A muscle located in the posterior leg below the knee responsible for plantar flexion of the foot.
          • Innervated by the tibial nerve.
          • Sphingomyelin

            A sphingolipid, or "tightly"binding "fat"containing molecule, found in cell membranes, especially that of neurons or in the "brain".

          • Sphingomyelin is heavily increased in NiemannPick disease, in which there is a deficiency in the sphingomyelinase enzyme
          • Neuronal membranes
          • NiemannPick disease
          • Splenic sequestration

            A condition in which blood is "kept safe" or isolated in the "spleen"

            • Splen (Greek) - The milt, spleen
            • Sequestrare (Late Latin) - To place in safekeeping
          • An acute condition where a large amount of blood is pooled in the spleen
          • Common in young sickle cell patients, splenomegaly
          • Spongiform encephalopathy

            A "disease or suffering" caused by the content "within the head" taking the "form" of a "sponge" due to holes in it.

          • Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are prion diseases
          • Results in a rapid progressive neuropathology that inevitably results in death
          • Sulfonamide

            Family of drugs that contain a "sulfur" and nitrogencontaining (from "ammonia") functional group that are mostly antibacterial agents.

            • Sulphur (Latin) - Brimstone, sulfur
            • Amide (French) - Origited from ammonia + ide
          • Many patients are allergic to these drugs due to this chemical group
          • Sulfonylureas
          • Thiazide diuretics
          • Antibacterial sulfonamides inhibit dihydropteroate synthetase
          • Syncytiotrophoblast

            A type of "budding" "cell" found within the placenta that is involved in "nourishment" of the developing fetus.

            • Syn (Greek) - With, together
            • Trophe (Greek) - Food, Nourishment
            • Blastos (Greek) - Germ, sprout, bud or budding, immature
          • Syncytial layer prevents maternal immune cells from reaching embryo
          • Tachycardia

            A "rapid" or fast "heart" rate.

          • Tachycardia is defined as a heart rate over 100 beats per minute
          • Tachycardia can be physiologic (e.g. transient anxiety, exercise) or pathologic, seen in certain cardiac arrhythmias (e.g. atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, ventricular tachycardia)
          • Testosterone

            "Steroid" hormone produced by the "testicles" of males and the ovaries of females.

            • Testis (Latin) - A witness, testicle
            • Sterol (English) - Steroid, act as second messengers and in membrane stabilizers
            • Ketone (French) - Acetone
          • Produced by leydig cells
          • Thorax

            The "chest or breastplate" of the body.

            • Thorax (Greek) - Chest, breastplate
          • The region between the neck and the abdomen
          • Contains many important atomical structures such as the heart, lungs, thymus, diaphragm, esophagus, trachea, as well as many other structures.
          • Thrombocyte

            Another term for platelets, the first "cells" that start the coagulation cascade to form a "blood clot".

            • Thrombos (Greek) - Clump of blood, clot of blood
            • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
          • Low amounts of thrombocytes is known as thrombocytopenia
          • Qualitative or quantitative platelet dysfunction will lead to an increased bleeding time.
          • Thrombocytopenia

            "Deficiency" of platelets, the first "cells" that start the coagulation cascade to form a "blood clot".

            • Thrombos (Greek) - Clump of blood, clot of blood
            • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
            • Penia (Latin) - Deficiency, a lack
          • Manifests physically as petechiae or purpura
          • Prothrombin is also known as factor II
          • Prothrombin is produced in the liver and liver failure may result in low levels of prothrombin
          • Prothrombin is a vitamin K dependent factor
          • A prothrombin gene mutation is associated with an increased production of prothrombin and an increase in venous clots.
          • Thromboplastin

            A protein that "molds" prothrombin into thrombin, an essential step in the "blood clotting" or coagulation cascade.

          • Can activate the extrinsic coagulation pathway
          • Thrombopoietin

            Protein growth factor that is involved "making" platelets, the cells involved in the initial phase of "blood clotting". They are formed by the differentiation of megakaryocytes.

            • Thrombos (Greek) - Clump of blood, clot of blood
            • Poiein (Greek) - To make
          • Platelets are anucleate cellular cytoplasmic remnants of megakaryocytes in the bone marrow.
          • Thrombus

            A "blood clot" that is the fil result of platelet activation adhesion and activation of the coagulation cascade.

            • Thrombos (Greek) - Clump of blood, clot of blood
          • Can cause a pulmonary embolism, most commonly from deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
          • When a thrombus blocks a vessel, lines of Zahn can be formed alternating layers of light (fibrin) and dark (WBCs/RBCs) found within the vessel wall. These lines can only be formed premortem.
          • Thrush

            An infection by the fungal species Candida.

