Term Successfully Added to Selected Deck
Unable to Add the term to selected Deck. Please try again later!
HEMATOLOGY AND ONCOLOGY
227 terms share this category
Acanthocyte

A "spiny or thorny" appearing red blood "cell".

  • Acanthus (Greek) - Point, Thorn, Spine
  • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Abetalipoproteinemia leads to a decrease in lipids and a deformation of the RBC membrane
  • Sometimes referred to as 'spur cells' in reference to their resemblence to the star shaped spurs on the heals of cowboy boots
  • An individual affected by abetalipoproteinemia (also known as acanthocytosis) presents with thornshaped red blood cells.
  • Acute intermittent porphyria

    A quickly onset "sharp" condition in which a person experiences starting and "ceasing" abdomen pain. As well, when left sitting out, the person's urine turns "purple"

  • Buildup of porphobilinogen and deltaaminolevulinic acid due to deficient enzyme porphobilinogen demise
  • Abdomen pain after drinking
  • Purple/maroon urine
  • Polyneuropathy
  • Psychiatric symptoms
  • Treatment is glucose and heme
  • Urine left to sit out becomes rapidly oxidized leading to the purple color, hence the origination of the me
  • Referenced in episodes of Scrubs, House, and CSI

  • Mnemonics
    The 5 P s of Intermittent Porphyria
    Acute intermittent porphyria: signs and symptoms
    Pain in the abdomen, Polyneuropathy, Psychological abnormalities, Pink urine, Precipitated by drugs (including barbiturates, oral contraceptives, and sulfa drugs)
    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    A "sharp" or quickly onset "mass" of "budding" or immature "white" blood cells in the "blood". The sharp onset does not refer to the time of onset, but the time within the cell development, in this case, even more immature cells.

    • Acuere (Latin) - To Sharpen, sharply onset
    • Lympha (Latin) - Water, clear water, a goddess of water
    • Blastos (Greek) - Germ, sprout, bud or budding, immature
    • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Leukemia seen more in children under 15 that involves an overproductions of either B or T lymphoblast (>20 % in bone marrow)
  • TdT positive
  • BALL is CD10+, CD19+, CD20+
  • BALL requires prophylactic chemotherapy to the scrotum and CSF
  • TALL is CD10 and presents as a thymic mass in teenagers
  • Increased incidence in Down Syndrome
  • Can be seen with the Philadelphia chromosome mutation
  • Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)

    A "sharp" or quickly onset cancer of "white" cells from the "marrow or pith" of the bones. The sharp onset does not refer to the time of onset, but the time within the cell development, in this case, even more immature cells.

    • Acuere (Latin) - To Sharpen, sharply onset
    • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
    • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • MPO+
  • Auer rods
  • Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has t(15:17) translocation of retinoic acid receptor
  • Acute monocytic leukemia lacks MPO and affects the gums
  • Acute megakaryoblast leukemia lacks MPO and is associated with Down syndrome
  • Leukemia involving > 20% myeloid cells in the bone marrow
  • Rudolf Virchow described the WBC excess as leukemia, to mean white blood
  • Adult tcell lymphoma

    A "mass" of an immune cell line that lives in the "clear liquid" of the body, that primarily arises in adults, or those who have "grown to maturity".

    • Adolescere (Latin) - To Grow to Maturity
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Lympha (Latin) - Water, clear water, a goddess of water
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Commonly associated with EBV virus or HTL Virus
  • Agglutinin

    A substance that "fastens like glue" in order to cause particles to stick together and clump.

  • Hemagglutinin cause blood cells to stick together
  • Cold agglutinins are antibodies that cause blood coagulation at colder temperatures (seen with Mycoplasma pneumonia)
  • Alphathalassemia

    A "blood" disease med after the "sea" because it was first discovered in populations near the Mediterranean. It affects the "first" subunit of hemoglobin.

    • Alpha (Greek) - The me of the first letter of the Greek alphabet
    • Thalassa (Greek) - Sea
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • A condition in which the patient has a defect in the production of the alpha globin chain of hemoglobin. It can be a defect with varying severities depending on the number of alpha chain genes affected
  • The severity depends on the amount of alleles affected, more than 2 being clinically significant
  • Causes a microcytic anemia.
  • Individuals with thalassemia syndrome are most often of African, Asian, Mediterranean, or Middle Eastern descent.

  • Mnemonics
    These conditions make your red blood cells small really F. A. S. T.
    The Causes of Microcytic Anemia
    Fe (iron) deficiency anemia. Anemia of chronic Disease. Sideroblastic Anemia. Thalassemia
    Anemia of chronic disease

    A condition characterized by "lack of ease on the body" due to being "without" "blood" because of suffering from a disease for a "long time".

    • An (Greek) - Without, not
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
    • Khronikos (Greek) - Of time, concerning time
    • Desaise (Old French) - Lack of Ease
  • Expected findings are low Fe, low or normal TIBC and high ferritin.
  • Because the body regards any type of inflammation as an infection by a foreign bug, in order to starve the organism of iron and other resources, it prevents the release of iron into the blood. This can be seen in any inflammatory disease including cancer and other auto immune diseases that cause inflammation similar to that of an infection.

  • Mnemonics
    These conditions make your red blood cells small really F. A. S. T.
    The Causes of Microcytic Anemia
    Fe (iron) deficiency anemia. Anemia of chronic Disease. Sideroblastic Anemia. Thalassemia
    Anisocytosis

    A "condition" or disease in which there is "not" "equal or the same" size amongst a persons red "blood cells".

    • An (Greek) - Without, not
    • Isos (Greek) - Equal, the same
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Normal red cell distribution width is 11.614.6, beyond that implies that there is a pathology leading to abnormal sizes of cells either macro or micro in size.
  • Med literally without equal cells in reference to their size.
  • Antithrombin

    A molecule that works "against" the protein responsible for "blood clotting".

    • Anti (Greek) - Against, opposite, opposed to
    • Thrombos (Greek) - Clump of blood, clot of blood
  • Activates several enzymes of the coagulation system
  • Activity is increased by the anticoagulant drug heparin, which enhances the binding of antithrombin to factor II and factor X
  • Anucleate

    A cell "without" a "kernel" or nucleus.

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Nucleus (Latin) - Kernel
  • Red blood cells lack a nucleus
  • Aplastic crisis

    To be "without" "blood" due to the bone marrow "not" "forming" new cells. Acute in onset and can lead to death, commonly seen in sickle cell patients.

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Plassein (Greek) - To mold or form
    • Krisis (Greek) - Decision
  • May be a result of viral Parvovirus B19 infection, which invades and destroys red blood cell precursors and halts the red cell production
  • If infection occurs in individuals with sickle cell anemia or spherocytosis, that will lead to incorporation of 2 anemiainduced mechanisms: decrease red cell production and hemolysis. The result is a severe anemia (aplastic crisis) which may require blood transfusion
  • Arylsulfatase

    A type of "enzyme" med for its ability to remove sulfur (med the "bringer of light" because heating it caused it to light up) from an aromatic group.

    • Aromaticus (Greek) - Aroma
    • Sulphur (Latin) - Brimstone, sulfur
    • Ase (English) - Used to form the me of enzymes
  • Arylsulfatase A deficiency: Metachromatic leukodystrophy
  • Presents as central and peripheral demyelination with ataxia and dementia
  • Atrophic gastritis

    Chronic "inflammation" of the "stomach" that leads to destruction of the glandular tissue causing it to seem to be "without" "nourishment".

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Trophe (Greek) - Food, Nourishment
    • Gaster (Greek) - Stomach, belly, eater, devourer
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Decrease in gastric hydrochloric acid, pepsin and intrinsic factor
  • Causes a vitamin B12 deficiency leading to megaloblastic anemia
  • It can be caused by persistent infection with Helicobacter pylori (type B), or can be autoimmune (Type A). Those with the autoimmune version of atrophic gastritis are statistically more likely to develop gastric carcinoma, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and achlorhydria.
  • Auer rod

    A "slender shoot" or bar within leukemic white blood cells.

    • Rodd (Old English) - Slender shoot growing on or cut from a tree
  • Characteristic of Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) M3
  • Azurophilic making them appear blue and composed of myeloperoxidase
  • Release of Auer rods cells via chemotherapy for AML can induce Disseminated intravascular coagulation
  • Autoimmune hemolytic anemia

    The process by which "one's own" immune system "loosens" or destroys "one's own" red "blood" cells. This leads to the individual having decreased circulating red "blood" cells.

    • Auto (Greek) - Self, one's own
    • Immunis (Latin) - Free, exempt
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
    • Lutikos (Greek) - Able to loosen
    • An (Greek) - Without, not
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Caused by two types of antibodies: Warm agglutinin (IgG) seen in SLE, CLL. Cold Agglutinin (IgM) seen in Mycoplasma pneumonia or infectious mononucleosis
  • Autosplenectomy

    The process by which the "spleen" "cuts" its "own self" "out".

    • Auto (Greek) - Self, one's own
    • Splen (Greek) - The milt, spleen
    • Ek (Greek) - Out
    • Temnein (Greek) - To cut
  • Associated with increased risks of infection by encapsulated organisms
  • Occurs in Sickle Cell Anemia patients

  • MedyQuestion
    • A 6 year old boy is brought into the hospital by his mother because of acute onset left sided abdominal and flank pain, associated with vomiting. The patient on exam is found to be in the fetal position in pain, tachycardic to 110 and hypotensive to the 70s. On CBC with smear, the patient is found to have a hemoglobin of 7, from his baseline of 9, and sickled red cells can be appreciated on the peripheral smear. What is causing the patient’s current problem?

