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GENERAL PATHOLOGY
162 terms share this category
Acanthosis nigricans

A process in which the skin becomes "spine" like, hardened, and "black" in color.

  • Associated with diabetes, obesity, and other endocrine problems
  • Possible indicatiion of underlying stomach or liver cancer
  • Acrodynia

    "Pain" of the "extremities", specifically the hands and feet.

    • Akron (Greek) - Tip, Extremity
    • Odyne (Greek) - Pain
  • Associated with exposure to heavy metals
  • The feet and hands become dusky and discolored
  • Historically, this disease has been referred to as "Pink Syndrome" and "Mercurialism".
  • Actinic keratosis

    A condition by which large amount sun "rays" lead to scaly "horn" like patches of the skin.

    • Aktis (Greek) - Ray
    • Keras (Greek) - Horn
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Usually caused by sun damage
  • Hyperkeratosis
  • Acute

    To come to a point quickly or "to sharpen" when relating to the onset of something.

    • Acuere (Latin) - To Sharpen, sharply onset
    Adenocarcinoma

    A "mass" of "gland"ulnar tissue, med for as cancerous growths thought to resemble "crabs" in ancient Greece.

  • VIPoma, Glucagonoma, Insulinoma and pheochromocytoma are common types of adenomas
  • Adenoma

    A benign "mass" of "glandular" tissue.

    • Aden (Greek) - Gland
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Benign tumor

  • MedyQuestion
    • A 26 year old woman presents to her primary care physician complaining of an inability to see in her peripheral view. On exam, you notice the patient’s shirt appears to be wet over the breasts bilaterally. On questioning, she reveals that she has had a white substance coming from her breasts in the recent few weeks and that she regularly needs to change her bra and shirt. What is the best non-surgical treatment for this patient’s condition?

    USMLE Step 1

    Afferent

    An "artery" that "carries" blood "to" an organ.

    • Ad (Latin) - Near, At, To Add On
    • Ferre (Latin) - To bear, to carry
  • Afferent nerves carry sensory input
  • Amyloidosis

    A condition in which there is a deposition of misfolded proteins of "fine meal" "forms" throughout the body.

    • Amylon (Greek) - Fine meal, Starch
    • Eidos (Greek) - Form, Resemblance or Shape, Likeness
  • A term referring to a set of conditions in which proteins fold to beta pleated sheets and aggregate leading to insolubility and deposition in various organ systems leading to problems.
  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    A neurodegenerative condition infecting neural tracts that run down the "side" of the spinal cord and causing them to "harden"; this leaves the "muscles" that the nerves innervate "without" "nourishment".

  • Also known as Lou Gehrig's disease
  • Usually starts at the limbs
  • Treat with riluzole
  • Anagen effluvium

    The "flowing out" off of the head of new "again" "produced" hair follicles.

    • Ana (Greek) - Again, on, upon
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
    • Effluvium (Latin) - A flowing out
  • A phenomenon seen in chemotherapy when a patient loses his or her hair
  • Anaplasia

    A growth "form" of cells in which they lose their typical orientation and as a result grow "upon" one another.

    • Ana (Greek) - Again, on, upon
    • Plassein (Greek) - To mold or form
  • A condition in which cells lose their individual characteristics that make them that specific type of cell
  • Associated with malignant neoplasms and cancers
  • Hyperchromatic nuclei
  • Cells overgrow one another and lose their proper connectivity
  • Aplasia often times is indicative of a malignant neoplasia.
  • Angiogenesis

    The process by which "blood vessels" are "born or produced".

    • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
  • Stimulated by a number of factors including but not limited to VEGF, FGF, and Ang1 and 2
  • Tumors utilize the process of angiogenesis in order to supply themselves with more blood.
  • Angiogenesis occurs in response to intense exercise. As the bodies demands for oxygen and blood increase with working out, the body adjusts by increasing blood vessel surface area to supply the various tissues with enough oxygen.
  • Angiosarcoma

    A malignant "mass or growth" of "flesh", usually in the form of endothelial cells, and of "blood vessels".

    • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
    • Sarx (Latin) - Flesh, Meat
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Vinyl Chloride exposure leads to angiosarcoma of the liver and is often times fatal.
  • Due to their direct position within the blood vessel itself, this type of cancer leads to early metastasis beyond its original site of growth.
  • Aplasia

    "Not" having "formation" of an organ.

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Plasis (Greek) - Molding, Formation
  • Pulmonary hypoplasia in potters sequence due to the inability to develop the lungs
  • Apoptosis

    The process of programmed cell death in which blebs of the cell "fall" "away" from the main body of the cell until demise.

    • Apo (Greek) - From, away from
    • Ptosis (Greek) - Falling, a fall
  • Biochemical events lead to characteristic cell changes (morphology) and death. These changes include blobbing, cell shrinkage, nuclear fragmentation, chromatin condensation, and chromosomal D fragmentation
  • Also used to refer to the falling off of the petals of the flower, or leaves from a tree
  • During programmed cell death, blobbing occurs and it's as if small pieces of the cell are falling off the main body

  • MedyQuestion
    • A young doctor banner, more commonly known as the Hulk, accidentally receives a high-power, dosage of ionizing radiation.. He is found dead in his home 1 week later. Autopsy examination of the skin reveals scattered, single epidermal cells, shrunken cytoplasm with eosinophilia and pyknotic, nuclei in fragments. These changes are most likely due to which process?

    USMLE Step 1

    Areolar

    The "small empty space" around the nipple.

    • Areola (Latin) - Small empty space, garden
    • Areola (Latin) - Small open space
  • Referring to the pigmented area on the human breast around the nipple but can be used to describe other small circular areas around an inflamed area
  • Areolar changes are seen in Paget's disease of the breast
  • Atrophy

    "Without" "food or nourishment".

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Trophe (Greek) - Food, Nourishment
  • Pathologic reasons include: decreased physical workload, loss of innervation, decreased blood supply, adequate nutrition, absent endocrine stimulation, aging, pressure
  • Autophagy

    The process by which a cell "eats" its "own self".

    • Auto (Greek) - Self, one's own
    • Phagein (Greek) - To eat, eater of
  • Cell degradation of unnecessary or dysfunctional cellular parts via lysosomes
  • Breakdown of cellular components promotes cellular survival during starvation by maintaining cellular energy levels
  • Benign

    Any "well""born", nonmalignant condition that does not spread to other parts of the body.

    • Bene (Latin) - Well
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
  • Something that is benign is nonmalignant, or well or good. A benign tumor for example is a tumor that is not cancerous.
  • Blastic

    Refers a certain amount of "buds", germs, cells or cell layers.

