Term Successfully Added to Selected Deck
Unable to Add the term to selected Deck. Please try again later!
GASTROENTEROLOGY
225 terms share this category
Abscess

A collection of pus thought to "carry" "away" dead, infected tissue.

  • A collection of pus that has accumulated within a tissue
  • Common seen at the site of infection, many times on the skin or within internal body cavities
  • Often times associated with redness, warmth and pus drainage
  • Acanthosis nigricans

    A process in which the skin becomes "spine" like, hardened, and "black" in color.

  • Associated with diabetes, obesity, and other endocrine problems
  • Possible indicatiion of underlying stomach or liver cancer
  • Achalasia

    A condition in which there is "not" a "relaxation" of a sphincter, usually the lower esophageal sphincter.

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Khalan (Greek) - Relax
  • Associated with difficulty swallowing, regurgitation, chest pain
  • Lack of inhibitory neurons
  • Bird's beak sign on barium swallow
  • Literally med without relaxation as the LES is able to relax and allow food to pass through into the stomach
  • Acute necrotizing gingivitis

    The "sharp" or quickly onset "death" of "gum" tissue.

    • Acuere (Latin) - To Sharpen, sharply onset
    • Nekros (Greek) - Dead body, Corpse, Death
    • Gingiva (Latin) - Gums
  • Aerobic infection, especially Fusobacterium
  • Gum bleeding, pain, and ulceration
  • Opportunistic infection
  • Also known as trench mouth because many soldiers developed it during WWI likely due to the poor conditions and stress
  • Adenoma

    A benign "mass" of "glandular" tissue.

    • Aden (Greek) - Gland
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Benign tumor

  • MedyQuestion
    • A 26 year old woman presents to her primary care physician complaining of an inability to see in her peripheral view. On exam, you notice the patient’s shirt appears to be wet over the breasts bilaterally. On questioning, she reveals that she has had a white substance coming from her breasts in the recent few weeks and that she regularly needs to change her bra and shirt. What is the best non-surgical treatment for this patient’s condition?

    USMLE Step 1

    Adhesion

    Bands of scar tissue that cause two surfaces within the body to "stick to each other".

  • High risk of development after bowel surgery or pelvic organ surgery
  • Happens as a result of organs effectively reattaching to one another post surgery
  • Adrenocorticotropic hormone

    A hormone that stimulates the "bark", or outermost layer of the organ located "near" the "kidneys" to produce steroids.

    • Ad (Latin) - Near, At, To Add On
    • Renes (Latin) - Kidneys
    • Cortex (Latin) - Bark of a Tree, Outer layer
    • Tropikos (Greek) - Of or pertaining to a turn or change; of or pertaining to the solstice
  • Hormone produced by the anterior pituitary in response to biological stress, that stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol
  • Amebiasis

    An infection caused by the amoeba (med for its fluid "changing" shape), Entamoeba Histolytica.

    • Amoibe (Greek) - Change, Alteration
    • Asis (Greek) - State or condition
  • Characterized by dysentery in infected individuals
  • If left untreated, the organism can go into the blood stream and form characteristic flask shaped liver abscesses.
  • In 2010 this organism caused 55000 deaths.
  • Amylase

    An enzyme that breaks down a "fine meal or starch" into simple sugars.

    • Amylon (Greek) - Fine meal, Starch
  • Produced by the pancreas and the salivary glands
  • High levels of amylase can be indicative of acute pancreatitis
  • Measured in cases of mumps and parotitis because of inflammation of the parotid glands that secrete it
  • It is speculated that amylase was an evolutionary trait humans developed to broaden their food sources so as to not be restricted to just simple sugars.
  • Anastomoses

    "An opening or outlet" connecting two vessels within the body, usually in the GI or vascular system.

  • Pathologic anastomosis are often times referred to as fistulas and are conditions in which parts of the GI tract can connect to one another. It has been demonstrated the GI tract can anastomosis with the skin and actually empty its contents via the dermis.
  • Anemia

    Being "without" "blood".

    • An (Greek) - Without, not
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Microcytic, Megaloblastic, Iron Deficiency and Chronic Disease are major types of anemia and are characterized by lower than normal hemoglobin levels
  • During all of human history, blood has been revered as man's life force and has been treated with such severance going back to the Jews who would drain it from animals before eating, or the romans who would drink the blood of their vanquished foes to gain their strength.
  • Angiodysplasia

    A "bad or ill" "formation" of "blood vessels".

    • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
    • Dys (Greek) - Bad, Ill, Abnormal, Evil
    • Plasis (Greek) - Molding, Formation
  • Commonly occurs in the early parts of the large intestines
  • Common cause of GI bleeds leading to anemia especially in older adults
  • Thought to occur as a result of constant straining and contraction of the colon to move food along the GI tract leading to small pockets of blood backup within parts of the tract
  • Resemble telangiectasia.
  • Angiosarcoma

    A malignant "mass or growth" of "flesh", usually in the form of endothelial cells, and of "blood vessels".

    • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
    • Sarx (Latin) - Flesh, Meat
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Vinyl Chloride exposure leads to angiosarcoma of the liver and is often times fatal.
  • Due to their direct position within the blood vessel itself, this type of cancer leads to early metastasis beyond its original site of growth.
  • Ankylosing spondylitis

    A "disease" characterized by the "stiffening of the joints" of the "spine" due to "inflammation".

    • Ankulosis (Greek) - A stiffening of the joints
    • Spondulos (Greek) - Vertebra
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Seronegative spondyloarthropathy associated with HLAB27 and negative rheumatoid factor
  • Associated with uveitis, sacroiliitis, and limitation of chest expansion
  • Chest infections are most common cause of death
  • On xray, commonly called bamboo spine due to the fusion of the vertebral bodies and resemblance to a bamboo stalk
  • Anorexia

    To be "without" an "appetite"

    • An (Greek) - Without, not
    • Orexis (Greek) - Appetite
  • Very thin girls that have amenorrhea due to extreme weight loss and low body fat
  • Young girls obsessed with exercise and losing weight despite already having notably low BMIs
  • The term nervosa literally means that there is a neurotic loss of desire to eat
  • Mary Queen of Scots is suspected to have suffered from anorexia
  • Patients are often times treated with psychiatric counseling rather than with food
  • Antiendomysial

    Antibodies that act "against" tissue transglutaminase, a part of the connective tissue "within "muscle" in the GI tract.

    • Anti (Greek) - Against, opposite, opposed to
    • Endon (Greek) - Within, Inside, Interl
    • Mus (Greek) - Muscle, mouse
  • Present in celiac disease.
  • Also known as antitransglutaminase antibody because of its affect on gluten.
  • Antigliadin

    An Antibody produced "against" the "glue" like protein found in wheat that holds it together.

    • Anti (Greek) - Against, opposite, opposed to
    • Glia (Greek) - Glue
  • Seen in celiac disease
  • Antigliadin antibodies were one of the first serological markers for celiac disease.
  • Antispasmodics

    A drug or herb that works "against" "spasms or convulsions".

    • Anti (Greek) - Against, opposite, opposed to
    • Spasmos (Greek) - Spasm, convulsion
  • Prevent spasms of the stomach, intestine or urinary bladder. Both dicyclomine and hyoscyamine are antispasmodic due to their anticholinergic action. can worsen gastroesophageal reflux disease.
  • Peppermint oil was one of the first antispasmodics, could help for IBS
  • Aponeurosis

    A layer of "sinew" that has the "condition" of connecting muscles "from" the parts which they move.