    USMLE Step 1

    B cell

    A type of white blood cell in the antibody mediated immune system. Immature B cells are formed in the bone marrow.

    • Beta (Greek) - The me of the second letter of the Greek alphabet, Indicator of the second
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • B cells : recognize antigen, produce antibody, and maintain immunologic memory
  • Band cell

    A "cell" whose nucleus resembles a curved or coiled "strip".

    • Band (Old Norse) - The strip that ties or constrains
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • An increase count of band neutrophils is used to measure inflammation
  • Basophil

    An immune cell that "loves" to stain with "basic" dyes.

  • Contains heparin (anticoagulation), histamine (vasodilator), and leukotrienes
  • Isolated increase in basophils seen in CML
  • Involved in many specific kinds of inflammatory reactions, particularly those that cause allergic reactions

  • Mnemonics
    Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas!
    % Concentrations of the Types of White Blood Cells
    Neutrophils (65%). Lymphocytes (25%). Monocytes (6%). Eosinophils (3%). Basophils (1%)
    Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas
    The concentrations of the various immune cell types
    Neutrophils (the most), Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Erythrocytes, Basophils (least)
    Basophilic stippling

    Abnormal red blood cells that "love" to stain with "basic" dyes display small dots at the periphery as though they were "pricked".

  • The dots represent ribosomes
  • Seen in Anemia of Chronic Disease, alcohol abuse, lead poisoning, and thalassemias
  • BernardSoulier syndrome

    Deficiency or absence of glycoprotein 1b which is a receptor for von Willebrand factor on platelets. This leads to prolonged bleeding time, easy bruising, heavy menstrual periods, bleeding gums, nose bleeding, postoperative and perioperative bleeding

    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
  • Autosomal recessive coagulopathy, prolonged bleeding time, thrombocytopenia, easy bruising, bleeding gums
  • Betathalassemia

    A "blood" disease med after the "sea" because it was first discovered in populations near the Mediterranean. It affects the "second" subunit of hemoglobin.

    • Beta (Greek) - The me of the second letter of the Greek alphabet, Indicator of the second
    • Thalassa (Greek) - Sea
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Inherited blood disorder with decreased production of adult hemoglobin (HbA) due to decreased or absent synthesis of beta chains
  • Beta thalassemia minor is the mildest form and is asymptomatic
  • Beta thalassemia major is the most severe form and patients present with severe anemia a few months after birth
  • Microcytic, hypochromic anemia with target cells
  • HbA2 and HbF on electrophoresis
  • Chipmunk facies and crewcut appearance on xray of skull due to erythroid hyperplasia

  • Mnemonics
    These conditions make your red blood cells small really F. A. S. T.
    The Causes of Microcytic Anemia
    Fe (iron) deficiency anemia. Anemia of chronic Disease. Sideroblastic Anemia. Thalassemia
    Biconcave

    "Two" sides of an inwardly "hollow" structure.

    • Bi (Latin) - Twice, double
    • Concavus (Latin) - Hollow, Arched
  • Denotes healthy red blood cell structure.
  • Birbeck granule

    Rod shaped, tennis racquet cytoplasmic organelles with a striated appearance seen in epidermal Langerhans cells

  • Characteristic of Langerhans cell histiocytosis
  • S100 and CD1a immunohistochemistry
  • Birbeck med after British scientist and electron microscopist Michael Stanley Clive Birbeck (1925–2005) who discovered these granules
  • Bite cell

    A type of red blood "cell" that is "split or cracked" giving it the appearance of having had a bite taken out of it.

    • Bite (Germanic) - To split, crack
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Abnormally shaped red blood cells that are missing one or more semicircular portions around the edge of the cell
  • Usually occurs due to phagocytic removal of precipitated hemoglobin (Heinz bodies) by splenic macrophages in glucose6phosphate deficiency
  • Seen in blood smear of glucose6phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.
  • Bradykinin

    Term coined after scientists observed bradykinin release into blood plasma upon sky venom injection, which caused intestinal smooth muscle to "move" or contract "slowly".

  • Peptide that causes increased dilation of blood vessels, permeability and pain
  • Formed by proteolytic cleavage of high molecular weight kininogen by the enzyme kallikrein
  • ACE inhibitors increase bradykinin which leads to cough
  • Burkitt's Lymphoma

    Cancer of the "watery" lymphatic system that creates a "tumor" full of Bcells

    • Lympha (Latin) - Water, clear water, a goddess of water
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • CD20+
  • Associated with EBV virus
  • Jaw lesion in endemic African form, abdominal lesion in sporadic form starry sky appearance on microscopy, t(8, 14) translocation where cmyc protooncogene translocate to chromosome 14.
  • Think of all of the B's
  • Burkitt's lymphoma involves B cells and the African type is associated with the EpsteinBarr Virus
  • Carcinomatosis

    A "conditiion" in which one develops many "cancerous" "growths" after the primary cancer dessimnates throughout the body.

    • Karkinos (Greek) - Cancer, crab
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • A form of disseminated cancer
  • Often times pertaining only to cancers of epithelial cell origin
  • Chromatin

    A dark "colored" complex of D and proteins in the nucleus of cells that allows the genetic material to be packaged to fit in a small space.

    • Khroma (Greek) - Color, complexion character
  • D, histones, control gene expression, control D replication, compact
  • Prevents D damage, and controls gene expression and D replication.
  • During interphase (longest phase of the cell cycle), the D is packaged loosely to allow for D replication and transcription. During mitosis or meiosis, the D condenses to facilitate segregation of chromosomes during anaphase.
  • Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

    A cancer of the "blood," specifically "originating" from the "white" blood cell line in the bone "marrow," that slowly progresses over a period of "time."

    • Khronikos (Greek) - Of time, concerning time
    • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
    • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Aka chronic granulocytic leukemia, granulocytes, leukemia, Philadelphia chromosome
  • Characterized by unregulated growth of mostly myeloid cells (neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils) in the bone marrow and their accumulation in the blood
  • 90% of CML cases are due to the characteristic chromosomal translocation, the Philadelphia chromosome (translocation between chromosome 9 and chromosome 22).
  • Coagulation

    A process, similar to "curdling," in which a liquid (such as blood) changes into a gellike or semi solid consistency.

  • Aka clotting, stop blood loss, hemostasis, repair, platelet, fibrin, coagulation factor
  • Platelets and coagulation factors are involved in the creation of a hemodynamic plug that results in the cessation of blood loss and is followed by repair
  • The process of coagulation involves activation, adhesion, and aggregation of platelets, followed by deposition and maturation of fibrin. Disorders of coagulation can result in diseases with excessive bleeding (hemorrhage or bruising) or obstructive clotting (thrombosis).
  • Cobalamin deficiency

    A "failure" of having the "organic compound" composed of cobalt. Cobalt got it's me, meaning "goblin" because it was thought that little goblins would put this brittle rocky material in silver ore.

    • Kobold (German) - Household goblin
    • Vitamin (English) - An organic compound required in minimal amounts to sustain life
    • Deficere (Latin) - To Desert, Revolt, Fail
  • Aka Vitamin B12 deficiency
  • Leads to macrocytic anemia, pernicious anemia, brain damage and nerve damage
  • The word kobold meaning goblin came from the belief by miners that little goblins would put this brittle rocky material in silver ore
  • Collagenase

    An "enzyme" used to break down the "glue" like protein, collagen

    • Kolla (Greek) - Glue
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
    • Ase (English) - Used to form the me of enzymes
  • Enzyme, peptide bonds, muscle cells, Clostridium, gas gangrene, bacteria, immune response
  • Collagenase assist in destroying extracellular structures in the pathogenesis of bacteria like Clostridium. It is considered a virulence factor and facilitates the spread of gas gangrene. However, collagenase is being considered as a drug for the treatment of Peyronie's disease (growth of fibrous plaques in the soft tissue of the penis).
  • Coporphobilinogen

    A "purple" breakdown product of "bile"

    • Porphura (Greek) - Purple
    • Bilis (Latin) - Bile, Fluid secreted by liver
    • Ine (Latin) - Resembling in ture
    • Genos (Greek) - Birth
  • Elevation of this urine porphyrin is found in acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) due to the spontaneous polymerization of porphobilinogen in the urine.
  • Cromolyn sodium

    An antiinflammatory agent used to treat asthma with a characteristic "color" .

    • Cromo (Latin) - Color
    • Sodium (English) - Isolated from a caustic soda agent, the symbol comes from it's altertive me trium
  • Asthma prophylaxis, antiinflammatory medication, mast cell, histamine
  • An antiinflammatory medication that works by stabilizing mast cells and thus preventing the release of inflammatory chemicals such as histamine
  • It is mostly effective as a prophylaxis for allergic and exercise induced asthma not used for acute asthma attacks.
  • Cryoprecipitate

    A "frozen" blood product in which the contents have "fallen out of" whole blood.

  • Blood product, plasma, fibrinogen, vWF, factor VIII, Factor XIII
  • Frozen blood product prepared from plasma that contains fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor, factor VIII, factor XIII, and fibronectin
  • Administered intravenously used in patients with bleeding or used prior to a invasive procedure in patients with low fibrinogen levels.
  • Dendritic cell

    An immune cell med for its multiple "branches" that capture pathogens for further processing.

    • Dendron (Greek) - Tree
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Immune system
  • Tcells
  • Antigen presenting cells (APCs)
  • An antigen presenting cell that plays a role in the immune system and whose function is to present antigens to Tcells.
  • Diffuse cortical necrosis

    The "death" of the "outer layer" of the kidney.