    • Blastos (Greek) - Germ, sprout, bud or budding, immature
    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    "Bad" "formation" of cells in the "throat" and "lungs".

    • Bronkhos (Greek) - Windpipe, throat
    • Pulmon (Latin) - Lung
    • Dys (Greek) - Bad, Ill, Abnormal, Evil
    • Plasis (Greek) - Molding, Formation
  • Chronic lung disease in infants with scarring and inflammation of the lungs due to abnormal cell changes in the smaller airways and alveoli
  • Most commonly associated with premature babies and/or babies treated with mechanical ventilation for respiratory distress syndrome
  • Cachexia

    "Bad" "habitus" in patients due to disease.

  • Dramatic weight loss, muscle wasting, weakness, fatigue and loss of appetite in a person who is not trying to lose weight
  • Usually associated with cancer, AIDS, tuberculosis, multiple sclerosis
  • Chance of dying from an underlying condition increases significantly once cachexia is evident
  • Calor

    "Heat".

  • Important characteristic of inflammation along with rubor, dolor, tumor and functio laesa
  • Caput succedaneum

    A condition in newborns in which parts of the "head" are "replaced with" blood.

    • Caput (Latin) - Head
    • Succedaneus (Latin) - Replaced with, acting as a replacement, to succeed
  • A nonthreatening transiet malformation of the babies head
  • Often times occurs secondary to a vacuum or clamps being used for retrieval
  • Contrast this with cephalohematoma, in which the bleeding does not cross the suture lines.
  • Carcinoma

    "Cancerous" "tumor" originating from epithelial cells

    • Karkinos (Greek) - Cancer, crab
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Spread lymphatically with the exception of renal cell carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, follicular carcinoma of the thyroid and choriocarcinoma
  • Carcinoma in situ

    "cancerous" "tumor" cells that do not invade the basement membrane and grow "in their normal place"

    • Karkinos (Greek) - Cancer, crab
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
    • In situe (Latin) - In its place or position
  • Some common examples include cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, ductal carcinoma in situ, Bowen's disease, colon polyps and bronchioloalveolar carcinoma
  • Caspase

    Intracellular "enzymes" that break down proteins and function to cause regulated cell death.

    • Ase (English) - Used to form the me of enzymes
  • Rupture of the mitochondrial membrane leads to the releases of caspases into the cell that degrade proteins
  • Chromatolysis

    The "loosening" of "colored" cellular components of nerve cells that occur when the nerve is damaged.

    • Khroma (Greek) - Color, complexion character
    • Luein (Greek) - Loosen, set free
  • Nissl bodies, apoptosis, ischemia, toxicity, viral infection
  • Dissolution of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (Nissl bodies) in the cell body of a neuron in response to toxicity, lack of blood supply (ischemia), and viral infections as a precursor of nerve cell death (apoptosis).
  • Chromatolysis was the term first used in the 1940s to define cell death characterized by the gradual disintegration of nuclear components. This process is now called apoptosis. Now chromatolysis is the term used to distinguish the particular apoptotic process in neural cells, where the Nissl substance disintegrates.
  • Chronic

    Any disease that persists over "time".

  • Longlasting, disease
  • Coagulative

    A transformation of a "collection" of liquid into a semisolid "curdled"like mass.

    • Cogere (Latin) - Curdle, Collect
  • Soft solid
  • Semisolid mass
  • Liquid transformation
  • Necrosis
  • Coagulative is one of the types of necrosis along with liquefactive, caseous, fat, and fibrinoid necrosis.
  • Collagenase

    An "enzyme" used to break down the "glue" like protein, collagen

    • Kolla (Greek) - Glue
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
    • Ase (English) - Used to form the me of enzymes
  • Enzyme, peptide bonds, muscle cells, Clostridium, gas gangrene, bacteria, immune response
  • Collagenase assist in destroying extracellular structures in the pathogenesis of bacteria like Clostridium. It is considered a virulence factor and facilitates the spread of gas gangrene. However, collagenase is being considered as a drug for the treatment of Peyronie's disease (growth of fibrous plaques in the soft tissue of the penis).
  • Conjunctiva

    A membrane in the eye which serves to "connect" the whole eye

  • Most high yield board material concerns conjunctivitis caused by
  • Adenovirus pinkeye
  • Measles
  • Reactive arthritis part of reiter's syndrome triad of conjunctivitis, urethritis, and arthritis "can't see, can't pee, and can't bend my knee" are common symptoms
  • Cytochrome

    A protein that functions as a "receptacle" for electrons, changing "color" as electrons generate energy.

    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Khroma (Greek) - Color, complexion character
  • Cytochrome a
  • Heme
  • Electron transport
  • Mitochondrial membrane proteins
  • ATP
  • A group of membranebound carrier molecules that participate in a stepwise transfer of electrons, ultimately leading to the generation of ATP. They contain a heme group and can be found as monomeric proteins or subunits of bigger enzyme complexes.
  • Dactylitis

    "Inflammation" of the "fingers".

    • Dactyl (Greek) - A Finger
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Common first symptom of sickle cell amenia in children, especially on board exams
  • Also known as sausage fingers
  • Delerium Tremens

    A condition caused by the withdrawl of alcohol that classicly presents with a "deviation away" from normal brain functioning and violent "trembling" or shaking.

  • Commonly referred to as DT's
  • A potentially deadly withdrawl condition that occurs between 2 and 3 days after the cessation of alcohol in a chronic alcoholic
  • Symptoms include confusion, agitation, visual and tactile hallucinations (things crawling on the skin) and high blood pressure
  • Patients often die from seizures and exceedingly high body temperatures
  • Dermatomyositis

    An "inflammatory" condition in which "skin" and "muscle" are effected.

    • Derma (Greek) - Skin
    • Mus (Greek) - Muscle, mouse
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Muscle and skin inflammation
  • A connective tissue disorder that leads to inflammation of the skin and muscles. It presents as dysphagia, fevers, and proximal muscle weakness with vasculitis.
  • Desmoplasia

    The growth of fibrous or connective tissue due to an injury.

    • Desmos (Greek) - Bond, Chain, Fastening
    • Plassein (Greek) - To mold or form
  • Connective and fibrous tissue growth
  • Dialysis

    A treatment for renal failure patients in which blood passes "through" a filter, and unwanted particles are "set free".