    • Apo (Greek) - From, away from
    • Neuro (Greek) - Nerve, sinew, tendon
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Palmar aponeurosis can be found in the hand. It overlies the soft tissues and the tendons of the flexor muscles. When there is a progressive increase in the fibrous tissue of this structure, a condition called Dupuytren’s contracture, or palmar fibromatosis, occurs. The fibrous bands that connect it to the bases of the fingers become shorter and thicker. This leads to marked flexion or bending of the digits, such that the digits cannot be straightened.
  • Their white color comes from their lack of blood supply, similar to tendons.
  • Apthous ulcer

    They are not cancerous, related to stress and may reoccur. A painful "eruptive" "sore" in the mouth.

  • Yellow and white sores in the mouth
  • Occur commonly due to stress
  • Part of Behcet Syndrome triad of: aphthous ulcer, genital ulcer, uveitis
  • Commonly referred to as a cankersore
  • Behçet's Syndrome is also called Silk Road Disease because it is often found in the Middle East
  • Arthralgia

    "Joint" "pain".

    • Arthron (Greek) - Pertaining to the Joint
    • Algein (Greek) - To feel pain
  • Can be results of injury, infection, illnesses (arthritis) or an allergic reaction to medication
  • Commonly seen in Lyme Disease and the Flu

  • Medytoons
    Ascites

    A condition in which the abdomen becomes fluid filled causing it to resemble a "wineskin or sac".

    • Askos (Greek) - Wineskin, bag, sac
  • Buildup of fluid in the space between the lining of the abdomen and abdominal organs (the peritoneal cavity)
  • Causes: Cirrhosis, Heart failure, Hepatic venous occlusion (BuddChiari syndrome),
  • Ascites was seen as a punishment especially for oathbreakers among the ProtoIndoEuropeans

  • Medytoons
    Asterixis

    A motor disorder in which the hand is "not" able to keep a "fixed position" when extended and as a result, flaps up and down.

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Sterixis (Greek) - Fixed position
  • This occurs secondary to hepatic encephalopathy due to high levels ammonia in the brain from liver damage
  • The sign is elicited when the patient upper palm and fingers and pushed backwards towards the wrist and let go, leading to a flapping motion of the hand
  • Late stage sign of excess ammonia in the blood
  • Atherosclerosis

    A "hardening" of the "arteries" that are "on the inside".

    • Athere (Greek) - Groats, referring to what's on the inside
    • Skleroun (Greek) - To Harden
  • Intimal plaques obstruct blood flow
  • Abdominal aorta most commonly affected
  • Rupture of plaques can cause myocardial infarction
  • Atresia

    A condition in which an orifice in the body it "without" "perforation".

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Tresis (Greek) - Perforation
  • Esophageal atresia affects the alimentary tract causing the esophagus to end before connecting normally to the stomach
  • Intestinal atresia malformation of the intestine, usually resulting from a vascular accident in utero
  • Tricuspid atresia a form of congenital heart disease whereby there is a complete absence of the tricuspid valve. Therefore, there is an absence of right atrioventricular connection.
  • Atrophic gastritis

    Chronic "inflammation" of the "stomach" that leads to destruction of the glandular tissue causing it to seem to be "without" "nourishment".

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Trophe (Greek) - Food, Nourishment
    • Gaster (Greek) - Stomach, belly, eater, devourer
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
  • Decrease in gastric hydrochloric acid, pepsin and intrinsic factor
  • Causes a vitamin B12 deficiency leading to megaloblastic anemia
  • It can be caused by persistent infection with Helicobacter pylori (type B), or can be autoimmune (Type A). Those with the autoimmune version of atrophic gastritis are statistically more likely to develop gastric carcinoma, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and achlorhydria.
  • Autodigestion

    The process by which the body breaks down its own tissue, usually via digestive enzymes. The word comes from the Latin meaning to "assimilate food in the bowels" because the enzymes in the stomach and small intestines are normally responsible for breaking down food. Seen in acute pancreatitis in which the pancreatic enzymes are released into the abdomen cavity. This is life threatening.

    • Auto (Greek) - Self, one's own
    • Digestus (Latin) - Assimilate Food in Bowels
  • Seen in acute pancreatitis in which the pancreatic enzymes are released into the abdominal cavity. This is life threatening.
  • Barrett esophagus

    The replacement of lower esophageal mucosa composed of striated squamous epithelium with nonciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells.

    • Infer (Latin) - To bring, Carry down
    • Phagein (Greek) - To eat, eater of
  • Occurs as a result of constant exposure of the esophagus to the acidic content of the stomach
  • Seen in 10% of patients with GERD
  • Due to acidic stress
  • May progress to dysplasia and adenocarcinoma
  • Comes from the amalgamation of two Greek words, oesophagus meaning what carries and eats.
  • Basal acid output (BAO)

    The normal minute to minute amount of acid being produced

    • Basal (Latin) - Foundation
    • Acidus (Latin) - Relating to acid
    • Output (English) - To expel
  • Elevated in ZollingerEllison Syndrome
  • Basal cell

    A "cell" that serves as the "foundation" for the epidermis.

    • Basal (Latin) - Foundation
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Stem cell site
  • Behcet syndrome

    A disorder med after Turkish dermatologist Hulusi Behçet's that causes inflammation of blood vessels. The symptoms found "running" "together" include painful mouth ulcers, genital ulcers, skin lesions and eye involvement.

    • Vasculitis
    • May be fatal due to neurological complications or ruptured vascular aneurysms
    • Found in Middle east and Asian populations.
    • Also called Silk Road Disease because it is predominately prevalent in areas around the old silk trading routes in the Middle East and Central Asia
    • Bifurcation

      One thing "forked" into "two" different parts.

      • Bi (Latin) - Twice, double
      • Furca (Latin) - Forked
      Bilateral microtia

      A condition which results on "small" "ears" on "both" "sides" of the head.

      • Bi (Latin) - Twice, double
      • Lateralis (Latin) - Side
      • Mikros (Greek) - Small, little, petty, trivial, slight
      • Ous (Greek) - Ear
    • Bilateral microtia is thought to be one of many complications of isotretinoin usage during pregnancy
    • Bilateral microtia should be treated early in life to prevent learning disabilities secondary to hearing loss
    • Boerhaave syndrome

      Syndrome med after Dutch physician Herman Boerhaave in which a tear forms through the entire wall of the esophagus, most commonly due to forceful vomiting.

      • Distinguish from the more superficial esophageal Mallory Weiss tear
      • Associated with a history of alcoholism.
      • Borborygmus

        A "rumbling or gugrling sounds within the bowels".

      • Caused by the movement of gas and food particles through the intestines
      • A lack of this souns can be indicative of ileus or bowel obstruction
      • It is suspected that teh original Greek word was created as an onomatopoeia, resembling the sounds of the belly.
      • Bronchospasm

        "Convulsion" of muscles in the "throat".

      • Abnormal contraction of the smooth muscle in the bronchi resulting in growing and obstruction of the airway
      • Asthma and bronchitis
      • Bulimia

        A psychiatric disease of "hunger" where one also binge eats like an "ox".