    • Diffus (Latin) - Poured Out
    • Cortex (Latin) - Bark of a Tree, Outer layer
    • Nekros (Greek) - Dead body, Corpse, Death
  • Acute renal failure
  • A cause of acute renal failure that is usually caused by diminished renal arterial perfusion secondary to vascular spasm, microvascular injury, or intravascular coagulation. It is recognized as the pathological progression of acute tubular necrosis.
  • Diphenoxylate

    An opioid drug used to treat diarrhea by slowing intestinal contractions.

    • Di (Greek) - Two, Double, Twice
    • Phenyl (French) - Shining
    • Oxys (Greek) - Sharp
    • Atus/Atum (Latin) - Salts of acids
  • Opioid agonist
  • Diarrhea
  • Intestines
  • Stool
  • Pharmacology
  • An opioid agonist used for the treatment of diarrhea that acts by slowing intestinal contractions and peristalsis, allowing the body to consolidate intestinal contents and prolong transit time. By doing so, it allows the intestines to draw moisture out of the contents at a normal to higher rate and therefore stop the formation of loose and liquid stools.
  • Disruption

    An event that causes an unplanned, negative deviation from the expected delivery.

  • Pregnancy
  • Delivery
  • Elastin

    A protein that allows tissues to "expand spontaneously" and also return back to their original shape after stretching.

  • Elastin
  • Stretch
  • Shape
  • Tissue
  • Elimination

    "Expelling" or removing a substance from the body.

  • Pharmacology
  • Elimination
  • Drug
  • Time
  • Route
  • Emphysema

    A type of COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) in which the individual alveoli over"inflate" and eventually rupture.

  • Inability to expel extra air from the lungs
  • Obstructive disease (vs. restrictive)
  • Shortness of breath
  • Commonly seen in smokers
  • Enzymelinked immunosorbent assay

    Also known as ELISA, this laboratory test helps identify antigens within a sample by using specific antibodies that cause color changes when bound to the desired molecule. ELISA is used to screen for HIV.

    • En (Greek) - Within
    • Zume (Greek) - To leaven
    • Link (English) - Chain
    • Immunis (Latin) - Free, exempt
    • Absorbere (Latin) - Swallow Up
    • Assay (Latin) - Exigere, to examine, to test
  • Test
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecule
  • Antibody
  • Color
  • ELISA
  • HIV screen
  • Eosinopenia

    A condition in which there is a "lack" of expected immune cells, med for their "dawn", or pinkred color.

    • Eos (Greek) - Dawn
    • Penia (Latin) - Deficiency, a lack
  • Common in agranulocytosis
  • Can be induced by stress or steroid use
  • Epispadias

    A congenital "gouge" in which the urethra ends in an opening "above" the dorsum of the penis.

    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Spado (Latin) - A tear or gouge
  • Associated with bladder exstrophy
  • First reported in Byzantine Emperor Heraclius (610641 AD)
  • Erythema nodosum

    Painful "red" erythematous macules commonly seen on the shins as a result of "knots" of fat becoming inflamed.

  • Associated most commonly with Crohn's disease and streptococcal infections
  • Also seen in rickettsial infections, primary tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, leprosy, oral contraceptives, sulfonamides, penicillins, and nonHodgkin's lymphoma

  • Medytoons
    Erythrocyte

    "Red" blood "cell."

    • Eruthros (Latin) - Red
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Anuclear biconcave diskshaped cells
  • Contain hemoglobin for oxygen transport
  • 1/4 of cells in the human body are erythrocytes

  • Mnemonics
    Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas
    The concentrations of the various immune cell types
    Neutrophils (the most), Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Erythrocytes, Basophils (least)
    Erythrocyte sedimentation rate

    The rate at which "red" blood "cells" "sink" or "settle" in an hour.

    • Eruthros (Latin) - Red
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Sedimentum (Latin) - A setting, sinking down
    • Rata (Latin) - Fixed, settled
  • Nonspecific marker of inflammation
  • Notably increased in temporal arteritis, multiple myeloma, and a number of autoimmune diseases
  • Called Biercki's Reaction in Poland and FW test in the UK after various claims of the test's invention
  • Erythroplasia of Queyrat

    Carcinoma in situ of the glans penis or vulva appearing as a red patch

  • Usually seen only in uncircumcised men
  • Originally described by Tarnovsky in 1891 and refined by Queyrat in 1911
  • Essential fructosuria

    A condition in which there is "fruit" sugar in the "urine".

    • Essential (Latin) - Pertaining to Essence
    • Fructus (Latin) - Fruit
    • Uria (Latin) - Of or pertaining to urine, the uriry system
  • Benign deficiency of hepatic fructokinase
  • Autosomal recessive
  • Fructose excreted in urine
  • Symptomatic individuals may avoid sweets due to associated abdominal bloating
  • One of the oldest known inborn errors of metabolism
  • Extinction

    Gradual "quenching" of an operant behavior from a conditioned stimulus due to lack of reinforcement.

    Extramedullary hematopoiesis

    "Blood" "made" "outside" the "pith or marrow" of bone.

  • Physiological in fetal development (liver, spleen, yolk sac)
  • May be pathological (e.g. from myelofibrosis)
  • Factitious disorder

    Acting "witty" or faking symptoms that are "different" than what is really felt in order to "ordain" sympathy.

    • Facetus (Latin) - Witty
    • Dis (Latin) - Not, In a Different Direction, Between
    • Ordinare (Latin) - Ordain, regular
  • Formerly known as Munchausen syndrome
  • Femur

    Only bone in the "thigh."

  • Proximal fracture may be called a hip fracture
  • Ferritin

    Intracellular "iron" storage protein.

  • Laboratory measure of body iron storage
  • Decreased in iron deficiency
  • Increased in anemia of chronic disease and hemochromatosis
  • Ferrochelatase

    Enzyme that "pinches together" protoporphyrin and "iron".

    • Ferrous (Latin) - Iron
    • Khele (Greek) - Talon, Claw, Hoof, Pinching together
  • Affected by lead poisoning
  • Dysfunction results in microcytic anemia
  • Fibrillation

    Irregular, rapid contraction of "small fibers" of muscle.

  • Lower motor neuron sign in skeletal muscle
  • Abnormal heart chamber contractions
  • Fibrin

    "Fibrous" blood clotting protein.

    • Fibra (Latin) - A fiber, filament, entrail
  • Activated from fibrinogen by thrombin
  • Also known as Factor Ia
  • Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

    A condition in which specific "points" and "pieces" of the "ballshaped mass" of the kidney becomes "hardened".

    • Focus (Latin) - Hearth, fireplace, center of activity
    • Segmentum (Latin) - A piece cut off
    • Glomus (Latin) - Ballshaped mass
    • Skleroun (Greek) - To Harden
  • Nephrotic syndrome involving sclerosis of parts of some glomeruli and effacement of podocytes
  • Associated with HIV, IV drug abuse, and sickle cell disease
  • More common in African Americans and Hispanics
  • Follicular cyst

    A "little bag" in the ovary that grows but does not release its oocyte, leading to the formation of a fluid filled "sac"

  • Ovulation pain may be referred to as Mittelschmerz
  • Gitelman syndrome

    A condition in which patients have a defective Cl cotransporter of the distal convoluted tubule

    • Autosomal recessive disorder
    • Hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis and hypocalciuria
    • Less severe than Bartter syndrome
    • Presentation similar to patients taking thiazide diuretics
    • Glioblastoma multiforme

      • Glia (Greek) - Glue
      • Blastos (Greek) - Germ, sprout, bud or budding, immature
      • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
      • Multus (Latin) - Much, many
      • Forma (Latin) - Form
    • Ringenhancing lesions
    • Seen in adults more so than children
    • Butterfly lesion that crosses the corpus callosum
    • Pseudopalisading necrosis
    • The me is derived from the fact that this type of tumor arises from glial cell precursors and causes necrosis, cyst like structures and bleeding hence the me multiforme.
    • Glycosylation

      The act of adding a "sweet wine" or sugar to a donor molecule (on a functional group).

      • Glykys (Greek) - Sweet, sweet wine
    • Important step in the formation of collagen that takes place within the endoplasmic reticulum
    • Graftvshost disease

      A disease caused by transplantation of immunocompetent graft tissue T cells that attack an immunocompromised host, causing severe organ failure

    • Symptoms include rash, jaundice, and hepatosplenomegaly.
    • Literally Named because the graft attacks the host
    • Haemophilus Influenzae

      An encapsulated, gramnegative bacillus that "loves blood"

    • Secretes IgA protease
    • Cultured in chocolate agar with factors V (D+) and X (hematin)
    • Associated with epiglottitis, meningitis, otitis media, and pneumonia
    • HiB vaccine has drastically reduced cases of HiBassociated meningitis
    • The first freeliving organism to have its entire genome sequenced.
    • Hamate bone

      A "hooklike" bone of the human wrist.

      • Hamus (Latin) - Hook
      • Ban (Old English) - Bone, tusk
    • Hook of hamate forms part of border of carpal tunnel and serves as the attachment site for the flexor carp ulnaris

    • Mnemonics
      So Long To Pinky, Here Comes The Thumb
      The bones of the wrist
      Scaphoid, Lunate, Triqutrim, Pisiform, Hamate, Capitate, Trapezoid, Trapezium
      Heberden nodes

      Nodal swellings that are found in the DIP joints of the fingers and usually found in osteoarthritis

      • Named for William Heberden.
      • Helicotrema

        The hole of the inner ear containing "coils" where the scala tympani and the scala vestibuli meet.

        • Helix (Greek) - Spiral, coil
        • Trema (Greek) - A hole
      • Contains wide, flexible hair cells involved signaling for low frequency sounds
      • Hemangioma

        A benign "tumor or mass" composed of "blood" "vessels".