    • Dia (Greek) - Through, completely
    • Luein (Greek) - Loosen, set free
  • Kidney treatment
  • A treatment modality that helps remove waste and water from the blood of patients that have dysfunctional kidneys.
  • DNA Viruses

    A group of viruses that have a D genome.

    • Virus (Latin) - Poison, poisonous substance
  • Major types include Papovavirus, Parvovirus, Herpesvirus, Poxvirus, and Adenovirus.
  • Dyschesia

    "Bad" or painful "defecation".

    • Dys (Greek) - Bad, Ill, Abnormal, Evil
    • Chezein (Greek) - To Defacate
  • Defecation
  • Rectal pain
  • Dysphagia

    "Bad eating", difficulty or pain during swallowing.

    • Dys (Greek) - Bad, Ill, Abnormal, Evil
    • Phagein (Greek) - To eat, eater of
    Dystonia

    Sustained and involuntary muscle contractions. This "bad" muscle "tension" may cause a person to twist or pose unnaturally.

    • Dys (Greek) - Bad, Ill, Abnormal, Evil
    • Tonos (Greek) - Stretched, Tension, Pressure
  • Movement
  • Muscle
  • Contraction
  • Posture
  • Efferent

    A vessel that "carries" something "out of" or away from.

    • Ex (Latin) - Out of
    • Ferre (Latin) - To bear, to carry
  • General principle in all of medicine: efferent describes moving away and afferent describes something moving towards
  • E.g.. Motor efferent carry signals from the nervous system to an effector organ. Afferent sensory nerves carry sensations towards the nervous system
  • Efferent arteriole

    The "artery" that "carries" blood "out" of a nephron.

    • Ex (Latin) - Out of
    • Ferre (Latin) - To bear, to carry
    • Arteria (Greek) - Windpipe, artery
  • Angiotensin II causes more vasoconstriction at the efferent arteriole relative to the afferent arteriole to increase the GFR
  • ACE inhibitors, a drug often used to treat hypertension, prevents the vasoconstriction at the efferent arteriole, and thus prevents a mechanism of increasing GFR and is contraindicated in patients with kidney failure
  • "Afferent" means conducted toward something, and in this case, it is the arteriole conducting blood towards the glomerulus.
  • Encephalitis

    An "inflammation" "within the head, brain"

    • En (Greek) - Within
    • Kephale (Greek) - Head
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Commonly results from an infection but not necessarily
  • Endoneurium

    Layer of connective "tissue" that encircles the myelin sheath which has "nerve" fibers "inside."

    • Endon (Greek) - Within, Inside, Interl
    • Neuro (Greek) - Nerve, sinew, tendon
    • Ium (Greek) - Structure, tissue
  • Nerve
  • Myelin sheath
  • Nerve fiber
  • Endoneurium
  • Enthesitis

    An "inflammation" of the point of "insertion" of muscles, tendon, or ligament to bone

    • Enthesis (Greek) - Putting in, insertion
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Inflammation of the enthesis is usually caused by psoriatic arthritis and other inflammatory disease or by physical strain and injury
  • Eosinopenia

    A condition in which there is a "lack" of expected immune cells, med for their "dawn", or pinkred color.

    • Eos (Greek) - Dawn
    • Penia (Latin) - Deficiency, a lack
  • Common in agranulocytosis
  • Can be induced by stress or steroid use
  • Erysipelas

    An infection that causes the "skin" to turn "red".

  • Commonly caused by Strep species, most commonly strep pyogenes, unlike cellulitis, erysipelas is a more superficial infection, the rash is due to the exotoxin produced by the strep infection and most commonly occurs on the face but also can affect the legs, the site of Erysipelas is not necessarily the site of infection as it is the result of exotoxin release and not an infection at the site
  • Erythema marginatum

    "Red" rings that are found primarily on the trunk and extensor surfaces of limbs.

  • One of the 5 JONES criteria for diagnosing Rheumatic fever associated with Strep. pyogenes infection
  • Most commonly found on the trunk and extensor surfaces of extremities
  • Associated with rheumatic fever, myocarditis, drug reactions, sepsis, and glomerulonephritis

  • Medytoons
    Erythema toxicum neonatorum

    A "red" rash caused by a "poisonous" immune reaction found only in "new" "borns".

  • Common neonatal rash occurring in half of neonates
  • Does not occur outside the neonatal period
  • White or yellowish papules and pustules on blotchy red skin rash
  • Confused for herpes simplex infection
  • Self resolving
  • Erythrasma

    A condition exhibiting "reddish" patches on the skin.

  • Patients show brown scaly patches on the skin
  • Commonly seen in obese and diabetic patients
  • Fibrinogen

    Blood clotting protein converted to fibrin by thrombin

    • Fibra (Latin) - A fiber, filament, entrail
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
  • Can form platelet bridges by binding to GPIIb/IIIa
  • Also known as Factor I
  • Fibrocystic change

    A change in breast tissue from normal to "small fibers" that make up small "bladders, or atomical sacs".

    • Fibra (Latin) - A fiber, filament, entrail
    • Kustis (Greek) - Bladder, atomical pouch or sac
  • Common benign breast lump that may be tender or itchy, especially just before menstruation
  • May present with menstruation tenderness
  • Fibromyalgia

    CNS disorder involving chronic "muscle" "pain", fatigue, and joint "fiber" stiffness.

    • Fibra (Latin) - A fiber, filament, entrail
    • Myo (Greek) - Muscle
    • Algein (Greek) - To feel pain
  • Common in depression or anxiety disorders
  • More common in women
  • 1990 paper by Dr. Wolfe defined diagnostic guidelines
  • Fibrosarcoma

    Malignant mesenchymal "tumor" in the "flesh" and originates in "fibrous" tissue of the bone.

    • Fibra (Latin) - A fiber, filament, entrail
    • Sarx (Latin) - Flesh, Meat
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Softtissue tumor or bone tumor common around knee and femur
  • Fistula

    Aberrant "pipe" or connection between two internal structures.

  • Caused by tissue damage. Allows for the discharge of inflammatory or suppurative material
  • Can be pathologic or therapeutic
  • Fulminant

    An event or process that occurs as suddenly and quickly as "lightening" and may be severe to the point of lethality.

  • Used to describe acute onset liver failure in hepatitis patients
  • Can also be caused by shock due to hypoperfusion of the liver
  • Gametes

    A haploid cell that "marries" another haploid cell, forming the diploid cell during sexual reproduction

  • Human gametes include sperm and ova
  • From modern Latin gameta, from Greek gametē ‘wife,’ gametēs 'husband,’ from gamos ‘marriage.’
  • Gastroschisis

    A congenital malformation in which a "separation" in the abdomen allows the "stomach" and other internal organs to protrude externally from the body.