            • Oral or esophageal thrush (can be easily wiped away) is seen in immunocompromised individuals
            • Nystatin swish and swallow can be used to treat oral thrush
            • The colloquial term thrush refers to the resemblance of the white flecks present in some forms of candidiasis (e.g. pseudomembranous candidiasis), with the breast of the bird of the same me

            • MedyQuestion
              • A 21-year-old female presents to the doctor’s office with a 3-day history of sore throat. She is currently taking an inhaled corticosteroid for her asthma. Her temperature is 99.4°F. A KOD prep taken from a sample of one of the plaques shows budding year. An illustration of her tongue is shown. Which is the most likely course of pharmacotherapy that the doctor will prescribe for this patient.

              USMLE Step 1

              Thymoma

              Benign "tumor" of the "oblong shield" shaped gland.

              • Thumos (Greek) - Excrescence like a thyme bud, thymus gland
              • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
            • Thymomas are associated with myasthenia gravis
            • They can also cause superior ve cava syndrome (proximity to the superior ve cava) and dysphagia (proximity to the esophagus)
            • Togavirus

              A family of "covered" or enveloped "toxic substances".

              • Toga (Latin) - To cover
              • Virus (Latin) - Poison, poisonous substance
            • Positivesense, singlestranded, linear viruses
            • Contains Rubella and the equine encephalitis viruses
            • Rubella is part of the live vaccine MMR but not part of the viral family Paramyxoviridae
            • Tolllike receptor

              Receptors on cells associated with innate immunity that help recognize nonspecific pathogenassociated molecular patterns (PAMPS)

              • CD14 is an important coreceptor of TLR4 found on macrophages, useful for the detection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of bacteria
              • Transference

                When the patient projects feelings he or she has been "carrying," typically since childhood, "across" to the physician.

                • Trans (Latin) - Across, over, beyond
                • Ferre (Latin) - To bear, to carry
              • Do not confuse with countertransference, which is when the physician projects feelings of other people onto the patient.
              • Tumor

                A mass or “swelling”.

              • Presents as a large mass that may be benign or malignant
              • As one of the cardinal signs of inflammation, tumor simply means swelling. In other cases, tumor is an abnormal growth of tissue.
              • One of the 5 classic signs of inflammation, along with rubor, dolor, calor, and functio laesa
              • Ulnar nerve

                Nerve derived from the medial cord of the brachial plexus and around the "elbow" to supply medial forearm.

                • Ulna (Latin) - Elbow
                • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
              • Damage to the hook of hamate in the hand can damage the ulnar nerve
              • Guyon Cal Syndrome occurs due to compression of the ulnar nerve
              • Damage to the distal ulnar nerve can result in the ulnar claw
              • Urogenital sinus

                A "bending" embryonic structure that gives rise to "genitals" and bladder, which stores "urine."

                • Ouron (Greek) - Urine
                • Genitalis (Latin) - Pertaining to generation or birth, Exterl sexual organs
                • Sinus (Latin) - Bend, fold, curve, a bent surface; a bay, bight, gulf; a fold in land; hollow curve or cavity in the body
              • In females, urogenital sinus gives rise to the lower portion of the vagi, Bartholin's glands, and Skene's glands. In males, the urogenital sinus gives rise to the prostate and Cowper's glands
              • Uveitis

                Inflammation of "grape"like structure in oropharynx.

                • Uva (Latin) - A grape
                • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
              • Associated with HLAB27 conditions as well as other inflammatory conditions.
              • Varicocele

                A "dilation" or "swelling" of veins.

                • Varix (Latin) - Dilated vein
                • Kele (Greek) - Swelling, hernia, tumor
              • Varicoceles are transilluminated to differentiate it from a solid tumor
              • Can occur due to defective valves that lead to a pooling of blood in the veins
              • Varicoceles don't need to be treated unless the are symptomatic, a change in size, or distinct difference in testicular size or feel.
              • Winters formula

                Formulated by Dr. Winters to assess the level of respiratory compensation during metabolic acidosis.

                • PCO2= (1.5 x HCO3)+8 (+/)2
                • Wuchereria Bancrofti

                  A parasitic worm med after discoverer "Otto Wucherer"

                • Lymph node blockage leads to Elephantiasis a condition in which part of the body becomes grossly edematous
                • Commonly found in Africa. Treated commonly with mebendazole
                • The recording of this disease goes back as far as ancient Greece where people infected were described as having limbs similar to that of elephants
                • Xanthoma

                  A "mass" of "yellow" tissue.