        • Haima (Greek) - Blood
        • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
        • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
      • Characterized as raised red lesions
      • Found on children's faces as strawberry hemangiomas
      • Regress spontaneously in children
      • Liver hemangiomas contraindicated for biopsy due to risk of hemorrhage
      • Associated with SturgeWeber syndrome and VHL syndrome
      • Literally Named blood vessel tumor
      • Hematochezia

        "Defecating blood."

      • Also known as lower GI bleed
      • Usually passes bright red blood
      • Commonly associated with diverticulosis, colorectal cancer, angiodysplasia, inflammatory bowel diseases, and hemorrhoids
      • Hemolytic

        "Loosening" of red "blood" cells

        Hemolytic anemia

        "No" red "blood" cells caused by the "loosening" of red blood cells

        • Haima (Greek) - Blood
        • Lutikos (Greek) - Able to loosen
        • An (Greek) - Without, not
        • Haima (Greek) - Blood
      • May be intravascular or extravascular
      • This disease is found in black rhinos.
      • Hemolytic uremic syndrome

        The triadic set of symptoms "running" "together" of anemia due to "loosening" of red "blood" cells, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure (leading to "urine" in the "blood"

        • Haima (Greek) - Blood
        • Lutikos (Greek) - Able to loosen
        • Ouron (Greek) - Urine
        • Haima (Greek) - Blood
        • Syn (Greek) - With, together
        • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
      • Associated with EHEC serotype O157:H7 and Shigella
      • Argentina has the highest incidence of HUS.
      • Hereditary angioedema

        "Inherited swelling" of blood "vessels."

        • Hereditatem (Latin) - Heirship, inheritance, condition of being an heir
        • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
        • Oidema (Greek) - Swelling
      • Characterized by severe swelling of the face, extremities, genitals, GI tract, and upper airways
      • Associated with C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency
      • Heteroplasmy

        Existence of "different shapes" of mutated and normal mitochondrial genomes in one cell

        • Hetero (Greek) - Other, different
        • Plasm (Greek) - Mold, shape
      • Responsible for variable penetrance of mitochondrial diseases
      • Hirsutism

        Excessive "shaggy" hair growth on women

        • Hirsutus (Latin) - Shaggy, bristly, rough
      • Excessive hairiness of women
      • Usually due to androgen excess
      • Commonly seen in PCOD and tumors of the adrenal glands
      • Hives

        "Itchy skin"

        • Hyvis (Unknown) - Itchy Skin
      • Mast cell degranulation
      • Skin rash
      • Pale, red, raised, itchy bumps
      • Horseshoe kidney

        Congenital defect that causes the inferior poles of both "kidneys" to fuse together, forming a "horseshoe" shape

        • Hors (Old English) - Horse
        • Scoh (Old English) - Shoe
        • Kidnere (Middle English) - Kidney
      • Caught on inferior mesenteric artery
      • Associated with Turner syndrome.
      • Named because the fused kidneys literally look like a horseshoe.
      • Immature teratoma

        A rare type of "monstrous" "tumor" derived from cells that are in the early stages of development, specifically cells that give rise to egg and sperm (germ cells)

        • Terato (Greek) - Marvel, monster
        • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
      • Aggressive
      • Contains fetal tissue
      • Neuroectoderm
      • Malignant ovarian neoplasm
      • Intrathecal

        Refers to a mode of drug transmission that introduces the drug "within" an atomic space or potential space inside a "sheath," most commonly the arachnoid membrane of the brain or spinal cord.

        • Intra (Latin) - On the inside, within
        • Theke (Greek) - Case, Envelope, Sheath
        Inulin

        Inulin is a chemical that is neither secreted nor absorbed by the kidneys. Therefore, it can be used to calculate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR).

        • Inula (Latin) - Plants of genus Inula
      • GFR is the volume of fluid filtered from the glomerular capillaries into the Bowman's capsule per unit time.
      • Lactate

        A chemical compound that is constantly produced from pyruvate via the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in a process of fermentation during normal metabolism and exercise.

        • Lac (Latin) - Milk
      • Elevated levels in PDH deficiency.
      • First isolated in 1780 by the Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele
      • Lactiferous duct

        The tree branched system connecting the lobules of the mammary gland to the tip of the nipple. They are the structures which "carry" "milk" toward the nipple in a lactating female.

        • Lac (Latin) - Milk
        • Ferre (Latin) - To bear, to carry
        • Ducere (Latin) - To Lead
      • Also called galactophore, galactophorous ducts, mammary ducts, mamillary ducts and milk ducts.
      • Lamina

        A "thin slice" of loose connective tissue that lies beneath the epithelium and together with the epithelium constitutes the mucosa.

        • Lamina (Latin) - Thin piece of metal or wood, thin slice, plate
      • As its Latin me indicates the mucosa's own special layer, the term mucosa or mucous membrane always refers to the combination of the epithelium plus the lamina propria (a supportive layer for the epithelium).
      • Langerhans cell

        These cells are antigenpresenting immune cells of the skin and mucosa.

        • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
      • These cells contain large granules called Birbeck granules
      • They are present in all layers of the epidermis, but are most prominent in the stratum spinosum.
      • Langerhans med after Paul Langerhans
      • LeschNyhan Syndrome

        Rare inherited disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme HGPRT because of Xlinked mutations.

        • This is an Xlinked disorder that causes a buildup of uric acid in all body fluids
        • This results in both hyperuricemia and hyperuricosuria, associated with severe gout and kidney problems
        • Neurological signs include poor muscle control and moderate intellectual disability
        • These complications usually appear in the first year of life.
        • Med after Michael Lesch and William Nyhan
        • Known as Nyhan's syndrome, KelleySeegmiller syndrome and juvenile gout,[1] is a rare inherited disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme hypoxanthineguanine phosphoribosyltransferase
        • Leukemia

          A group of cancers of the "white" "blood" cells

          Leukoplakia

          A "white" "plate" or patch found on the mucous membrane of the oral cavity

        • EBV is associated with oral leukoplakia
        • Occurs more commonly in smokers
        • Etiology is believed to be from chronic irritation, although exact cause is unknown
        • Cannot be scraped off
        • Lymph node

          A "knot" of "clear water".

          • Lympha (Latin) - Water, clear water, a goddess of water
          • Nodus (Latin) - Knot
        • Germinal centers contain B cells, biopsy to check for malignant tumors and leukemia, become palpable in lymphadenopathy
        • Lymphangiosarcoma

          A "tumor" in the "flesh" of the "clear water" "vessels."

          • Lympha (Latin) - Water, clear water, a goddess of water
          • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
          • Sarx (Latin) - Flesh, Meat
          • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
          Lymphocyte

          A "Clear water" "cell" med for living primarily within the "clear water" system of the body, mely B and T cells.

          • Lympha (Latin) - Water, clear water, a goddess of water
          • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
        • Count commonly increased in viral infections, chronic intracellular bacterial infections, protozoal infections, leukemia, and lymphoma
        • Count commonly decreased in recent infection (e.g. common cold), HIV infection (primarily T cells),corticosteroid use, malnutrition, lupus, and sarcoidosis.

        • Mnemonics
          Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas!
          % Concentrations of the Types of White Blood Cells
          Neutrophils (65%). Lymphocytes (25%). Monocytes (6%). Eosinophils (3%). Basophils (1%)
          Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas
          The concentrations of the various immune cell types
          Neutrophils (the most), Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Erythrocytes, Basophils (least)
          Lymphoma

          A ""tumor or mass" of the "cells" that live in the "clear water" system of the body, namely B and T cells.

          • Lympha (Latin) - Water, clear water, a goddess of water
          • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
        • The two main categories of lymphomas are Hodgkin's and non Hodgkin's lymphoma.
        • Lysosome

          A cellular "body" involved in "loosening" or destruction of ingested material by the cell.

          • Lysis (Greek) - Destruction, A loosening, setting free, releasing, dissolution
          • Soma (Greek) - Body
        • The organelle works at a lower pH than normal
        • Lysosomal storage diseases include TaySachs, Gaucher, NiemannPick, Fabry, Hunter, Hurler, Krabbe, Metachromatic leukodystrophy, and Icell disease
        • Lytic

          "To loosen" or destroy.

        • Adjective describing a process that destroys a cell or organism, usually through destruction of the cell membrane or cell wall.
        • Macroovalocyte

          "Large" "egg shaped" red blood "cells".

          • Makros (Greek) - Large, large to scale
          • Ovalis (Latin) - Eggshaped
          • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
        • Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency, folate deficiency
        • Manometry

          A test used to "measure" pressure.

        • It is generally used to test motor function of the upper and lower esophageal sphincters, the esophageal body, anus, and rectum
        • Used to evaluate achalasia and esophageal spasm
        • May be used to confirm Hirschsprung's disease
        • Marginal mandibular branch of facial nerve

          Branch of the "facial" nerve that runs down the "margin" of the "jaw".

        • Innervates the depressor labii inferioris, depressor anguli oris, and mentalis
        • Commonly injured during excision of the submandibular salivary gland
        • Masseteric nerve

          "Nerve" involved in "chewing"

          • Maseter (Greek) - Chewer
          • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
        • Off the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve (CN V3) that gives filament to the temporomandibular joint
        • Medulloblastoma

          A "growth" of "budding cells" from the "marrow or pith" in the brain.