    • Gaster (Greek) - Stomach, belly, eater, devourer
    • Schisis (Greek) - Separation, cleft
  • In gastroschisis, abdominal contents are not covered by peritoneum
  • This defect is due to failure of the lateral body folds to close during embryological development
  • Gastroschisis is a surgical emergency and occurs in about 1 in every 5,000 births
  • Hemangioblastoma

    CNS "tumor or mass" that originates from "budding" cells of "blood vessels".

    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
    • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
    • Blastos (Greek) - Germ, sprout, bud or budding, immature
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Associated with VHL syndrome
  • May produce EPO
  • Histiocyte

    A "tissue" "cell" part of the innate immune system that phagocytize foreign bodies.

    • Histos (Greek) - Tissue, web, warp
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Macrophages and dendritic cells are types of histiocytes
  • These types of cells are overproduced in a condition called Langerhans Histiocytosis (macrophages of the skin).
  • Hyaline arteriolosclerosis

  • Associated with essential hypertension and diabetes mellitus
  • Hydrocephalus ex vacuo

    Apparent increase in "water" in the "head" that occurs "out of" a "vacuum" of neural tissue in the brain

  • Normal intracranial pressure
  • Seen in Alzheimer's, HIV, and Pick's disease
  • Hydrolase

    "Enzyme" that "loosens" chemical bonds with "water."

    • Hydro (Greek) - Water
    • Lyein (Greek) - To loosen
    • Ase (English) - Used to form the me of enzymes
  • Used by neoplastic cells along with collageses to break through and invade the basement membrane
  • Hyperbolic

    Adjective describing something that resembles or pertains to a hyperbola (a curve). It resembles the curve of an "extreme" "throw" of a projectile.

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Bole (Greek) - To throw
  • Enzymatic reactions follow MichaelisMenten kinetics, represented by the hyperbolic curve
  • Hyperemesis Gravidarum

    A condition in which "pregnant" women "vomit" "excessively".

  • Associated with high levels of hCG
  • Leads to nausea, vomiting, dehydration, ketosis, weight loss, electrolyte abnormalities.
  • Hyperpigmentation

    "Excess pigment" in the skin from melanin, resulting in darkened skin.

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Pigmentum (Latin) - Color matter, pigment, paint
  • Hyperpigmentation of mouth/hands/feet seen in PeutzJeghers syndrome
  • Also seen in Addison disease, acanthosis nigricans, melasma
  • Can be the result of Busulfan toxicity or oral contraceptive pill use
  • Hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis

    A "hardening" of the "arteries" causing them to be thick and "over" "formed".

  • Onion skin appearance on histology
  • Associated with severe chronic hypertension
  • Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy

    A "disease" which causes "over" "nourishment" and enlargement of the "joints" and "bones".

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Trophe (Greek) - Food, Nourishment
    • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
    • Arthron (Greek) - Pertaining to the Joint
    • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
  • A syndrome of clubbing of the digits, periostitis of the long (tubular) bones, and arthritis
  • Hippocrates first described digital clubbing 2500 years ago, hence the use of the term Hippocratic fingers
  • Hypoblast

    "Germ" cells located "under" the epiblast within a developing blastocyte.

    • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
    • Blastos (Greek) - Germ, sprout, bud or budding, immature
  • Gives rise to the endoderm (respiratory tract and digestive tract)
  • Hyponatremia

    "Less" "sodium" in the "blood."

    • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
    • Natrium (Latin) - Sodium
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Seen in legionella pneumophila infection, SIADH
  • Hypopnea

    "Breathing" "less" or a slow respiratory rate.

    • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
    • Pnoia (Greek) - Breath
  • Commonly presents with excessive sleepiness
  • Treat with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)
  • Hypovolemia

    A state of "less" than normal "blood" plasma "size".

    • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
    • Volumen (Latin) - Roll, coil, wreath, size, volume
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Hypovolemic shock
  • Regulates antidiuretic hormone
  • Hypoxemia

    A metabolic condition characterized by "low" levels of "oxygen" in the "blood".

    • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
    • Oxys (Greek) - Sharp
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Hypoxic ischemic stroke
  • Respiratory alkalosis
  • Cyanosis
  • Causes of normal Aa gradient hypoxemia include high altitude, hypoventilation
  • Causes of increased Aa gradient hypoxemia include V/Q mismatch, diffusion limitation, right to left shunt
  • Iatrogenic

    Relating to an illness that has the "physician" or medical exam/treatment as the "origin or source".

    • Iatros (Greek) - Healer, physician
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
  • Caused by medical errors, negligence, and drug interactions
  • Esophageal perforation caused by upper endoscopy
  • UTI infections from indwelling catheters
  • Ichthyosis

    A "condition" in which the skin becomes scaly and "fish"like.

    • Ichthy (Greek) - Fish
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • There are a variety of different types of ichthyosis
  • Can be associated with hemostasis, especially in the legs of morbidly obese individuals.
  • Ichthyosis vulgaris

    A "disease" affecting the "common people" resulting in "fish"like scales on the body

  • Autosomal dominant inherited disease
  • Associated with filaggrin protein
  • Mild cases may have "mosaic lines" visible on the calf
  • Incus

    A small "anvilshaped" bone in the middle ear

  • One of the three ossicles that makes up the middle ear
  • Conduct and amplify sound from eardrum to inner ear
  • Derived from 1st branchial arch
  • Indurated

    Tissue that has become "hardened".

  • Commonly used to describe a consolidation of hardened pus within an abscess
  • Usually seen in bacterial infections of the skin
  • Inferior sagittal sinus

    A vessel "beneath" the brain which allows blood to drain posteriorly, like an "arrow," from the center of the head. It forms a "gulf" (from the center of the brain) to the straight sinus (at the back of the head), which connects to the transverse sinuses.

    • Inferus (Latin) - Lower Down, Below
    • Sagitta (Latin) - Arrow
    • Sinus (Latin) - Bend, fold, curve, a bent surface; a bay, bight, gulf; a fold in land; hollow curve or cavity in the body
  • Drains blood from cerebral veins and receives CSF from arachnoid granulations
  • Juxtaglomerular apparatus

    These structures are located "near" the "ballshaped" structure within the kidney.

  • The JG apparatus consists of the macula densa and the juxtaglomerular cells
  • They are found between the vascular pole of the renal corpuscle and the returning distal convoluted tubule of the nephron
  • Regulates renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate in the kidneys.
  • Kaposi sarcoma

    A tumor caused by human herpesvirus 8 is a systemic disease that can present with cutaneous lesions with or without internal involvement.