                  • Xanthos (Greek) - Yellow
                  • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
                • Usually found within tendons, seen commonly on the Achilles tendon on the back of the foot
                • Associated with hyperlipidemia
                • Macrophages that accumulate lipids turning them into foam cells, similarly seen in plaques of arteries. Made of cholesterol deposit
                • Literally a yellow mass
                • Xerostomia

                  "Dry" "mouth".

                  • Xeros (Greek) - Dry, whithered
                  • Stoma (Greek) - Mouth
                • Associated with Sjogren's syndrome
                • Can be caused by anticholinergic drugs or diuretics (dehydration)
                • Azathioprine

                  Immunomodulator

                  • Immunosuppressant in autoimmune diseases (SLE, IBD, RA, ITP, MS)
                  • Antimetabolite that is a precursor of 6MP > intereferes with nucleic acid synthesis and metabolism
                  • MuromobCD3 (OKT3)

                    Immunomodulator

                    • Immunosuppressant in transplant patients
                    • Monoclol antibody > binds to CD3 on T cells > blocks T cell interaction and sigl transduction
                    • Aldesleukin (interleukin2)

                      Recombint Cytokines

                      • Rel cell carcinoma, metastatic melanoma
                      • Like IL2, this drug allows for the differentiation of T cells into effector T cells
                      • Epoetin alfa (erythropoietin)

                        Recombint Cytokines

                        • Anemias
                        • Like EPO, this drug stimulates erythropoiesis
                        • Filgrastim (GCSF)

                          Recombint Cytokines

                          • Recovery of bone marrow
                          • GCSF alog > stimulates proliferation of granulocytes
                          • Sargramostim (GCSF)

                            Recombint Cytokines

                            • Recovery of bone marrow
                            • GMCSF alog > stimulates granulocyte and macrophage proliferation
                            • IFN alpha

                              Recombint Cytokines

                              • Hep B+C, Kaposi's sarcoma, leukemias, malignt melanoma
                              • Interferes with viruses and activates NK cells
                              • Inhibits viral protein synthesis
                              • Warns uninfected cells of upcoming attack
                              • IFNbeta

                                Recombint Cytokines

                                • Multiple Sclerosis
                                • Interferes with viruses and activates NK cells
                                • Inhibits viral protein synthesis
                                • Warns uninfected cells of upcoming attack
                                • IFNgamma

                                  Recombint Cytokines

                                  • CGD
                                  • Interferes with viruses and activates NK cells
                                  • Increases MHCI,II expression and antigen presentation in all cells
                                  • Warns uninfected cells of upcoming attack
                                  • Oprelvekin (interleukin11)

                                    Recombint Cytokines

                                    • Thrombocytopenia
                                    • IL11 alog > stimulates proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells and megakaryocytes
                                    • Thrombopoietin

                                      Recombint Cytokines

                                      • Thrombocytopenia
                                      • A glycoprotein hormone that is used to stimulate megakaryocyte growth and development (platelets)
                                      • Digoxin Immune Fab

                                        Therapeutic Antibodies

                                        • Antidote for digoxin toxicity
                                        • Binds digoxin > digoxin can no longer bind to action sites on target cells
                                        • Infliximab

                                          Therapeutic Antibodies

                                          • Ximab (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                        • Crohn's, RA, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis
                                        • Monoclol antibody (chimeric) > blocks TNFalpha
                                        • Adalimumab

                                          Therapeutic Antibodies

                                          • Umab (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                        • Crohn's, RA, psoriatic arthritis
                                        • Monoclol antibody (human) > blocks TNFalpha
                                        • Abciximab

                                          Therapeutic Antibodies

                                          • Ximab (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                        • Prevent cardiac ischemia
                                        • Monoclol antibody > blocks glycoprotein IIb/IIIa > blocks platelet aggregation
                                        • Trastuzumab (Herceptin)

                                          Therapeutic Antibodies

                                          • Zumab (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                        • Block HER2overexpression in breast cancers
                                        • Monoclol antibody > blocks HER2/neu receptor > decrease breast cancer progression
                                        • Rituximab

                                          Therapeutic Antibodies

                                          • Ximab (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                        • Bcell nonHodgkin's lymphoma
                                        • Monoclol antibody (chimeric) > binds to CD20 and blocks B cells
                                        • Omalizumab

                                          Therapeutic Antibodies

                                          • Zumab (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                        • Severe asthma
                                        • Humanized antibody > decreased sensitivity to allergens
                                        • Polymorphonuclear

                                          Cell has a segmented nucleus which is appeared as a multiple nuclei. Example: neutrophils.

                                          • Polloi (Greek) - Many
                                          • Morphe (Greek) - Form, shape, beauty, outward appearance
                                          • Nucleus (Latin) - Kernel
                                          MEDYMOLOGY