          • Medulla (Latin) - Bone marrow, pith
          • Blastos (Greek) - Germ, sprout, bud or budding, immature
          • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
        • Highly malignant
        • Shows drop metastases, homerwright rosettes, small blue cells
        • Causes hydrocephalus
        • Neuroectodermal origin
        • Megaloblastic

          Type of anemias in which "budding cells" are "larger" than normal due to impaired D synthesis.

          • Megalo (Greek) - Great, large
          • Blastos (Greek) - Germ, sprout, bud or budding, immature
        • Usually due to B12 or folate deficiency
        • Metrorrhagia

          Frequent and irregular "bursting" of blood "in the midsts of" menstruation.

          • Meta (English) - Beyond, in the midst of
          • Rhegnunai (Greek) - To bust forth
          Microcephaly

          Neurodevelopmental disorder in which "head" circumference is more than 2 standard deviations "smaller" than average for age and gender.

          • Mikros (Greek) - Small, little, petty, trivial, slight
          • Kephale (Greek) - Head
        • Phenytoin (fetal hydantoin syndrome), Xrays, trisomy 18
        • In circuses, people in the shows with microcephaly were commonly referred to as pinheads.
        • Misperception

          "Incorrect" "gathering" of information.

          • Mis (Old English) - Bad, wrong
          • Percipere (Latin) - OBtain, gather, seize entirely
          Monckeberg arteriosclerosis

          A "hardening" of the "arteries".

        • Pipestem arteries
        • Calcification in the media of the arteries, especially radial or ulnar
        • Intima not involved so no obstruction to blood flow
        • Monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS)

          "Suffering" caused by expansion of "one" specific "branch" of blood cells leading to an increase in antibodies such as "gamma".

          • Monos (Greek) - Single, alone
          • Klon (Greek) - A twig, Branch
          • Gamma (Greek) - The me of the third letter of the Greek alphabet; signifies gamma globulin
          • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
          • Un (Old English) - Prefix of negation
        • M spike can be seen, but no other symptoms of multiple myeloma
        • Precursor to multiple myeloma in that patients with MGUS develop MM at a rate of 12% per year
        • Multiparity

          Having "many" "equal" pregnancies.

          • Multus (Latin) - Much, many
          • Par (Latin) - Equal
          Mycology

          The study of fungi such as "mushrooms".

          • Mykes (Greek) - Fungus, mushroom, anything shaped like a mushroom
          • Logy - Branch of knowledge, Study of
        • Eukaryotic
        • Ergosterol containing membranes
        • Mycoplasma pneumoniae

          Walking "pneumonia" that can "remold" the lungs causing "inflammation" and nonproductive cough.

          • Mykes (Greek) - Fungus, mushroom, anything shaped like a mushroom
          • Plassein (Greek) - To mold or form
          • Pneumon (Greek) - Lung
        • No cell wall
        • Fried egg colony
        • IgM cold agglutinins
        • Smallest freeliving bacterium
        • Myelin

          Insulating material that surrounds nerves in the "brain" and body allowing for faster saltatory conduction across nodes of Ranvier.

          • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
        • Oligodendrocytes in CNS, Schwann cells in PNS
        • Increases space constant
        • Kids need whole milk so they have enough fat to make myelin. Saltatory from the Latin saltare, meaning to leap.
        • Myeloblast

          Stem cell of "marrow" that "buds" into granulocytes (neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils).

          • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
          • Blastos (Greek) - Germ, sprout, bud or budding, immature
        • AML
        • Myelodysplastic syndrome

          "Improper" "forming" of blood cells associated "with" hypercellular bone "marrow" and pancytopenia.

          • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
          • Dys (Greek) - Bad, Ill, Abnormal, Evil
          • Plasis (Greek) - Molding, Formation
          • Syn (Greek) - With, together
          • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
        • Associated with preexisting dysplasia, such as radiation treatment or chemotherapy
        • Can progress to AML
        • Robin Roberts developed myelodysplastic syndrome after her treatment for breast cancer
        • Myelofibrosis

          "Condition" of "inflammation" of bone "marrow" causing decreased RBC production.

          • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
          • Fibra (Latin) - A fiber, filament, entrail
          • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
        • Tear drop shaped RBC
        • Myeloid

          Cell line "formed" from "marrow" which RBC, platelets, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils arise.

          • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
          • Eidos (Greek) - Form, Resemblance or Shape, Likeness
          Natriuretic peptide

          Peptide which induces "sodium" loss via "urine". Includes atrial natriuretic peptide which is "digested" and released by heart in response to increased blood pressure.

        • Atrial natriuretic peptide
        • Brain natriuretic peptide
        • ANP is the functional opposite of aldosterone
        • Neurophysin

          Carrier proteins that transport ADH and oxytocin from where they are made in the hypothalamus to be released in the neurohypophysis. They "love" "nerves" and are tightly attached to them.

          Neutropenia

          A condition in which there is a "deficiency" of immune cells that are "neither male nor female", med for their lack of staining by either basic or acidic solutions.

          • Neutro (Latin) - Neither masculine or feminine
          • Penia (Latin) - Deficiency, a lack
        • Immunodeficiency
        • Aplastic anemia
        • Increased risk of infection
        • Non caseating granuloma

          These granulomas are "seed"like "masses" without" a "cheese"like center.

          • Non (Latin) - Not
          • Caseus (Latin) - Cheese
          • Granum (Latin) - Grain, seed
          • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
        • Crohn's disease
        • Sarcoidosis
        • Made of epitheloid histiocytes lacking central necrosis
        • Norepinephrine

          Neurotransmitter released from poststyptic sympathetic fibers. It is synthesized in the adrenal glands "above" the "kidney."

          • Nor (Early English) - From Norwalk, Ohio where an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred from which the virus was isolated
          • Nor (English) - Normal
          • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
          • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
          • Ine (Latin) - Resembling in ture
        • Fightorflight response
        • Released from adrenal medulla
        • Made from dopamine
        • Ornithine transcarbamylase

          "Enzyme" that catalyzes the formation of citrulline. Ornithine is a "straight" chained amino acid with an amino group that goes "over" to the "carbon" of carbamoyl phosphate to create citrulline.

          • Orthos (Greek) - Straight, correct
          • Trans (Latin) - Across, over, beyond
          • Carbo (English) - Carbon
          • Ase (English) - Used to form the me of enzymes
        • Manifests with increased orotic acid with hyperammonemia (contrasted with orotic aciduria)
        • Transcarbamylase deficiency
        • Osteomalacia

          A "calming" or softening of the "bone" due to defective bone mineralization.

        • Known as rickets in children and is usually due to a lack of sunshine and Vitamin D intake
        • Pancreatitis

          "Inflammation" of the organ that "creates" various hormones for the "entire" body.

          • Pan (Greek) - All, every
          • Kreas (French) - Flesh, meat
          • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
          Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea

          A "sudden onset" of "bad" "breathing" occurring at "night."

          • Paroxysmos (Greek) - Sudden attack, convulsion
          • Nocturnus (Latin) - Of the night
          • Dys (Greek) - Bad, Ill, Abnormal, Evil
          • Pnoia (Greek) - Breath
        • Recurrent shortness of breath and coughing usually occurring at night
        • Caused by collapse of pharyngeal muscles. Major risk factor is obesity
        • Permeability

          The ability to "passthrough" a barrier.

        • The bloodbrainbarrier is relatively impermeable to various solutes in blood (as is the Bloodtestes barrier)
        • The renal filtration barrier varies across the length of the tubule
        • Release of specific chemical mediators in blood vessels change their permeability (for example, in inflammatory conditions histamine is released and permeability increases).
        • Pervasive developmental disorder

          A "divergence" from "normal" that "passes through" all aspects of an individuals life.

          • Pervas (Latin) - Passed through
          • Dis (Latin) - Not, In a Different Direction, Between
          • Ordinare (Latin) - Ordain, regular
        • A group of disorders that are characterized by language and social difficulty.
        • Includes Autism spectrum disorder, Rett disorder, and Childhood disintegrative disorder.
        • Peutzjeghers syndrome

          A disorder characterized by the growth of hamartomatous polyps within the GI tract.

          • Disorder characterized by nonmalignant hamartomas throughout the GI tract and hyperpigmentation around the lips
          • Autosomal dominant genetics
          • Increased risk for colorectal carcinoma and other GI malignancies
          • Pheochromocytoma

            A "mass or tumor" of the chromaffin cells (med because they stain a "dark" "color") of the adrenal medulla, most of which release catecholamines.

            • Phaios (Greek) - Dark
            • Chromo (Greek) - Color
            • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
          • Episodic hypertension
          • Associated with VonHippelLindau disease
          • Associated with MEN2a and MEN2b
          • Treat with phenoxybenzamine and surgical resection
          • Associated with increased urinary VMA
          • Up to 25% familial

          • MedyQuestion
            • A 37 year old man is brought in from prison after experiencing chest pain. In the emergency room is found to be tachycardic to 123 and blood pressure is found to be 188/119. The patient is very diaphoretic on physical examination. He reports that this has happened before, but was self resolving. What is the most likely finding on CT abdomen?

            USMLE Step 1

            • A 37 year old man is brought in from prison after experiencing chest pain. In the emergency room is found to be tachycardic to 123 and blood pressure is found to be 188/119. The patient is very diaphoretic on physical examination. He reports that this has happened before, but was self resolving. Prior to going to the operating room, what drug must be administered to the patient?