    • Sarx (Latin) - Flesh, Meat
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • It was originally described by Moritz Kaposi, a Hungarian dermatologist practicing at the University of Vienna in 1872. It became more widely known as one of the AIDSdefining illnesses in the 1980s. The viral cause for this cancer was discovered in 1994.
  • Karyolysis

    The complete "setting free", or dissolution of the chromatin, which is located in the "kernel" of the cell.

    • Karuon (Greek) - Kernel, nut
    • Luein (Greek) - Loosen, set free
  • After karyolysis the will uniformly stain with eosin
  • This dissolution occurs due to enzymatic degradation by endonucleases.
  • Kehr Sign

    Pain at the tip of the left shoulder, as being referred from irritants within the peritoneal cavity.

    • Commonly seen in splenic rupture
    • Koilonychia

      "Hollow" spoon appearing "fingernails".

    • More commonly known as "spoon nails"
    • Associated with iron deficiency anemia and PlummerVinson syndrome
    • Laparoscopy

      A procedure in which the abdominal cavity is opened via the "flank" or abdominal wall so as to "look or see" inside.

    • Once the cut is made, a camera is used to enter the incision to view the contents of the abdominal cavity
    • This technique for surgery allows for smaller incisions and less invasive surgical procedures
    • Laparotomy

      Literally, a "cut or incision" in the "flank" or abdomen to gain access to the abdominal cavity.

    • A laparotomy gives the surgeon access to a variety of organs including but not limited to, the prostate, digestive tract, liver, pancreas, gallbladder and spleen
    • Leiomyoma

      A benign "tumor" in "smooth" "muscle."

      • Leios (Greek) - Smooth
      • Myo (Greek) - Muscle
      • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
    • A uterine fibroid is a leiomyoma of the uterus
    • White whorled masses
    • Well defined
    • LeschNyhan Syndrome

      Rare inherited disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme HGPRT because of Xlinked mutations.

      • This is an Xlinked disorder that causes a buildup of uric acid in all body fluids
      • This results in both hyperuricemia and hyperuricosuria, associated with severe gout and kidney problems
      • Neurological signs include poor muscle control and moderate intellectual disability
      • These complications usually appear in the first year of life.
      • Med after Michael Lesch and William Nyhan
      • Known as Nyhan's syndrome, KelleySeegmiller syndrome and juvenile gout,[1] is a rare inherited disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme hypoxanthineguanine phosphoribosyltransferase
      • Leukocyte

        A "white" blood "cell."

        • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
        • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
        Lipase

        A "fat" cleaving "enzyme".

      • Acute pancreatitis
      • Lipoid nephrosis

        A "kidney" "disease" with the "likeness" of "fat."

        • Lipos (Greek) - Fat
        • Eidos (Greek) - Form, Resemblance or Shape, Likeness
        • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
        • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
      • Also known as minimal change disease
      • Most common in young children
      • Causes edema in feet and legs and proteinuria
      • May see fats in the blood in order to thicken it due to decreased oncotic pressure with protein loss
      • Treat with corticosteroids
      • This disease is med because of the elevated fat levels in the blood. The liver makes more fat to dump into circulation to increase the oncotic pressure lost via proteinuria.
      • Lipopolysaccharide

        Molecules composed of "many" "fats" and "sugars."

      • Endotoxin, septic shock
      • Lipoxygenase

        An "enzyme" involved in metabolism of "fat" using oxygen to do so.

        • Lipos (Greek) - Fat
        • Oxys (Greek) - Sharp
        • Ase (English) - Used to form the me of enzymes
      • Zileuton is a 5lipoxygese pathway inhibitor that treats asthma
      • Lithotripsy

        A procedure in which "stones", usually of the kidney, are "rubbed" via different methods in order to break them up.

      • Lithotripsy utilizes sound waves to break stones apart, most often kidney stones
      • Lithotripsy can also be used to treat stones in the gallbladder or liver
      • Lithotripsy quickly replaced surgery as treatment of choice for kidney stones after its introduction because it is a noninvasive procedure
      • The first generation lithotriptor was originally used to test supersonic aircraft parts.
      • Lymphocyte

        A "Clear water" "cell" med for living primarily within the "clear water" system of the body, mely B and T cells.

        • Lympha (Latin) - Water, clear water, a goddess of water
        • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
      • Count commonly increased in viral infections, chronic intracellular bacterial infections, protozoal infections, leukemia, and lymphoma
      • Count commonly decreased in recent infection (e.g. common cold), HIV infection (primarily T cells),corticosteroid use, malnutrition, lupus, and sarcoidosis.

      • Mnemonics
        Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas!
        % Concentrations of the Types of White Blood Cells
        Neutrophils (65%). Lymphocytes (25%). Monocytes (6%). Eosinophils (3%). Basophils (1%)
        Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas
        The concentrations of the various immune cell types
        Neutrophils (the most), Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Erythrocytes, Basophils (least)
        Lysozyme

        Bactericidal "enzymes" that "loosen" or destroy bacterial cell walls.

        • Lysis (Greek) - Destruction, A loosening, setting free, releasing, dissolution
        • Enzymos (Greek) - Leavened
      • They can be found in granules of neutrophils as well as in secretions, including saliva, tears, and human milk.
      • First enzyme structure to be fully sequenced that contains all twenty common amino acids as well as the first enzyme to have a suggested detailed mechanism
      • Malformation

        "Improper" development.

        • Mala (Latin) - Bad, Wrongly, improperly
      • Improper tissue development typically occurs in first trimester
      • Malnourished

        To be "badly" or poorly "fed".

        • Mala (Latin) - Bad, Wrongly, improperly
        • Nutrire (Latin) - Feed, cherish
      • Commonly seen as a sign of abuse in elderly and children
      • Melanocytic nevus

        "Dark" "birth mark" that is benign.

        • Melas (Greek) - Dark, black, murky
        • Naevus (Latin) - Birthmark related to tus, birth
      • Mole
      • Intradermal nevi are papular, junctional nevi are flat macules
      • Referred to as a beauty mark in 1950s and 1960s
      • Mesencephalon

        Embryological origin of "middle" part of the "brain".