      • Involves binge eating followed by selfinduced vomiting, use of laxatives or diuretics
      • Body weight is normal
      • Associated with eroded teeth, inflammation of the parotid glands, calluses on the back of the hand from selfinduced vomiting (also called Russell’s sign) and electrolyte deficiencies.
      • Bulimia comes from the Greek word boulimia which means hunger. Bulimia nervosa means disease of hunger that affected the nervous system
      • Bursitis

        An "inflammation" of the "wineskin or sac" within joints.

        • Bursa - Wineskin sac, hide, leather
        • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
      • Common types include acromial and prepatellar bursitis. Acromial bursitis is usually associated with repetitive shoulder abductions, while prepatellar bursitis is associated with repetitive use of working while on your knees.
      • Candidiasis

        A "white," fungal "condition" that affects the skin, genitals, throat, mouth and heart especially in immunocompromised patients

      • A fungal infection caused by yeasts from the genus Candida
      • Candida albicans is the predominate cause of the disease
      • Often seen in immunocompromised patients
      • Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis due to T cell dysfunction
      • Diffuse erythema and white patches that appear on the surfaces of the buccal mucosa, throat, tongue, and gums.
      • Caput medusae

        Distended and engorged paraumbilical veins that radiate from the bellybutton and resemble the "head" of "Medusa", the Gorgon with skis for hair.

        • Caput (Latin) - Head
        • Medousa (Greek) - Reference to Medusa, guardian
      • Commonly associated with portal hypertension and in alcoholics
      • Gets its name from the apparent similarity to Medusa's head

      • Medytoons
        Carcinogenesis

        Process of multiple mutations that "births" normal cells into "cancer" cells.

        • Karkinos (Greek) - Cancer, crab
        • Gonos (Greek) - Offspring, seed, birth
      • Uncontrolled proliferation
      • Knock out of tumor suppressors or activation of protooncogenes
      • Carcinoid

        A "cancer" "like" tumor

      • Slow growing neuroendocrine tumor most commonly found in the ileum, appendix or lung that secretes excessive amounts of serotonin...increased serotonin production can decrease tryptophan levels leading to niacin deficiency
      • Serotonin secreted by gastro intestinal carcinoid tumors gets metabolized by the liver while serotonin secreted by bronchial carcinoid enters the systemic circulation
      • Most common tumor of appendix
      • GI carcinoids arise from enterochromaffin cells
      • Was first referred to as carcinoid or carcinomalike since it acted like a benign tumor but looked like a malignant tumor microscopically
      • Carcinoma

        "Cancerous" "tumor" originating from epithelial cells

        • Karkinos (Greek) - Cancer, crab
        • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
      • Spread lymphatically with the exception of renal cell carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, follicular carcinoma of the thyroid and choriocarcinoma
      • Caseating

        "Cheese" like appearance of tissue usually associated with cell death.

        Cavernous hemangioma

        Benign, slow growing "tumors" derived from dilated "blood" "vessels" causing "hollow spaces" filled with blood

        • Cavus (Latin) - Hollow, Space
        • Haima (Greek) - Blood
        • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
        • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
      • Common in von HippelLandau disease
      • Biopsy contraindicated due to risk of hemorrhage
      • Celiac

        An autoimmune disease of the small intestine of the "belly."

      • IgG attacks gliadin (gluten, found in wheat) that results in intestinal villi atrophy and vitamin malabsorption
      • Celiac sprue, autoimmune, diarrhea, constipation, failure to thrive, vitamin malabsorption, intestinal villi atrophy
      • Aretaeus of Cappadocia, from the second century, was the first to record a mal absorptive syndrome with chronic diarrhea as Coeliac Affection. However, the link to wheat was not discovered till the 1940s by pediatrician Dr. Willem Karel Dicke. It is believed that he discovered this when his patients clinically improved during the Dutch Famine of 1944 when flour was scarce.
      • Cephalohematoma

        A condition in which part of the "head" of a newborn baby accumulates a "mass" of "blood."

        • Kephale (Greek) - Head
        • Haima (Greek) - Blood
        • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
      • Contrast this with caput succedaneum, in which the bleeding crosses the suture lines.
      • Ceruloplasmin

        A "sky blue" protein that is "formed" to be able to transport copper in the body.

      • Copper, iron metabolism, Wilson's disease (KayserFleischer rings)
      • Enzyme synthesized in the liver which functions in transporting copper in the blood and plays an oxidizing role in iron metabolism.
      • Cervicofacial actinomycosis

        A "disease" of the "neck" and "face" caused by a "fungus."

        • Cervix (Latin) - The Neck, pe of the Neck
        • Facialis (Latin) - Of the face
        • Aktis (Greek) - Ray
        • Mykes (Greek) - Fungus, mushroom, anything shaped like a mushroom
        • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
      • Actinomyces, abscess, sinus tract, sulfur granules, penicillin G (treatment)
      • Characterized by abscess formation, draining sinus tracts, fistulae, and tissue fibrosis due to a branching grampositive bacteria belonging to Actinomycetales.
      • Actinomyces are normal constituents of oral flora residing within gingival crevices and tonsillar crypts
      • Cholecystectomy

        Surgical procedure in which the gall"bladder" is "cut" "out".

        • Khole (Greek) - Bile
        • Kustis (Greek) - Bladder, atomical pouch or sac
        • Ek (Greek) - Out
        • Temnein (Greek) - To cut
      • Surgical removal, usually laparoscopic, of the gallbladder, a common treatment of symptomatic gallstones and other gallbladder conditions.
      • 2nd most common procedure done in the US today, first discovered by Carl Langenbuch
      • Cholecystitis

        "Inflammation" of the "sac" that stores "bile".

        • Chole (Greek) - Bile
        • Cystis (Latin) - Bladder, sac
        • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
      • Fat, female, forty, fertile
      • Inflammation of the gallbladder secondary to obstruction of the bile duct, most commonly by a gallstone
      • The obstruction of bile duct leads to pileup of bile within the gallbladder and increased pressure
      • The Murphy sign is a sensitive but nonspecific physical exam test for cholecystitis.
      • Cholecystokinin

        A peptide hormone that stimulates "movement" of "bile" from the gall"bladder".

        • Khole (Greek) - Bile
        • Kustis (Greek) - Bladder, atomical pouch or sac
        • Kinein (Greek) - Motion, to move
      • Peptide hormone of the GI system synthesized by Icells in the small intestine and secreted in the duodenum responsible for stimulating digestion of fat and protein by causing release of digestive enzymes from the pancreas and bile from the gallbladder.
      • CCK also plays a role in hunger suppression.
      • Cholelithiasis

        A state of having "stones" formed in the gallbladder due to clumping of "bile"

        • Khole (Greek) - Bile
        • Lithos (Greek) - Stone
        • Asis (Greek) - State or condition
      • Causes obstruction of the cystic duct, common bile duct, pancreatic duct, and Ampulla of Vater and can be asymptomatic or cause RUQ pain.
      • Cholylglycine

        A component of "bile" that helps to break down fats for absorption. It is made from glycine, a "sweet" tasting amino acid.

      • Glycocholic acid, bile acid, fat emulsification, fat digestion
      • It is a conjugate of glycine and choline. Glycine is a colorless, sweettasting crystalline solid.
      • Chondromyxoid

        A benign "tumor" of "cartilage" that can form on long bones and has a glistening "mucus" like appearance.