            USMLE Step 1

            Plaque

            An elevated solid "sticky" skin lesion larger than 1 cm in diameter

          • Commonly seen in psoriasis
          • In dentistry, Appears as a white/pale yellow "slime layer"
          • Commonly found in between the teeth and along the cervical margins
          • Its formation is a normal process that can't be prevented
          • Associated with caries and periodontal diseases
          • Plasmid

            Fragment of genetic material with a circular "shape," separate from a bacterial cell's main circular chromosome

            • Plasm (Greek) - Mold, shape
          • Transferred in bacterial conjugation
          • May contain antibiotic resistance genes
          • Can be used in gene therapy
          • Plasmodium Vivax

            A "mold""like" protozoan responsible for malaria infection that can "live" in the liver years after the symptoms have cleared.

            • Plasm (Greek) - Mold, shape
            • Odes (Greek) - Like
            • Vivo (Latin) - To live
          • Associated with 48hour fever cycles
          • Can form dormant hypnozoites in the liver
          • Podocyte

            A type of "cell" that has "foot"like processes, makes up the epithelial layer of the glomerular filtration barrier.

            • Podos (Greek) - Foot
            • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
          • Podocytes are involved in the filtration barrier of the kidney
          • Polycythemia

            Increased/"many" red "blood" "cell" mass/hematocrit

          • A cause of polycythemia is the condition polycythemia vera
          • Popliteus

            The popliteus is a muscle in the "hollow of the knee".

            • Poples (Latin) - Hollow of the knee
          • Unlocks the knee from extension by flexing and internally/medially rotating the tibia.
          • Porphyria

            Group of rare disorders in which enzymes of the heme synthesis pathway are affected. Presents with neurologic and skin manifestations; "purple" discoloration of patients' feces and urine when exposed to light during an attack (in some forms of porphyria).

          • Lead poisoning can lead to similar conditions since lead blocks heme synthesis
          • Acute intermittent porphyria and porphyria cutanea tarda are types of porphyria
          • Greek for purple pigment
          • Prophase

            "First" stage in which cells "appear" to be replicating

            • Pro (Greek) - Before, Forward
            • Phasis (Greek) - Appearance
          • Stage of mitosis in which chromatin become visible and are condensed into chromosomes. D has been copied so two sister chromatids are present.
          • Proteinuria

            The presence of "compounds composed of amino acids" in the "urine"

            • Protein (English) - A compound composed of amino acids
            • Ouron (Greek) - Urine
          • Seen in nephrotic syndrome
          • Seen in preeclampsia
          • Psamomma

            A "body" of "sand" or hardened material.

            • Psammos (Greek) - Sand
            • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
          • Round collection of calcium visualized under microscope
          • Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
          • Papillary Rel Cell Carcinoma
          • Ovarian Papillary serous cystadenoma and cystadenocarcinoma
          • Purine

            Nitrogenous base that comprises data stored in D and R, with adenine and guanine being the main purines.

          • LeschNyhan Disease, Gout
          • Pyruvate

            Important intermediate in energy generation, which will produce "heat" as a byproduct.

            • Pyr (Greek) - Fire, heat
          • Fil product of glycolysis
          • Reduction

            In orthopedics, "to bring back" or "restore" the placement of a broken bone through mechanical force

            • Reducere (Latin) - To bring back, restore
            Renal osteodystrophy

            "Bad or abnormal" "nourishment" of the "bones" caused by chronic "kidney" disease

            • Renes (Latin) - Kidneys
            • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
            • Dys (Greek) - Bad, Ill, Abnormal, Evil
            • Trophe (Greek) - Food, Nourishment
          • Chronic kidney disease leads to decreased secretion of phosphate, which activates PTH which leads to bone resorption by osteoclasts
          • Also known as chronic kidney disease mineral and bone disorder
          • Respiratory burst

            The release of chemicals from immune system cells such as neutrophils and phagocytes used to combat bacteria and other invaders; you use oxygen inhaled during "breathing" to "break" pathogens.

            • Respirare (Latin) - To breath in and out
            • Berstan (Old English) - Break suddently; shatter under pressure
          • Also known as oxidative burst,
          • Rickettsia rickettsii

            Causative agent of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, med eponymously

            • Disease is transferred by a tick vector
            • Rash starts at the wrists/ankles and moves towards the trunk
            • Rickettsia rickettsii is an obligate intracellular organism
            • The disease has a triad of rash, fever, and headache
            • Rough endoplasmic reticulum

              A "little network" with "uneven surfaces" due to being speckled with ribosomes that exists within the fluid that gives "form" to the cell.

              • Rough (Old English) - Uneven or irregular surface
              • Endon (Greek) - Within, Inside, Interl
              • Plasm (Greek) - Mold, shape
              • Ic (Latin) - In manner of
              • Reticulum (Latin) - Littlle net, network like structure
            • The endoplasmic reticulum that is associated with protein synthesis
            • The rough endoplasmic reticulum in neurons make neurotransmitters.
            • Scapula

              A flat bone attached to the back, med due to it's resemblance to a "shovel"

            • Flat bone attached to the back that connects the clavicle to the humerus. Involved in rotation at the glenohumeral joint.
            • Winged scapula from serratus anterior paralysis usually due to trauma from long thoracic nerve
            • In the middle ages, spatula was used to refer to the shoulder border which is similar to a spatula a broad, flat instrument for stirring
            • Semitendinosus

              A "half" "tightlystretched band" muscle, that's part of the hamstring.

              • Semis (Latin) - Half
              • Tenein (Greek) - To stretch, strain
            • One of the hamstring muscles in the back of the thigh. Helps to straighten the hip joint and bend the knee joint. Helps to medially rotate the tibia on the femur when the knee is bent and medially rotate the femur when the hip is straightened.
            • Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)

              A condition where there is a dysfunctional or complete lack of adaptive immunity, mely the humoral immunity (Bcells) and cellmediated immunity (Tcells)

            • The most common form of SCID is caused by a mutation in the IL2 receptor gene
            • The second most common form of SCID is caused by an adenosine deaminase deficiency
            • Children afflicted by this disease are commonly called bubble babies because of the child's vulnerability to serious life threatening infections, thus forcing them to live in sterile environments or bubbles
            • Short ciliary nerves

              "small" "fibers that convey impulses from the brain and body" "near the eyes" that are both sympathetic and parasympathetic

              • Sceort (Old English) - Short, not long, not tall, brief
              • Ciliaris (Latin) - Pertaining to Eyelashes, upper eyelid
              • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
            • Branches of the ciliary ganglion that contain both sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers that are responsible for innervating the ciliary muscle, iris, and cornea.
            • Damage may result in mydriasis
            • Sickle cell anemia

              A condition of having low red blood cells or hemoglobin, resulting in "crescent"shaped or "sickle"shaped red blood cells

              • Secare (Latin) - To cut
              • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
              • An (Greek) - Without, not
              • Haima (Greek) - Blood
            • Hereditary blood disorder caused by a point mutation in the betaglobin chain of hemoglobin and characterized by sickling of deoxygenated red blood cells.
            • Mutation is a point mutation of valine(nonpolar) for glutamic acid(polar)
            • Vasoocclusive crisis is the basis for many manifestations of sickle cell disease such as dactylitis, avascular necrosis of the hip, acute chest syndrome, and autosplenectomy
            • A point mutation that replaces glutamic acid for valine, leading to anemia and vasoocclusive disease. Sickle cell anemia leads to crescent shaped RBCs (sickled), crew cut skull on xray, and can confer resistance to malaria in heterozygotes. Complications include aplastic crisis, autosplenectomy, salmonella infection, renal papillary necrosis, and painful hand swelling.

            • MedyQuestion
              • A 6 year old boy is brought into the hospital by his mother because of acute onset left sided abdominal and flank pain, associated with vomiting. The patient on exam is found to be in the fetal position in pain, tachycardic to 110 and hypotensive to the 70s. On CBC with smear, the patient is found to have a hemoglobin of 7, from his baseline of 9, and sickled red cells can be appreciated on the peripheral smear. What is causing the patient’s current problem?

              USMLE Step 1

              Sphenopalatine nerves

              A "cord" of nerve cells located between the "roof" of the mouth and the "wedge"shaped sphenoid bone

              • Sphen (Greek) - Wedge
              • Palatum (Greek) - Roof of the mouth, of the Palace
              • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
            • Branch of the maxillary nerve
            • Also known as the pterygopalatine nerves
            • Splenic plexus

              A "network" of nerves providing innervation to the "spleen"

              • Splen (Greek) - The milt, spleen
              • Plexus (Latin) - Braid, network
            • Network of nerves that contains branches from the celiac plexus, left celiac ganglion, and right vagus nerve to provide sympathetic innervation to the spleen
            • Systole

              The phase of heartbeat where the ventricles are "contracting".

              • Systole (Greek) - A drawing together, contraction
            • The electrical stimulus for systole originates at the sinoatrial node
            • Systolic blood pressure is the peak pressure in the arteries
            • Systole means to contract and together and to send which correlates to ventricular systole, which causes the ventricles to contract together to send oxygenated blood through the aorta
            • Tardive dyskinesia

              A condition brought on by antipsychotic use characterized by "slow" "abnormal" "movements", especially of the face and lips.

              • Tardus (Latin) - Slow, Late
              • Dys (Greek) - Bad, Ill, Abnormal, Evil
              • Kinein (Greek) - Motion, to move
            • Atypical antipsychotics are less likely to cause tardive dyskinesia in comparison to typical antipsychotics
            • Irreversible
            • Tarsus

              The tarsus is a cluster of bones in the "ankle".

              • Tarsal (Latin) - Pertaining to the ankle or instep
            • Made up of 7 bones
            • Tarsal tunnel syndrome occurs when the tibial nerve is compressed in the tarsal tunnel
            • Associate with metatarsal bones
            • TaySachs disease

              An autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency in hexosaminidase A characterized by lipid accumulation in neurons. Symptoms include a cherry red macula in the retina, deafness, developmental delay and neurological symptoms.