        • Mesos (Greek) - Middle, in the middle, in between
        • En (Greek) - Within
        • Kephale (Greek) - Head
      • Cavity of mesencephalon gives rise to aqueduct of sylvius
      • The mesencephalon develops into the midbrain and acts to surround the cerebral aqueduct as it develops.
      • Mesosalpinx

        Part of broad ligament that acts as a "middle" "tube" between the ovaries and fallopian tube

        • Mesos (Greek) - Middle, in the middle, in between
        • Salpinges (Greek) - Tube
        Metaphase

        Stage of mitosis and meiosis in which chromosomes are lined up along the midline of the nucleus, "appearing" to be pulled "beyond" the midline by microtubule apparatus.

        • Meta (English) - Beyond, in the midst of
        • Phasis (Greek) - Appearance
      • Chromosomes seen at midline
      • Metaplasia

        A "molding" of cells into new types "beyond" what they originally were so as to accommodate a new environment.

        • Meta (English) - Beyond, in the midst of
        • Plassein (Greek) - To mold or form
      • Often secondary to irritation or environmental exposure
      • Squamous cell metaplasia in bronchi of smokers or in Barrett's esophagus
      • Mucopolysaccharides

        Long molecule consisting of "many" "sugar" units. Component of "slimy" mucus.

      • Usually an amino sugar with a uronic sugar or galactose
      • GAG or glycosaminoglycan
      • Multiparity

        Having "many" "equal" pregnancies.

        • Multus (Latin) - Much, many
        • Par (Latin) - Equal
        Mycobacterium Ulcerans

        A slowgrowing mycobacterium that causes lesions and "ulcers" in the skin.

        • Mukes (Greek) - Fungus, mushroom
        • Bakteria (Greek) - Staff, cane, Small stuff
        • Ulcus (Latin) - A sore, ulcer
      • Mycobacteria cell walls contain mycolic acid, and are all acidfast organisms.
      • The Myco prefix is used because the growth pattern resembles that of mold on a liquid surface
      • Myoclonus

        Brief, uncontrolled "muscle" "turmoil" caused by a contraction, twitch, or jerk.

      • Asterixis
      • Rel failure
      • Liver failure
      • CNS disorder
      • Myofibroblasts

        Cell that mediates "fibers" "going forth" and aiding wound healing in "muscle".

        • Myo (Greek) - Muscle
        • Fibra (Latin) - A fiber, filament, entrail
        • Blaestin (Old English) - To blow, belch forth
      • Proliferative phase, secondary intention
      • Necator Americanus

        "American" hookworms that burrow into feet from ground, migrate to intestines where they "kill" cells by sucking blood from mucosal wall

      • Barefoot
      • Fe deficiency anemia
      • Ground itch
      • Similar to Ancylostoma duodenale

      • MedyQuestion
        • An 8 year old boy from Georgia is brought to his primary care doctor because of a 3 month history of increasing feelings of fatigue. The patient’s parents say that over the summer, he would often times play outside barefoot with his brothers. On physical exam, the patient’s conjunctiva appears pale with dry pale mouth and tongue. The physician orders an iron study which demonstrated iron deficiency anemia. Given the patient’s symptoms, what is the most appropriate treatment for this patient?

        USMLE Step 1

        Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

        Atelectasis in a "newly" "born" person "with" a lack of surfactant in the lungs. High surface tension causes alveoli to be "restrained" and makes "breathing" difficult.

        • Neos (Greek) - New, young, youthful
        • Natus (Latin) - Born
        • Respirare (Latin) - To breath in and out
        • Districtus (Latin) - Restraint, rrowness, Affliction
        • Syn (Greek) - With, together
        • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
      • Seen in premature birth and Csection
      • DDx for breathing problems in a neonate
      • Lecithin to sphingomyelin ratio in the amniotic fluid is used to determine fetal lung maturity and risk for NRDS
      • Neutropenia

        A condition in which there is a "deficiency" of immune cells that are "neither male nor female", med for their lack of staining by either basic or acidic solutions.

        • Neutro (Latin) - Neither masculine or feminine
        • Penia (Latin) - Deficiency, a lack
      • Immunodeficiency
      • Aplastic anemia
      • Increased risk of infection
      • Odynophagia

        "Pain" upon "eating" or swallowing.

      • Associated with many conditions, some of which include pharyngitis, ulcers, epiglottitis, and cancer.
      • Opisthotonus

        A state of being "stretched or strained" "posteriorly" or backwards into an arched position.

        • Opisthios (Greek) - Posterior, backwards
        • Tonos (Greek) - Stretched, Tension, Pressure
      • Can be caused by spasms of the muscles that run along the spinal column.
      • Osmolality

        The concentration of a solution (particles/kg). This is the driving force that "thrusts" water across a membrane from lower to higher osmolality.

        • Osmos (Greek) - Impulse, a thrusting
      • Blood osmolality is tightly regulated by the hypothalamus through the use of ADH
      • The kidneys also exert their effect through the use of the ReninAngiotensinAldosterone system.
      • Osteogenesis imperfecta

        Congenital disease whose "source" is a genetic mutation of collagen causing malformation of bones, which seem brittle and "unfinished."

      • Brittle bone disease
      • Blue sclera
      • Collagen mutation
      • Osteoporosis

        Progressive "bone" "disease" with decreased bone mass and density leading to "pores" in the bone.

        • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
        • Poros (Greek) - Pore, passage
        • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
      • White, old, women
      • Decreased estrogen is a risk factor
      • Papillae

        A "nipple"like structure.

        Papilledema

        Optic disc "swelling" due to increased intracranial pressure leading to the appearance of "nipple"like blemishes on fundoscopic examination.

        Pathogenassociated molecular pattern

        Small molecules that are associated with pathogens recognized by our immune system due to their dissimilarity to self

        • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
        • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
        • Associare (Latin) - To join
        • Molecula (Latin) - A molecule
        • Patron (Middle English) - Something serving as a model
      • Molecules associated with pathogens that are recognized by the immune system
      • Tolllikereceptor4
      • Pathognomonic

        A sign or symptom that is specifically characteristic and helpful in having to "judge" or determine a particular "suffering" or disease.

        • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
        • Gnomon (Greek) - Judge
      • A pathognomonic sign or symptom has very high specificity but does not necessarily have high sensitivity (i.e. it's presence makes the condition very likely)
      • Examples include the presence of Koplik's spots in measles, auer rods in AML, Murphy's sign of cholecystitis, erythema chronicum migrans in Lyme disease
      • Phagocyte

        A cell that "eats" extracellular material.

        • Phagein (Greek) - To eat, eater of
        • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
      • A cell which is capable of engulfing/ingesting other molecules/cells.
      • Neutrophils, macrophages, monocytes, dendritic cells, and mast cells are phagocytes and are involved in the immune response
      • Antigen presenting cells phagocytose in order to present antigen to the immune system.
      • Phyllodes tumor

        A tumor of connective tissue of the breast with "leaf"like projections.