        • Chondros (Greek) - Cartilage
        • Myxa (Greek) - Mucus
        • Eidos (Greek) - Form, Resemblance or Shape, Likeness
      • Tumor, fibroma, metaphyses, progressive pain, cartilage
      • Rare benign cartilaginous tumor usually located in the metaphyses of long bones that can present with progressive pain and limited range of motion.
      • Tumor is composed of a mix of chondroid, myxoid, and fibrous tissue components. On gross examination they are typically seen as solid glistening tangray intraosseous masses.
      • Chymotrypsin

        An enzyme component of pancreatic "juice" used in the digestive system to break down proteins.

      • Pancreatic juice, proteolysis, duodenum, enzyme
      • Trypsin comes from "tribein" meaning "to rub" because it was first obtained by rubbing down the pancreas with glycerin.
      • Cirrhosis

        Advanced liver disease characterized by scarring of the liver tissue that results in loss of liver function and a "tawny" appearance.

      • Advanced liver disease, fibrosis, nodules, loss of liver function
      • Fibrosis (scar tissue) and regenerative nodules (attempts to repair liver damage)
      • The most important causes of cirrhosis include hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and alcohol consumption.
      • Cleft palate

        A structural deformity in which the "roof of the mouth" is "cleaved" or "split" instead of being joined together.

        • Klieben (German) - To cleave, split
        • Palatum (Greek) - Roof of the mouth, of the Palace
      • Cleft lip
      • Failure of fusion of the hard palate and occasionally the soft palate as well that leads to a connection between sal and oral cavity
      • Most cases occur in conjunction with cleft lip.
      • In the past, this condition was referred to as harelip based on the similarity to the cleft in the lip of a hare, however, that term is now considered offensive.
      • Clonus

        Violent, uncontrolled, jerk, "turmoil"esque movements usually indicating neurological dysfunction.

      • A type of generalized seizure for which valproic acid is the first line of treatment. It is characterized by quick, repetitive jerking movements.
      • Colicky

        A type of pain "pertaining to the intestines".

        • Kolikos (Greek) - Pertianing to the colic/lower intestine
      • Abrupt pain, stops abruptly, muscular contraction, relieve obstruction, baby colic, renal colic, biliary colic, Devon colic, painter's colic, lead poisoning
      • Types: baby colic: in infants characterized by incessant crying
      • Renal colic: pain in flank, usually with kidney stones
      • Biliary colic: blockage by gallstone of common bile duct or cystic duct
      • Devon colic or painter's colic: severe abdominal pain caused by lead poisoning.
      • CREST syndrome

        Is a multisystem connective tissue disorder characterized by several main features. The acronym CREST stands for Calcinosis (thickening of skin with calcific nodules), Rayud's phenomenon (exaggerated vasoconstriction of small arteries in stress or cold), Esophageal dysmotility, Sclerodactyly (thickening of skin of fingers), and Telangiectasia(dilated capillaries).

        • Syn (Greek) - With, together
        • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
      • Aka limited scleroderma, connective tissue disorder, Rayud's, sclerodactyly
      • Debridement

        The process in which dead tissue is "curbed" or cleaned "away" from an infected site.

        • De (Latin) - Away, Off, Down
        • Bridle (Germanic) - Rein, curb, restraint
      • Commonly used in treatment of tissue infected with aerobic bacteria
      • Exposure of the infected tissue to the open air kills the bacteria. E.g.. Debridement in gas gangrene (Clostridium perfringens)
      • Dentigerous cyst

        Closed "sac" associated with the crown of an unerupted or partially erupted "tooth"

      • Radio graphically, the cyst encloses the crown of the tooth
      • The cyst is lined by stratified squamous nonkeratinized epithelium
      • Benign
      • Noninflammatory
      • Second most common odontogenic cyst
      • Dermatitis herpetiformis

        An "inflammatory" condition of skin in which rash resembles "herpes" infection.

        • Derma (Greek) - Skin
        • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
        • Herpes (Laitn) - Creeping, Spreading
        • Forma (Latin) - Form
      • Blistering of the skin
      • Itchy and papulovesicular eruptions
      • Celiac disease
      • A chronic blistering of the skin containing fluid. Dermatitis herpetiformis is characterized by itchy, papulovesicular eruptions located on extensor surfaces and is commonly associated with celiac disease.
      • Dermatitis herpetiformis was discovered by Louis Duhring!
      • Diuretic

        A substance that increases the production (think "throughput" or "flow through") of "urine".

        • Dia (Greek) - Through, completely
        • Ouron (Greek) - Urine
      • Examples include: thiazides, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, potassiumsparing diuretics, and loop diuretics. Diuretics are used to treat heart failure, liver cirrhosis, and hypertension.
      • Diverticulitis

        When a diverticulum (an outpouching in the wall of the intestine that "turns away" from the main path) becomes inflamed or infected.

        • Devertere (Latin) - Turn down or aside
        • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
      • Large intestine
      • Colon
      • Pouches
      • Diverticula
      • Diverticulosis

        A condition where several diverticula (outpouchings in the wall of the intestine that "turn away" from the main path) are present in the colon, commonly in the sigmoid colon.

        • Devertere (Latin) - Turn down or aside
        • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
      • Sigmoid colon
      • Colon
      • Diverticula
      • Outpouching
      • Ductal carcinoma in situ

        Abnormally proliferating cells located in one or more milk "ducts" in the breast. In situ by definition means it has not invaded other tissues (it is "in its original place"). However, It can progress to invasive breast cancer.

      • Breast cancer
      • Mammogram
      • Precancerous
      • Milk duct
      • From the Latin "ductus", leading, "Karakinos", a cancer (literally crab), and "oma", a mass. In situ is Latin for "in its original place or position".
      • Ductus venosus

        A "vein" that bypasses the liver and "leads" blood from the umbilical vein to the inferior vena cava.

        • Ductus (Latin) - A Leading, Conducting, or Aqueduct
        • Venosus (Latin) - Full of veins
      • As a result, oxygenated blood from the placenta is able to get into circulation.
      • Duodenojejunal

        The junction or meeting point of the first "segment of 12", or the duodenum and second segment, or jejunum of the small intestine.

        • Duodeni (Latin) - In Twelves, Space of Twelve Digits
        • Jejunas (Latin) - Fasting, Hungry
      • From the Latin "duodeni", meaning in twelves. Its length was approximately the width of twelve fingers. "Jejunum" means fasting
      • It was found to be empty on autopsies after the bodies were drained
      • Dyspareunia

        A "bad" feelings associated with being in "bed" "alongside" someone, or during sexual intercourse.

        • Dys (Greek) - Bad, Ill, Abnormal, Evil
        • Para (Greek) - Along, side, beside, near, against, contrary to
        • Eune (Greek) - Bed
      • Pain during sexual intercourse
      • Dysphagia

        "Bad eating", difficulty or pain during swallowing.

        • Dys (Greek) - Bad, Ill, Abnormal, Evil
        • Phagein (Greek) - To eat, eater of
        Eburnation

        An abnormal condition where bone becomes hard, dense and smooth to resemble "ivory".

        Emphysema

        A type of COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) in which the individual alveoli over"inflate" and eventually rupture.

      • Inability to expel extra air from the lungs
      • Obstructive disease (vs. restrictive)
      • Shortness of breath
      • Commonly seen in smokers
      • Endometrium

        "Internal" lining of the "womb."

        • Endon (Greek) - Within, Inside, Interl
        • Metrium (Latin) - Womb
      • Uterus
      • Inner lining
      • Endometrium
      • Epidural hematoma

        A "mass" of "blood" accumulating "above" the "hard" surface of the skull.

        • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
        • Durus (Latin) - Hard
        • Haima (Greek) - Blood
        • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
      • Associated with temporal bone fracture and tear of the middle meningeal artery
      • Lens shape on CT scan
      • Lucid interval immediately after trauma that leads to unconsciousness

      • MedyQuestion
        • A 62 year old man is brought into the emergency room after being struck in the head with blackjack during a robbery. The patient was found unconscious by paramedics. In the van, the patient regained consciousness, able to recall the assault. During your interview of the patient, he begins to become somnolent, and then become unresponsive. A rapid response is called and patient is rushes to CT. Rupture of the which artery lead to this patient’s condition?

        USMLE Step 1

        • A 62 year old man is brought into the emergency room after being struck in the head with blackjack during a robbery. The patient was found unconscious by paramedics. In the van, the patient regained consciousness, able to recall the assault. During your interview of the patient, he begins to become somnolent, and then become unresponsive. A rapid response is called and patient is rushes to CT. What classic sign would you expect to see on imaging?

        USMLE Step 1

        Erythema multiforme

        Maculopapular, typically "red" rash that can "form" in "many" varying locations on the body.

      • May present as targetshaped lesions
      • Associated with infections, drug reactions, radiotherapy, sunlight, cold, and malignancy
      • Most serious form known as StevensJohnson syndrome
      • Erythrocytosis

        "Condition" of increased "red" blood "cell" mass.

        • Eruthros (Latin) - Red
        • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
        • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
      • Seen in absolute polycythemia and EPO abuse
      • Eukaryotes

        "Well" defined cells with a nucleus that appears as a "nut."

        • Eu (Greek) - True, Good, Well
        • Karyon (Greek) - Kernel, nut
      • Animal cell
      • Plant cell
      • Fungi
      • It is theorized that eukaryotes came about after old Archaebacteria consumed one another but ended up living as symbiotic organisms
      • Ewing sarcoma

        Painful, malignant small round blue cell neuroectodermal tumor found in bone or soft tissue

        • Sarx (Latin) - Flesh, Meat
        • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
      • Usually in teenagers and young adults
      • Periosteal reaction
      • Onion skin lesion on xray
      • Commonly found in diaphysis of femur
      • Most due to t(11:22)
      • First described by James Ewing
      • Exophthalmos

        Abnormal protrusion of the "eye" "out of" of orbit.

      • Seen in Graves' disease as a result of abnormal connective tissue deposition in the orbit and extraocular muscles
      • Robert Graves was the first to associate thyroid goiters and exophthalmos
      • Exostosis

        "Condition" where there is growth "outside" on the surface of the "bone."

        • Exo (Greek) - Outside
        • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
        • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
      • Osteochondroma
      • Exudate

        The process by which substances are "sweat" "out" of something, often times by bacteria or cancers.

        • Ex (Latin) - Out of
        • Sudare (Latin) - To sweat
      • Proteinrich, cellular fluid that may accumulate due to lymphatic obstruction
      • Factor V leiden

        Abnormal variant of factor V that cannot be inactivated by protein C, resulting in hypercoagulability

        • Facere (Latin) - To do, To make
      • Affected at increased for risk deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and transient ischemic attack
      • Named after the city Leiden in the Netherlands where it was identified in 1994

      • MedyQuestion
        • A 33 year old man with no known medical history, presents to the emergency room with complaint of shortness of breath. The patient reports that it started suddenly about an hour earlier. ECG and chest xray at this time were normal. On physical examination, the patient is tachycardic with a heart rate of 157 and a blood pressure of 98/60. The patient is saturating 78% on room air. On history, the patient denies any long flights or recent surgery. What is the most likely genetic cause of this patient’s condition?

        USMLE Step 1

        Fatty streaks

        "Plump" aggregates of foam cells appearing as a yellowwhite "lines of motion" on arterial surfaces.

        • Faett (Old English) - Fatty, Oily; Well Fed, Plump
        • Strica (Olde English) - Line of motion, stroke of a pen
      • First visible marker of atherosclerosis
      • Present in virtually all people by age 10
      • Fibroma

        Benign "fibrous" connective tissue "tumor.'

        • Fibra (Latin) - A fiber, filament, entrail
        • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
      • Benign ovarian neoplasm
      • Fimbria

        Bacterial appendage on the "border" of the bacteria used to adhere to other bacteria, cells, and objects.

        • Fimbria (Latin) - Fringed, Border, Shred
      • Made of glycoprotein
      • Fructose intolerance

        Deficiency of aldolase B that results in a human's body being "insolent" to a sugar found in "fruit"

      • Presents with hypoglycemia and cirrhosis
      • Treat by decreasing intake of fructose
      • Watermelons, apples, and mangos have high fructose: glucose ratios.
      • Gardnerella Vaginalis

        A small circular bacteria that commonly causes bacterial vaginosis upon overgrowth of the normal host vaginal flora (lactobacillus)

        • Vagina (Latin) - Scabbard, sheath
      • One cause of bacterial vaginosis
      • Symptoms include a gray vaginal discharge with a "fishy smell" that is NOT painful
      • Vaginal pH will be > 4.5
      • Light microscopy will show Clue Cells which are the vaginal epithelial cells covered in Gardnerella bacteria
      • Treatment is metronidazole
      • Named for the bacteriologist, Herman Gardner who described it
      • Genu varum

        A condition in which the "knees" are "bent outwards".

        • Genu (Latin) - Knee
        • Varus (Latin) - Bent, crooked
      • May be caused by rickets, a Vitamin D deficiency in kids
      • Normal in children up to the age of 3
      • Commonly Blount disease if persists after age 3
      • Glomus tumor

        A "ballshaped" benign, vascular, painful "swelling" found under fingernails

      • Arises from smooth muscle cells of glomus body
      • Can be found on the tympanic membrane
      • Granulocyte macrophage colonystimulating factor

        A cytokine secreted by immune cells to stimulate myeloid precursor differentiation into granulocytes and monocytes

        • Granum (Latin) - Grain, seed
        • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
        • Colonia (Latin) - Settlement
        • Makros (Greek) - Large, large to scale
        • Phagein (Greek) - To eat, eater of
        • Stimulat (Latin) - Urged
        • Facere (Latin) - To do, To make
      • Treatment for aplastic anemia
      • Gubernaculum

        Embryonic structure from mesenchyme that is thought to "steer" the development and descent of the testes.

      • Anchors testes within scrotum
      • Ovarian ligament and round ligament of uterus
      • Involved in gonadal descent
      • Hemangioblastoma

        CNS "tumor or mass" that originates from "budding" cells of "blood vessels".

        • Haima (Greek) - Blood
        • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
        • Blastos (Greek) - Germ, sprout, bud or budding, immature
        • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
      • Associated with VHL syndrome
      • May produce EPO
      • Hemarthrosis

        "Bleeding" in the "joints".

        • Haima (Greek) - Blood
        • Arthron (Greek) - Pertaining to the Joint
        • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
      • Associated with hemophilia, scurvy, and CrimeanCongo Fever
      • Hematin

        An porphyrin that is "like" the protein that contains iron in "blood" (hemin) in this case, a hydroxide group substitutes the chloride group found in hemin

      • Also known as Factor X
      • Required to culture H. influenza
      • Hematobilia

        "Bleeding" into the "biliary" tree.