              • Unlike Niemann Pick disease patients do not have hepatosplenomegaly
              • Increased prevalence among Ashkezi Jews
              • Build up on GM2 ganglioside
              • TaySachs is med for Dr. Warren Tay and Dr. Bernard Sachs. Dr. Tay first described the cherry red macula found in these patients
              • Thalamus

                Portion of the brain located in the "inner" most area, near the third ventricle, between the cerebral cortex and midbrain. Carries many functions as a relay center and has important functions in sleep, vision, hearing, and other sensory functions.

                • Thalamos (Greek) - Inner chamber, sleeping room
              • Embryonically derived from diencephalon
              • Thalamic syndrome can occur from a stroke
              • Korsakoff's syndrome occurs when the mammillary bodies are damaged
              • Thorax

                The "chest or breastplate" of the body.

                • Thorax (Greek) - Chest, breastplate
              • The region between the neck and the abdomen
              • Contains many important atomical structures such as the heart, lungs, thymus, diaphragm, esophagus, trachea, as well as many other structures.
              • Thromboangiitis obliterans

                "Inflammation" of the "vessels" that affects smokers and is commonly known as Buerger's disease. Often results in "blood clots" and "wiping out" of the blood vessels.

                • Thrombos (Greek) - Clump of blood, clot of blood
                • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
                • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
                • Obliterare (Latin) - Cause to disappear, blot out, erase
              • Associated with heavy smoking
              • Treatment is smoking cessation
              • Can lead to gangrene/autoamputation of digits
              • Associated with Raynaud phenomenon
              • King George VI of England suffered from thromboangiitis obliterans.
              • Thrombocytopenic purpura

                Reddish/"purple" skin lesions that do not blanch with pressure secondary to a deficiency of platelets, the first "cells" that start the coagulation cascade to form a "blood clot".

                • Thrombos (Greek) - Clump of blood, clot of blood
                • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
                • Penia (Latin) - Deficiency, a lack
                • Porphura (Greek) - Purple
              • A common physical finding for thrombocytopenia is purpura (e.g. ITP can present with purpura)
              • Thrombosis

                The "condition" of "blood clot" formation in the circulatory system.

                • Thrombos (Greek) - Clump of blood, clot of blood
                • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
              • Virchow's famous triad delineates the basics of clot formation: endothelial damage, hypercoagulability, and blood stasis
              • The major complication of thrombosis is the formation of an embolism
              • Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

                Disorder of "blood clotting" that presents with "low" levels of "cells" that "clot", leading to "purple" skin lesions (bruises).

                • Thrombos (Greek) - Clump of blood, clot of blood
                • Thrombos (Greek) - Clump of blood, clot of blood
                • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
                • Penia (Latin) - Deficiency, a lack
                • Purpura (Latin) - To become purple
              • ADAMTS 13 is a protein that degrades vWF. Inhibition or deficiency of this protein leads to decreased vWF degradation which eventually leads to platelet over activation
              • The microangiopathic hemolytic anemia is due to the platelet clot formation the clots shear the RBCs and destroy them
              • Schistocytes present on smear
              • Can treat with steroids
              • Fever, kidney problems, neurological problems, and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia.
              • ADAMTS 13 was described in 2001.

              • Mnemonics
                FAT RN's treat patients with TTP!
                Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP) Symptoms
                Fever, Anemia, Thrombocytopenia, Renal Dysfunction, and Neruological Disorders

                Medytoons

                MedyQuestion
                • A 24 year old man with no significant medical history is brought to the emergency room by his mother with complaints of a 2 day history of fever and rash. The patient appears confused at this time and is oriented only to person, but not to time or place. He has a temperature of 103.1, heart rate of 82, and blood pressure of 127/91. On examination you recognize a small petichiae covering his body that are non blanching, non pruritic and non painful. Blood work is performed and the patient is found to have a HgB of 8.5 and WBC of 11. A chemistry screen demonstrates no electrolyte abnormalities, with a BUN of 20 and creatinine of 1.6. Dysfunction in the degradation of what is the most likely cause of this patient's condition?

                USMLE Step I

                Tinnitus

                The sensation of hearing a "ringing" in one's ear when there is none present.

              • Associated with Cinchonism (quinidine toxicity)
              • Associated with aspirin toxicity
              • Part of the classic triad of Meniere's disease
              • Virilization

                Process in which the fetus develops traits "of a man" or woman in womb.

                • Virilis (Latin) - Of a man, manly, worthy of a man
              • A common cause of abnormal virilization is polycystic ovarian disease in which large amounts of androgens are produced in response to increased LH and fat
              • Med such because humans are born and innately become female, the process of virilization is whereby the fetus becomes male or manly
              • Von Gierke's disease

                "Sickness" med after Dr. Von Gierke.

                • Glucose6Phosphatase deficiency
                • The inability of the liver to break down glycogen to make glucose leads to characteristic hepatomegaly on presentation
                • Leads to and presents with severe hypoglycemia due to the inability to mobilize free glucose
                • Due to the prevalence of this disease in the Ashkezi Jewish population, those who reside in small ultraorthodox communities are tested as children for their genetic predispositions to these diseases so as to prevent those carriers from mating
                • Vonwillenbrand Disease

                  "Sickness" med after Dr. VonWillebrand.

                  • Bleeding from mucosal surfaces due to a decreased ability to form a primary clot, paired with an increased PT because of the lack of stabilization of Factor VIII
                  • Dr. Willebrand first described this condition in a group of people on an island off of Finland who suffered from bleeding of mucosal surfaces including the nose and mouth
                  • Vonwillenbrand Factor

                    Med after Dr. VonWillebrand. "Makes" primary clot.

                    • Facere (Latin) - To do, To make
                  • A protein in the blood involved in forming a primary blood clot by aiding in the binding of platelets and stabilizing clotting factor VIII.
                  • Heparin

                    Anticoagulant

                    • PE, ACS, MI, DVT
                    • Activated antithrombin
                    • Lepirudin

                      Anticoagulant

                      • HIT
                      • Inhibit thrombin
                      • Bivalirudin

                        Anticoagulant

                        • HIT
                        • Inhibit thrombin
                        • Hirudin

                          Anticoagulant

                          • HIT
                          • Inhibit thrombin
                          • Warfarin (coumadin)

                            Anticoagulant

                            • Chronic anticoagulation Afib, DVT, after STEMI
                            • Inhibits Vit K epoxide reductase reduces synthesis of factors 2, 7, 9 10, Protein C/S
                            • Alteplase (tPA)

                              Thrombolytic

                              • Early MI, early ischemic stroke, thromboembolism
                              • Convert plasminogen to plasmin
                              • Reteplase (rPA)

                                Thrombolytic

                                • Early MI, early ischemic stroke, thromboembolism
                                • Convert plasminogen to plasmin
                                • Tenecteplase (TNKtPA)

                                  Thrombolytic

                                  • Early MI, early ischemic stroke, thromboembolism
                                  • Convert plasminogen to plasmin
                                  • Aspirin

                                    Antiplatelet

                                    • Antipyretic, algesic, antiinflammatory, antiplatelet
                                    • Irreversibly inhibit COX1 & COX2 via covalent acetylation
                                    • Clopidogrel

                                      ADP receptor inhibitor

                                      • Clop (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                    • ACS, corory stenting
                                    • Block ADP receptor, inhibit fibrinogen binding by blocking Gp2b3a receptors
                                    • Ticlopidine

                                      ADP receptor inhibitor

                                      • Clop (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                    • ACS, corory stenting
                                    • Block ADP receptor, inhibit fibrinogen binding by blocking Gp2b3a receptors
                                    • Prasugrel

                                      ADP receptor inhibitor

                                      • ACS, corory stenting
                                      • Block ADP receptor, inhibit fibrinogen binding by blocking Gp2b3a receptors
                                      • Ticagrelor

                                        ADP receptor inhibitor

                                        • ACS, corory stenting
                                        • Block ADP receptor, inhibit fibrinogen binding by blocking Gp2b3a receptors
                                        • Cilostazol

                                          Antiplatelet

                                          • Claudication
                                          • Platelet phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor, increased cAMP and prevents aggregation
                                          • Dipyridamole

                                            Antiplatelet

                                            • Corory vasodilation, prevent thombosis after valve replacement
                                            • Platelet phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor, increased cAMP and prevents aggregation
                                            • Abciximab

                                              Antiplatelet, Monoclol antibody

                                              • Mab (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                            • Percutaneous corory intervention
                                            • Unstable angi, NSTEMI
                                            • Binds and blocks GP2b/3a fibronogen receptor
                                            • Eptifibatide

                                              Antiplatelet

                                              • Percutaneous corory intervention
                                              • Unstable angi, NSTEMI
                                              • Binds and blocks GP2b/3a fibronogen receptor
                                              • Tirofiban

                                                Antiplatelet

                                                • Unstable angi, NSTEMI
                                                • Inhibits fibrinogen binding to GP2b/3a receptor
                                                • Methotrexate (MTX)

                                                  Antimetabolite, Immunosuppressant

                                                  • Leukemia, lymphoma, breast cancer, head/neck cancer, RA, psoriasis
                                                  • Folic acid alog, inhibits dihydrofolate reductase
                                                  • 5fluorouracil (5FU)

                                                    Antimetabolite Nitrogenous base alog

                                                    • Colorectal cancer, breast cancer, used topically for basal cell carcinoma
                                                    • Pyrimidine alog, inhibits thymidylate synthethase
                                                    • Cytarabine (arabinofuranosyl cytidine)