      • May be cystic and may become malignant
      • Most common in 6th decade of life
      • Polycystic ovarian syndrome

        A hormonal disorder of the "egg"bearing organ resulting in the formation of "many" "sacs" and other symptoms that "run" "together"

        • Polloi (Greek) - Many
        • Kustis (Greek) - Bladder, atomical pouch or sac
        • Ovum (Latin) - Egg
        • Syn (Greek) - With, together
        • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
      • Increased LH:FSH ratio
      • Associated with obesity
      • Hyperandrogenism can be seen in this condition
      • Hirsutism can be seen in this condition
      • Pruritis

        "Itching".

      • Commonly seen in allergic reactions
      • Associated with polycythemia vera, especially after hot water showers
      • High levels of bilirubin can cause pruritus
      • Commonly seen in infectious rashes
      • Pulsus parvus et tardus

        A sign characterized by a "beat" or pulse that is both "small" or weak, and "later" than expected.

        • Pulsus (Greek) - Beat, push, strike
        • Parvus (Latin) - Small
        • Et (Latin) - And
        • Tardus (Latin) - Slow, Late
      • Small or weak pulse that is due to the decreased pulse pressure, or difference between systolic and diastolic pressures
      • Seen commonly in aortic stenosis
      • Pyelonephritis

        "Inflammation" of the "renal pelvis" and "kidney", often secondary to infection.

        • Pyelum (Latin) - Rel pelvis
        • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
        • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
      • Costovertebral Tenderness, Rel Reflux (Vesicoureteral Reflux)
      • Reovirus

        "A poisonous substance" med for respiratory enteric orphan virus group.

        • Commonly affects the GI tract and respiratory system
        • Rota virus is the most well known
        • The term "orphan" virus comes from the original notion that the virus was not associated with any diseases. Since its discovery though, scientists have in fact determined its associations.
        • Rett syndrome

          A genetic disorder that almost exclusively affects the brain of females. It looks similar at early stages to autism

          • Hand wringing at the midline
          • Associated with scoliosis and seizures
          • Rhabdomyolysis

            The "destruction" of damaged "rod"like "muscle" fibers.

            • Rhabdos (Greek) - Wand, rod
            • Myo (Greek) - Muscle
            • Lysis (Greek) - Destruction, A loosening, setting free, releasing, dissolution
          • Serious side effect of statins and fibrates
          • Myoglobin will increase in the bloodstream
          • Myoglobin can appear in the urine as a symptom
          • Can be caused by trauma/injury, blood clots, metabolic abnormalities, hyperthermia, infection, and certain drugs
          • Leads to muscle loss and pain, and breakdown products of muscles can harm the kidneys and lead to kidney failure.
          • Rhabdomyoma

            A benign tumor, or "growth", of striated "wand or rod shaped" skeletal muscle.

            • Rhabdos (Greek) - Wand, rod
            • Mus (Greek) - Muscle, mouse
            • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
          • Cardiac Rhabdomyomas are associated with tuberous sclerosis
          • Risus sardonicus

            A prolonged spasm or contraction of the facial muscles that produce a "laughing" or grinning face.

          • A common sign of tetany secondary to C. tetani in later stages
          • Sometimes seen in late stages of Wilson's Disease
          • In pop culture, the Joker from the comic book series Batman, is said to use a toxin that induces this facial expression in victims
          • Sardonicus refers to the belief that if one were to eat the sardonian plant from Sardinia, that once would suffer from convulsions, "mocking laughter" and death.
          • Rouleaux

            Stacks or "rolls" (as in coin rolls) of red blood cells that can be seen on smear.

          • Associated with multiple myeloma
          • Associated with infection
          • Can be a nonspecific indicator of disease
          • Saphenous nerve

            A branch/"cord" of the femoral nerve that "manifests" when it is varicose.

            • Saphenes (Greek) - Clear or manifest
            • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
          • Provides sensory innervation to the front of the knee cap
          • Travels alongside the great saphenous vein behind the medial malleolus
          • Sarcoidosis

            A "state of disease" affecting the "fleshlike" organs in the body, such as the lungs

            • Sarx (Latin) - Flesh, Meat
            • Eidos (Greek) - Form, Resemblance or Shape, Likeness
            • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
          • A disease characterized by autoimmune inflammatory granules seen in a multitude of organs, most notably in hilum of the lungs
          • Causes hypercalcemia
          • Seen classically in African American women
          • Mimics the symptoms a TB infection

          • Mnemonics
            S. A. R. C. O. I. D
            Symptoms of Sarcoidosis
            Skin (Erythema Nodosum). Arthritis. Respiratory (Hilar Lymphadenopathy). Cardiac (Heart Block, Failure). Optic (Uveitis). Intracranial (Meningitis and neuropathy). Derangement of Liver and Kidneys
            Septum secundum

            The "second" "partition" between the right and left atria in an embryo.

            • Saeptum (Latin) - A fence, enclosure, partition
            • Secundus (Latin) - Next, following, second
          • In embryogenesis, the second interatrial wall that separates and creates the left and right atrium.
          • Fuses with the septum primum leading to the formation of the foramen ovale
          • Named literally secondary fence
          • Spongiform encephalopathy

            A "disease or suffering" caused by the content "within the head" taking the "form" of a "sponge" due to holes in it.

          • Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are prion diseases
          • Results in a rapid progressive neuropathology that inevitably results in death
          • Steatorrhea

            A "fatty" "flow" or stool.

          • Steatorrhea can be caused by lack of bile acids (due to liver disease, cholecystectomy, hyperlipidemia drugs), defective pancreatic enzymes (due to pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, etc.), defective mucosal cells as well as certain medicines that block fat absorption (Orlistat)
          • Stenosis

            A "condition" which results in the "growing" inward or narrowing of a lumen.

            • Stenos (Greek) - Narrow
            • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
          • Stenosis is most often caused by atherosclerosis but can also be caused by calcification, inflammation, ischemia, or neoplasm
          • Stenosis of certain blood vessels can result in turbulent blood flow, causing murmurs, such as a carotid artery bruit or renal artery bruit
          • Spinal stenosis can lead to neurological issues in extremities depending on the level of the spine
          • Transversus abdominis

            The deep muscle layer that "crosses" the "belly".

          • Supplied by the intercostal arteries
          • Trismus

            A "gashing or grinding" of the teeth together such that the mouth cannot be opened.