        • Haima (Greek) - Blood
        • Bilis (Latin) - Bile, Fluid secreted by liver
      • May occur due to fistula between biliary tree and splanchnic arteries
      • Discovered by Francis Glisson from Cambridge.
      • Hemidesmosomes

        Cellanchoring proteins that "fasten" the keratin in basal cells to the underlying basement membrane; only "half" of the two things being connected (i.e.: the cell) contains the protein, as there is no corresponding protein in the basement membrane

        • Hemi (Greek) - Half
        • Desmos (Greek) - Bond, Chain, Fastening
      • Antibodies against hemidesmosome seen in bullous pemphigoid
      • Literally named half bond because the cell is connected to the basement membrane instead of another cell.
      • Hemorrhagic Cystitis

        Severe "inflammation" of the "bladder" that results in "bleeding" into the "bladder."

        • Haima (Greek) - Blood
        • Rhegnunai (Greek) - To bust forth
        • Kustis (Greek) - Bladder, atomical pouch or sac
        • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
      • Leads to dysuria, hematuria, and hemorrhage
      • Common side effect of cyclophosphamide but can be prevented with mes
      • Associated with EHEC
      • Hemosiderin

        "Iron" storage complex found within macrophages that have engulfed red "blood" cells

      • Usually found within cells
      • Heart failure cells in lungs are hemosiderinladen macrophages
      • Hepatic plexus

        Nerve "network" that "pertains to the liver."

      • Receives filaments from the left vagus and right phrenic nerves and follows course of hepatic artery
      • Hepatitis

        "Inflammation" of the "liver."

        • Hepatos (Greek) - Liver
        • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
      • Symptoms include jaundice, poor appetite, and malaise
      • Associated with hepatitis viruses AE, chronic alcohol abuse, and mixed hyperbilirubinemia

      • Mnemonics
        Vowels are Bowels
        Hepatitis Transmission Routes
        Hepatitis A and E transmitted by fecal-oral route.
        ToRCHeS
        Teratogens: placenta-crossing organisms
        Toxoplasma, Rubella, CMV, Herpes simplex, Herpes zoster (varicella), Hepatitis B,C,E, Syphilis
        Hepatocellular carcinoma

        "Liver cell cancer."

        • Hepatos (Greek) - Liver
        • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
        • Karkinos (Greek) - Cancer, crab
      • Most common primary type of malignant liver cancer in adults
      • Associated with HBV, HCV, Wilson's disease, hemochromatosis, alpha1AT deficiency, alcoholic cirrhosis, and aflatoxin from Aspergillus
      • Symptoms include elevated alphafetoprotein levels, jaundice, increased liver size, ascites, polycythemia, and hypoglycemia.
      • Hepatoduodenal

        Term that refers to the area between the "liver" and upper portion of the "duodenum"

        • Hepatos (Greek) - Liver
        • Duodeni (Latin) - In Twelves, Space of Twelve Digits
      • May refer to hepatoduodenal ligament, which contains the portal triad of the hepatic artery, hepatic portal vein, and common bile duct
      • Hepatoencephalopathy

        "Disease" of the "brain" due to decreased "liver" function.

      • Usually caused by hyperammonemia
      • Altered consciousness
      • Decreased liver function
      • Associated with Reye's syndrome in children
      • Hepatic Encephalopathy was actually first described by Hippocrates.
      • Hereditary spherocytosis

        "Inherited disease" of "balllike" red blood "cells."

        • Hereditatem (Latin) - Heirship, inheritance, condition of being an heir
        • Sphaira (Greek) - Globe, ball, playing ball, terrestrial globe
        • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
        • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
      • Defect in RBC membrane skeleton proteins spectrin and ankyrin
      • Small round RBCs with no central pallor
      • Positive osmotic fragility test
      • Symptoms include splenomegaly and aplastic crisis
      • Increased MCHC and increased RDW
      • Experimental gene therapy treatment has worked in mice, but not humans.
      • Heterozygote

        Two "different" sets of genes that become "joined or yoked together".

        • Hetero (Greek) - Other, different
        • Zygotos (Greek) - Yolked together, Joint
      • A diploid organism that has two different alleles of one gene
      • Hyperammonemia

        "Excess ammonia" in the "blood."

        • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
        • Amine (English) - Compound in which one of the hydrogens of ammonia is replaced by a hydrocarbon radical
        • Haima (Greek) - Blood
      • Can be acquired (e.g. liver disease) or congenital (e.g. urea cycle enzyme deficiency)
      • Can cause neurological symptoms such as tremor (asterixis), slurred speech, blurred vision, somnolence, vomiting and cerebral edema
      • Treat by limiting protein intake and/or using benzoate, phenylbutyrate and lactulose to lower ammonia levels and promote excretion
      • Literally "excess ammonia in blood."
      • Hypercholesterolemia

        Metabolic condition characterized by "excess" "cholesterol" in the "blood"

        • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
        • Khole (Greek) - Bile
        • Steros (Greek) - Solid, stiff
        • Haima (Greek) - Blood
      • May be seen in nephrotic syndrome or hypothyroidism
      • Familial hypercholesterolemia due to defective/absent LDL receptor
      • Literally "excess cholesterol in blood."
      • Hyperesthesia

        "Excess sensation."

      • Increased sensitivity to the senses, such as touch, smell, sight or sound
      • Literally "excess sensation."
      • Hyperestrinism

        Metabolic condition characterized by "excessive" levels of "estrogencompounds" in the "blood"

        • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
        • Estrinism - Pertaining to Estrogen
      • May be seen in cirrhosis (liver can no longer metabolize estrogen)
      • Associated with spider nevi, gynecomastia, testicular atrophy
      • Hyperplasia

        Growth of tissues due to “excess” “formation” of cells

        • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
        • Plassein (Greek) - To mold or form
      • Can be either reversible or nonreversable depending on the tissue type
      • Seen in benign prostatic hyperplasia (A nonpathologic type), chronic bronchitis (hyperplasia of mucous cells), congenital adrenal hyperplasia
      • Depending on the tissue tpe, can progress to cancer
      • Hyperthyroidism

        "Excess" hormone from the "oblong shieldshaped" thyroid.

        • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
        • Thureos (Greek) - Oblong shield
      • Symptoms include heat intolerance, weight loss, diarrhea, increased reflexes, pretibial myxedema, periorbital edema, warm and moist skin, fine hair, chest pain, palpitations
      • Graves disease, toxic multinodular goiter, thyroid storm
      • Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy

        A "disease" which causes "over" "nourishment" and enlargement of the "joints" and "bones".

        • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
        • Trophe (Greek) - Food, Nourishment
        • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
        • Arthron (Greek) - Pertaining to the Joint
        • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
      • A syndrome of clubbing of the digits, periostitis of the long (tubular) bones, and arthritis
      • Hippocrates first described digital clubbing 2500 years ago, hence the use of the term Hippocratic fingers
      • Hypoplasia

        "Less" than normal growth leading to underdevelopment of the "form" of an organ or tissue; primordial tissue present

        • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
        • Plassein (Greek) - To mold or form
      • Pulmonary artery hypoplasia in congenital rubella, pulmonary hypoplasia in Potter sequence
      • Fingernail hypoplasia due to carbamazepine teratogenicity
      • Mandibular hypoplasia in Treacher Collins syndrome
      • Hypoxia

        "Low"/inadequate "oxygen" supply to the body or a region of the body.

        • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
        • Oxys (Greek) - Sharp
      • Nocturnal hypoxia in sleep apnea
      • Hypoxia causes vasodilation in most organs
      • Hypoxia causes vasoconstriction in pulmonary vasculature
      • Hypoxia causes diabetic retinopathy
      • Methemoglobin
      • Carboxyhemoglobin
      • Identification

        A process by which an individual can "identify" with and models behavior after another person who is more powerful (although not necessarily admired)

      • Immature defense mechanism
      • IL12 receptor deficiency

        A deficiency of the receptor for interleukin 12 on the surface of ïve T cells, which is needed for differentiation into Helper T cells, type 1 (Th1)

        • Inter (Latin) - Among, between, betwixt, in the midst of
        • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
        • Recept (Latin) - Taken back
        • Deficere (Latin) - To Desert, Revolt, Fail
      • Disseminated mycobacterial and fungal infections
      • May present after administration of BCG vaccine
      • Autosomal recessive
      • Decreased interferon gamma
      • Insulin

        A peptide hormone, produced by the "islands" of Langerhans in the pancreas, that regulates carbohydrate and fat metabolism in the body.

      • Released in response to glucose
      • Diminished in diabetes mellitus type 1
      • Positive regulator of glycogenesis, fatty acid synthesis, cholesterol synthesis
      • Negative regulator of glycogenolysis
      • Intraductal papilloma

        A small, benign "tumor" that grows "within" the milk "duct" of the breast. These tumors grow and "swell" into fingerlike projections.

        • Intra (Latin) - On the inside, within
        • Ducere (Latin) - To Lead
        • Papula (Latin) - Pimple, swelling, pustule
        • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
      • Most commonly occurs in women age 3545 and most commonly presents with greenish, bloody discharge
      • They generally do not show up on mammography due to their small size, so the next step in treatment would be a galactogram to guide the subsequent biopsy.
      • Intramembranous deposits

        Deposits of material (usually immunologic material) located "within" "membranes." A phrase usually used when discussing kidney pathology.

        • Intra (Latin) - On the inside, within
        • Membrana (Greek) - A skin, parchment
        • Deponere (Latin) - To Lay Aside, Put Down
      • Type II membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is characterized by dense intramembranous deposits with C3 reactivity by IF. This disease is associated with serum C3 nephritic factor and is characterized by profound decrease in serum C3 levels.
      • Intravascular hemolysis

        The "destruction" of red "blood" cells "within" the "vessels."

        • Intra (Latin) - On the inside, within
        • Vasculum (Latin) - A small vessel
        • Haima (Greek) - Blood
        • Lysis (Greek) - Destruction, A loosening, setting free, releasing, dissolution
      • Associated with low haptoglobin levels
      • Haptoglobin binds free hemoglobin
      • Iron deficiency anemia

        A common anemia (low hemoglobin levels in the "blood") caused by a "failure" of the body to have enough "iron".

        • Iron (Old English) - The metal iron; an iron weapon
        • Deficere (Latin) - To Desert, Revolt, Fail
        • An (Greek) - Without, not
        • Haima (Greek) - Blood
      • Could be due to a problem with iron intake, iron absorption, or from loss of iron due to bleeding
      • Causes a microcytic, Hypochromic anemia
      • Most common type of anemia worldwide
      • Can sometimes be caused by parasitic infections.

      • Mnemonics
        These conditions make your red blood cells small really F. A. S. T.
        The Causes of Microcytic Anemia
        Fe (iron) deficiency anemia. Anemia of chronic Disease. Sideroblastic Anemia. Thalassemia
        Janeway lesions

        Nontender, small erythematous nodular lesions on the palms or soles (only a few millimeters in diameter) that indicate infective endocarditis.

        • Laedere (Latin) - To strike, hurt, damage
      • Pathologically, the lesion is described to be a microabscess of the dermis with marked necrosis and inflammatory infiltrate that does not involve the epidermis.
      • Med after Theodore Caldwell Janeway (1872–1917), an American cardiologist and professor of medicine
      • Jaundice

        A condition where the patient presents with "yellowish" pigmentation of the skin, the conjunctival membranes over the sclerae (whites of the eyes), and other mucous membranes.

        • Jaune (Old French) - Yellow
      • Caused by hyperbilirubinemia (increased levels of bilirubin in the blood).
      • The term jaundice comes from the French word jaune, meaning yellow.
      • Kallikrein

        A subgroup of serine proteases that are responsible for the coordination of various physiological functions including blood pressure, semen liquefaction and skin desquamation. The molecule was med for the "pancreas" because high quantities were discovered there; however, the pancreas is not the only place in the body that produces this molecule.

        Kawasaki disease

        An immune vasculitis in which the mediumsized blood vessels throughout the body become inflamed.

        • This disease occurs in children under five years of age
        • It affects many organ systems, mainly those including the blood vessels, skin, mucous membranes, and lymph nodes.
        • Med after Tomisaku Kawasaki
        • Keratoconjunctivitis

          "Inflammation" of the cornea (which contains "keratin") and "conjunctiva".

          • Keras (Greek) - Horn
          • Conjugere (Late Latin) - To Bring Together
          • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
        • Most common causes are eye dryness (keratoconjunctivitis sicca) or adenoviral infection.
        • Krabbe's disease

          An autosomal recessive degenerative disorder that affects the myelin sheath of the nervous system.

          • It is a form of sphingolipidosis, as it involves dysfunctional metabolism of sphingolipids.
          • Med after Knud Haraldsen Krabbe
          • Lamellar bone

            This type of bone has a regular parallel ("plates") alignment of collagen into sheets and is mechanically strong.

            • Lamella (Latin) - Plate
            • Ban (Old English) - Bone, tusk
          • It appears in the fetus during the third trimester, is stronger than woven bone (which appears first) and filled with many collagen fibers parallel to other fibers in the same layer to handle tensile strength of bone.
          • Latissimus dorsi

            "Broadest" muscle of the "back."

          • Adducts, extends and internally rotates the arm
          • Laxative

            Medicine used "to loosen" the bowels

            Legionella Pneumophilein

            A aerobic, pleomorphic, flagellated, nonspore forming, Gramnegative bacterium that causes Legionnaires' disease.

          • Associated with air conditioners
          • Labs show hypotremia
          • Urine test
          • Legionella American Legion convention outbreak in Philadelphia
          • Leptospira interrogans

            A "thinly" "coil" bacteria that is shaped like the "interrogating" punctuation mark

            • Lepto (Greek) - Fine, thin, delicate, rrow
            • Spira (Greek) - Spiral
            • Spira (Latin) - A coil, twist, fold
            • Interrogare (Greek) - Ask, question, interrogate
          • When viewed through a light microscope, it often resembles a question mark, and this gives the species its me.
          • Leukocytoclastic Angiitis

            A condition in which the "white" blood "cells" "break" up blood "vessels", leading to "inflammation."

            • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
            • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
            • Klastos (Greek) - Broken
            • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
            • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
          • Smallvessel vasculitis
          • Presents as palpable purpura
          • Leukopenia

            A "deficiency" in "white" blood cells

            • Leukos (Greek) - White, clear
            • Penia (Latin) - Deficiency, a lack
            Libmansacks endocarditis

            "Inflammation" "inside" the "heart."

            • Endon (Greek) - Within, Inside, Interl
            • Kardia (Greek) - Heart
            • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
          • Lupus, vegetation, mitral valve
          • Med after Emanuel Libman and Benjamin Sacks
          • Lingula

            A "tongue."