                                                      Antimetabolite Cytidine alog

                                                      • Leukemia, lymphoma
                                                      • Incorperated into D and inhibits D polloimerase
                                                      • Azathioprine

                                                        Immunosuppresant

                                                        • Organ transplantation, RA
                                                        • Decreases purine synthesis, incorperated into D and stops further replication
                                                        • 6Mercaptopurine

                                                          Antimetabolite, Immunosuppressant Purine alog

                                                          • ALL,APL, Crohn's, UC
                                                          • Decreases purine synthesis
                                                          • 6thioguanine (6TG)

                                                            Antimetabolite Guanine alog

                                                            • Leukemia
                                                            • Decreases purine synthesis
                                                            • Dactinomycin (actinomycin D)

                                                              Antitumor antibiotic

                                                              • Wilm's tumor, Ewing's sarcoma, Rhabdomyosarcoma
                                                              • Intercalates D
                                                              • Doxorubicin (Adriamycin)

                                                                Antitumor antibiotic

                                                                • Solid and liquid tumors
                                                                • Complexes with Topoisomerase II, Free radical damage
                                                                • Daunorubicin

                                                                  Antitumor antibiotic

                                                                  • Solid and liquid tumors
                                                                  • Intercalates D
                                                                  • Bleomycin

                                                                    Antitumor antibiotic

                                                                    • Testicular tumors, Hodgkin's lymphoma
                                                                    • Free radical damage
                                                                    • Cyclophosphamide

                                                                      Alkylating agent

                                                                      • Solid and liquid tumors, brain cancer
                                                                      • Crosslinks guanine at N7 following activation in liver
                                                                      • Ifosfamide

                                                                        Alkylating agent

                                                                        • Solid and liquid tumors, brain cancer
                                                                        • Crosslinks guanine at N7 following activation in liver
                                                                        • Carmustine

                                                                          Alkylating agent

                                                                          • Mustine (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                        • CNS tumors
                                                                        • Crosslinks guanine following spontaneous bioactivation
                                                                        • Lomustine

                                                                          Alkylating agent

                                                                          • Mustine (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                        • CNS tumors
                                                                        • Crosslinks guanine following spontaneous bioactivation
                                                                        • Semustine

                                                                          Alkylating agent

                                                                          • Mustine (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                        • CNS tumors
                                                                        • Crosslinks guanine following spontaneous bioactivation
                                                                        • Streptozocin

                                                                          Alkylating agent

                                                                          • CNS tumors
                                                                          • Crosslinks guanine following spontaneous bioactivation
                                                                          • Busulfan

                                                                            Alkylating agent

                                                                            • CML, bone marrow ablation
                                                                            • Crosslinks guanine and adenine
                                                                            • Vincristine

                                                                              Microtubule inhibitor

                                                                              • ALL, lymphoma
                                                                              • Binds tubulin dimers, prevents polloimerization

                                                                              • MedyQuestion
                                                                                • A 52 year old man with hodgkin lymphoma presented to his doctors office with a a week history of increasing numbness in his legs, hands and feet. He has been receiving chemotherapy for 2 weeks. He has diminished sensation to pinprick and light touch. DTRs on physical exam are absent. What chemotherapy drug is most likely causing the side effect profile this individual is experiencing.

                                                                                USMLE Step 1

                                                                                Vinblastine

                                                                                Microtubule inhibitor

                                                                                • Testicular, breast, nonsmall cell lung cancers, lymphoma
                                                                                • Binds tubulin dimers, prevents polloimerization
                                                                                • Paclitaxel (taxols)

                                                                                  Microtubule inhibitor

                                                                                  • Ovarian, breast cancer
                                                                                  • Hyperstabilizes microtubules and prevents remodeling
                                                                                  • Cisplatin

                                                                                    Anticancer

                                                                                    • Platin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                  • Crosslinking D
                                                                                  • Carboplatin

                                                                                    Anticancer

                                                                                    • Platin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                  • Crosslinking D
                                                                                  • Etoposide

                                                                                    Anticancer

                                                                                    • Poside (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                  • Topoisomerase II inhibitor
                                                                                  • Teniposide

                                                                                    Anticancer

                                                                                    • Poside (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                  • Topoisomerase II inhibitor
                                                                                  • Hydroxyurea

                                                                                    Antineoplastic drug

                                                                                    • Sickle cell anemia (increases HbF), myeloproliferative disorders
                                                                                    • Inhibits ribonucleotide reductase
                                                                                    • Prednisone

                                                                                      Corticosteroids

                                                                                      • One (Greek) - Unique
                                                                                      • One (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                      Prednisolone

                                                                                      Corticosteroids

                                                                                      • One (Greek) - Unique
                                                                                      • One (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                      Tamoxifen

                                                                                      Antiestrogen

                                                                                      • Oxifen (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                    • Antagonist of estrogen receptor
                                                                                    • Raloxifen

                                                                                      Antiestrogen

                                                                                      • Oxifen (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                    • Antagonist of estrogen receptor
                                                                                    • Trastuzumab (herceptin)

                                                                                      Monoclol antibody

                                                                                      • Mab (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                    • Used to treat certain breast cancers
                                                                                    • Interferes with HER2/neu receptor
                                                                                    • Imatinib (Gleevac)

                                                                                      Antileukemia

                                                                                      • Nib (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                    • Philadelphia chromosome positive chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)
                                                                                    • Tyrosinekise inhibitor
                                                                                    • Rituximab

                                                                                      • Mab (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                    • Rheumatoid arthritis, leukemias, lymphomas, multiple myeloma
                                                                                    • CD20 receptor antagonist
                                                                                    • Vemurafenib

                                                                                      V600E mutated BRAF inhibition

                                                                                        Bevacizumab

                                                                                        • Mab (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                        Brachytherapy

                                                                                        A "therapy" for were radiaiton is delivered internally, a "short" distance from the cancer (As opposed to traditional radiation that is given externally)

                                                                                      • None
                                                                                      • Mesenteric Ischemia

                                                                                        A condition in which "blood" is "held back" or blocked from entering the "middle" of the "gut or bowel".

                                                                                        • Mesos (Greek) - Middle, in the middle, in between
                                                                                        • Enteron (Greek) - Intestine, Small intestint, Piece of Gut, Bowel
                                                                                        • Iskhein (Greek) - Keep back, to hold
                                                                                        • Haima (Greek) - Blood
                                                                                      • Presents as extreme abdominal pain that is disproportionate to the patient's physical exam. (i.e. palpating their abdomen does not illicit more pain).
                                                                                      • Often times associated with patient's with Afib, as clots formed in the heart can travel to the blood supply of the intestines
                                                                                      • This is a surgical emergency, and these patients need to go to the OR for bowel resection or risk death

                                                                                      • MedyQuestion
                                                                                        • A 64 year old man with medical history significant for hypertension controlled on hydrochlorothiazide, atrial fibrillation after an MI in 2005, and diabetes type II who presented to the emergency room for abdominal pain. He says the pain is ten out of ten, does not radiate and does not localize anywhere. On physical exam he is lying in the left lateral decubitus position holding his stomach. He has a temperature of 101F, and is tachycardic to 111. Bowel sounds are normal. Palpation of the abdomen reveals no increased tenderness. What is the most likely diagnosis in this patient?

                                                                                        USMLE Step 1

                                                                                        Hemostasis

                                                                                        Stop bleeding, i.e. keep blood within a damaged blood vessel

                                                                                        • Hemo- (haimo): blood. -stasis (stasis New Latin from Ancient Greek αἱμο- haimo- (akin to αἷμα haîma), "blood", and στάσις stásis, "stasis", yielding "motionlessness or stopping of blood".
                                                                                        • Allosteric enzyme

                                                                                          The regulation of an enzyme by binding an effector molecule at a site other than the enzyme's active site.

                                                                                        • For example, in haemoglobin, the binding of Oxygen atoms are affected by CO2, H+, ...
                                                                                        • Orthochromatic normoblast

                                                                                          One of the stages of the Erythropoiesis.

                                                                                          • Orthos (Greek) - Straight, correct
                                                                                          • Chromo (Greek) - Color
                                                                                          • Normalis (Late Latin) - In conformity with rule, normal
                                                                                          • Blast (Germanic) - Related to blaze
                                                                                          Polymorphonuclear

                                                                                          Cell has a segmented nucleus which is appeared as a multiple nuclei. Example: neutrophils.

                                                                                          • Polloi (Greek) - Many
                                                                                          • Morphe (Greek) - Form, shape, beauty, outward appearance
                                                                                          • Nucleus (Latin) - Kernel
                                                                                          Saccular aneurysm

                                                                                          A sac formed by the "localized dilatation" of only one side of the wall of an artery, a vein, or the heart

                                                                                        • - The most common type of aneurysm - Form of true aneurysm (all 3 layers involved) with fusiform (bulges out on all sides of vessel) - Common example is berry aneurysm: saccular aneurysm of cerebral artery of the brain, usually at the Circle of Willis. Frequently rupture causing subarachnoid hemorrhage
                                                                                        • Mycotic aneurysm

                                                                                          "Dilation" of an artery due to damage of the vessel wall by "fungal" (or nonfungal) infection

                                                                                          • Mykes (Greek) - Fungus, mushroom, anything shaped like a mushroom
                                                                                          • Aneurysmos (Greek) - Dilation
                                                                                        • - The term "mycotic" referring to fungal is a misnomer because many organisms, mainly bacterial, can cause the aneurysm. - At the time, the term "mycotic" was applied to any infection by bacteria or fungus, so the true definition is "infected" aneurysm
                                                                                        • MEDYMOLOGY