            • Trismos (Greek) - Trismos (a grinding, gshing, A scream; )
          • Commonly referred to as 'lockjaw'
          • Associated with tetanus
          • Tubulointerstitial nephritis

            "Inflammation" of the "small pipes" in the "kidneys."

            • Tubulus (Latin) - A small pipe
            • Interstitium (Latin) - Interval, space between
            • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
            • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
          • Can be caused by NSAIDs, sulfonamides, penicillins
          • Associated with eosinophilic pyuria
          • Can be asymptomatic
          • Tumor

            A mass or “swelling”.

          • Presents as a large mass that may be benign or malignant
          • As one of the cardinal signs of inflammation, tumor simply means swelling. In other cases, tumor is an abnormal growth of tissue.
          • One of the 5 classic signs of inflammation, along with rubor, dolor, calor, and functio laesa
          • Xenograft

            The transplantation of cells or tissue from a "stranger."

          • The first xenograft was performed on a young girl in 1984 who received a baboon heart. Despite the successful transplant, the girl died soon after due to blood type mismatching
          • Decubitus

            To be "lying down".

          • Left lateral decubitus is a position commonly used to listen for certain heart sounds
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            • Cyclo (Greek) - Wheel, Circular
            • Iasis (Greek) - Pathological or morbid condition
            • Schmieren (German) - Smear, a mark or stain left by spreading
            • Oxys (Greek) - Sharp
            • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
            • Prae (Latin) - Before in time or place
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            • Patens (Latin) - Open, lying open
            • Pneuma (Greek) - Air
            • Argyros (Greek) - Silver
            • Langerhans - Med after German physician and atomist Paul Langerhans (18471888) who idvertently discovered Langerhans cells as a medical student at the age of 21
            • Langerhans ('') - Med after Paul Langerhans
            • Acanthus (Greek) - Point, Thorn, Spine
            • Athere (Greek) - Groats, referring to what's on the inside
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          • Hemostasis

            Stop bleeding, i.e. keep blood within a damaged blood vessel

            • Hemo- (haimo): blood. -stasis (stasis New Latin from Ancient Greek αἱμο- haimo- (akin to αἷμα haîma), "blood", and στάσις stásis, "stasis", yielding "motionlessness or stopping of blood".
            • Лучший магазин лицензионных игр

              • Floxacin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
              • Velocitatem (Latin) - Swiftness, speed
              • Astenia (Greek) - Want of strength, weakness, feebleness, sickness
              • Cuneus (Latin) - Wedge, WedShaped Stone, Area
              • Morphe (Greek) - Form, shape, beauty, outward appearance
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            • Proboscis

              An abnormal elongated facial appendage, going "forward" from the face, most often nasal, but can include mouth as well ("feed")

              • Pro (Greek) - Before, Forward
              • Bosko (Greek) - To feed, to nourish
            • Found in holoprosencephaly, cyclopia, or ethmocephaly (all associated with brain/facial abnormalities)
            • More typically found in invertebrates that use their nose to feed, or elephants
            • In humans, it's associated with the nose
            • Prosthesis

              An "addition" of an artificial device that takes the "place" of a missing or impaired body part

            • "pros" in this case means "in addition"
            • The first confirmed use of a prosthetic device was from 950-710 BC. A leather/wooden big toe was found on a mummy in 2000 in an Egyptian necropolis.
            • Adnexa

              The appendages of an organ, basically extensions that "add on" or "fasten to" it

              • Ad (Latin) - Near, At, To Add On
              • Adnectere (Latin) - Fasten to
            • In gynecology, it refers to the appendages of the uterus: the ovaries, Fallopian tubes, and ligaments holding the uterus in place. Adnexal masses are common, such as cysts, endometriomas, fibroids, neoplasms, and abscesses.
            • Mortality

              The number of "deaths" in a given area or period, or from a particular cause

              • Mortalis (Latin) - Subject to death
              • Mor (Proto-Indo-European) - To rub, pound, wear away
            • Often used as the post-operative mortality or death from a disease
            • Mors is the personification of death in in ancient Roman myth and literature. "Mors" is the Latin noun for death, which is interesting because it is actually the feminine gender, although most don't seem to portray death this way.
            • The term "mortalis" is derived from the Latin "mors," which is derived from the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) "mor." PIE is the common ancestor of the most widely spoken language family in the world.
            • Morbidity

              The rate of "disease" in a population, or the state of being "diseased"

              • Morbus (Latin) - Disease, sickness, disorder
              • Mor (Proto-Indo-European) - To rub, pound, wear away
            • In medicine, morbidity is often used to describe or quantify the incidence or prevalence of a disease.
            • Mors is the personification of death in in ancient Roman myth and literature. "Mors" is the Latin noun for death, which is interesting because it is actually the feminine gender, although most don't seem to portray death this way.
            • Saccular aneurysm

              A sac formed by the "localized dilatation" of only one side of the wall of an artery, a vein, or the heart

            • - The most common type of aneurysm - Form of true aneurysm (all 3 layers involved) with fusiform (bulges out on all sides of vessel) - Common example is berry aneurysm: saccular aneurysm of cerebral artery of the brain, usually at the Circle of Willis. Frequently rupture causing subarachnoid hemorrhage
            • Mycotic aneurysm

              "Dilation" of an artery due to damage of the vessel wall by "fungal" (or nonfungal) infection

              • Mykes (Greek) - Fungus, mushroom, anything shaped like a mushroom
              • Aneurysmos (Greek) - Dilation
            • - The term "mycotic" referring to fungal is a misnomer because many organisms, mainly bacterial, can cause the aneurysm. - At the time, the term "mycotic" was applied to any infection by bacteria or fungus, so the true definition is "infected" aneurysm
            • Enuresis

              The "action" of releasing "urine" due to lack of control "within" oneself

              • En (Greek) - Within
              • Ouron (Greek) - Urine
              • Esis (Greek) - Action, process, as a result of
            • Aka urinary incontinence, often at night in children
            • Encopresis

              The "action" of releasing "excrement" due to lack of control "within" oneself

              • En (Greek) - Within
              • Copro (Greek) - Excrement
              • Esis (Greek) - Action, process, as a result of
            • Aka fecal incontinence
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              • Equus (Latin) - Horse
              • Sterol (English) - Steroid, act as second messengers and in membrane stabilizers
              • Cycline (English) - Medication Naming Convention
              • Krema (Greek) - To hang
              • Focus (Latin) - Hearth, fireplace, center of activity
              • Puteus (Latin) - Well, Shaft
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