          • Cardiac notch
          • Lipoxygenase

            An "enzyme" involved in metabolism of "fat" using oxygen to do so.

            • Lipos (Greek) - Fat
            • Oxys (Greek) - Sharp
            • Ase (English) - Used to form the me of enzymes
          • Zileuton is a 5lipoxygese pathway inhibitor that treats asthma
          • Malleus

            A "hammer"shaped ossicle of the middle ear that transmits sound vibrations from the eardrum to the incus.

          • Developed from the first pharyngeal arch
          • The me is derived from this bone's resemblance to a hammer and it's connection and transmission of sound to the attached bone, the anvil.
          • Manic episode

            A moment of "frenzy".

            • Mania (Greek) - Madness, frenzy
          • A period of seven or more days of persistently elevated, irritable, or expansive mood not caused by drugs or medical illness that causes social or occupational dysfunction and may require hospital admission
          • May present with psychosis
          • Bipolar Disorder (Type I)

          • Mnemonics
            DIG FAST
            Diagnosis of Mania
            Distractability, Irresponsible behavior, Grandiosity, Flight of Ideas, Activity increase, Sleep decrease, Talking increase
            Maxillary nerve

            The second branch of the trigeminal "nerve" (CN V2) to the upper jaw.

            • Maxilla (Latin) - Upper jaw
            • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
          • Sensory innervation to the maxillary, sal cavity, sinuses, palate, and midface
          • Mechanic's hands

            Rough, cracked skin at the ends and sides of fingers that firm irregular lines that may also be seen in physical laborers.

            • Dermatomyositis, antisynthetase syndrome, CREST syndrome, sclerodactyly
            • Melatonin

              "Dark" "liquid" hormone from pineal gland responsible for circadian rhythms

              • Melas (Greek) - Dark, black, murky
              • Tonic (Greek) - Water soluble neutral substance
            • Involved in sleepwake cycle
            • Membranous ossificiation

              Process of "bone" formation without cartilage framework. Woven bone looks like "parchment" laid directly and later remodeled to lamellar bone.

            • Bones of calvarium and facial bone
            • Mesenchyme

              Tissue composed of cells "fused" in the "middle" of an extracellular matrix, including lymph, blood, bone and cartilage.

              • Mesos (Greek) - Middle, in the middle, in between
              • Enkhuma (Greek) - Infusion
            • Sarcoma, connective tissue, extracellular matrix
            • A malignancy of the mesenchyme is called a sarcoma.
            • Mesentery

              Double layer of peritoneum in "midline" of "intestines" that suspends ileum and jejunum

              • Mesos (Greek) - Middle, in the middle, in between
              • Enteron (Greek) - Intestine, Small intestint, Piece of Gut, Bowel
            • Sir Frederick Treves (the first surgeon to perform an appendectomy) is credited with the introduction of the mistaken notion that the mesentery is fragmented (separate mesentery for each section of the GI tract) as opposed to the recently proven theory that the mesentery is a continuous structure. This misconception held for over a century.
            • Metaphase

              Stage of mitosis and meiosis in which chromosomes are lined up along the midline of the nucleus, "appearing" to be pulled "beyond" the midline by microtubule apparatus.

              • Meta (English) - Beyond, in the midst of
              • Phasis (Greek) - Appearance
            • Chromosomes seen at midline
            • Metaplasia

              A "molding" of cells into new types "beyond" what they originally were so as to accommodate a new environment.

              • Meta (English) - Beyond, in the midst of
              • Plassein (Greek) - To mold or form
            • Often secondary to irritation or environmental exposure
            • Squamous cell metaplasia in bronchi of smokers or in Barrett's esophagus
            • Microtubule

              "Small" "tube" composed of a helical array of polymerized dimers of alpha and beta tubulin.

              • Mikros (Greek) - Small, little, petty, trivial, slight
              • Tubulus (Latin) - A small pipe
            • ChediakHigashi syndrome
            • Incorporated into cilia, flagella, mitotic spindles
            • Grows slowly collapses quickly
            • Mosaicism

              A "composite" of cells with different genetic makeup.

              Motilin

              Peptide hormone that serves to stimulate intestinal "movement" known as peristalsis.

            • Erythromycin is a motilin receptor agonist
            • Myeloperoxidase

              Neutrophil enzyme from bone "marrow" which produces hypochlorite by "sharply" cutting "through" hydrogen peroxide.

              • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
              • Per (Latin) - Through, by means of
              • Oxys (Greek) - Sharp
              • Ase (English) - Used to form the me of enzymes
            • Deficiency associated with Candida infections
            • PANCA is a myeloperoxidase antibody
            • Myositis ossificans

              Metaplasia and "inflammation" of skeletal "muscle" into "bone" following traumatic injury.

              • Mus (Greek) - Muscle, mouse
              • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
              • Ossis (Latin) - Bone
            • Tumor or suspicious mass following injury to extremity
            • Nodular sclerosis

              Most common type of Hodgkin's lymphoma with "hardened," "knotlike" tumor nodules.

            • ReedSternberg cells
            • Owl's eyes
            • Occiptal lobe

              Lobe of the brain in the "back of the skull."

              • Occiput (Latin) - Back of the skull
              • Lobus (Latin) - Hull, husk, pod, small lobe
            • Brain that interprets vision
            • Supplied by PCA
            • Lesions to the posterior lobe will cause hemianopia with macular sparing
            • Odontoblasts

              Cells that originally "bud" from neural crest cells, that eventually function to form the dentin of the "teeth."

              • Odous (Greek) - Tooth
              • Blastos (Greek) - Germ, sprout, bud or budding, immature
            • Neural crest cell derivative
            • Oligodendroglioma

              "Tumor" of oligodendrocytes the "treelike" "cells" of the CNS that "glue" cells together with myelin.

              • Oligos (Greek) - Few, scanty, small, little
              • Dendron (Greek) - Tree
              • Glia (Greek) - Glue
              • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
            • Frontal lobe
            • May present with seizures
            • Friedegg nucleus
            • GFAP+
            • Calcified tumor in white matter on imaging
            • Rare and slow growing
            • Oligomenorrhea

              Menstrual cycle in which the "monthly" "flow" occurs "fewer" times than normal. It refers to a cycle lasting over 35 days.

              • Oligos (Greek) - Few, scanty, small, little
              • Men (Greek) - Month
              • Rhein (Greek) - Flow
            • PCOS
            • Female athlete
            • Graves' disease
            • Omohyoid

              Muscle "shaped like the letter U" that connects the scapula ("shoulder" bone) to the hyoid.

              • Omos (Greek) - Shoulder
              • Hyoides (Greek) - Shaped like the letter u
            • Functions to depress the hyoid bone
            • Omphalocele

              Failure of the intestines to return to the abdomen following development in utero. "Hernia" or protrusion of intestines through the "vel."

              • Omphalos (Greek) - Vel
              • Kele (Greek) - Swelling, hernia, tumor
            • Midline
            • Covered by the peritoneum and amnion
            • Oophorectomy

              Surgery to "cut" "out" the "ovary."

            • Often performed in patients with BRCA mutations
            • Orbicularis oris

              The "little" muscle that forms "a ring or circle" around the "mouth" responsible for closing the mouth and puckering lips.

              • Orbis (Latin) - A ring or circle
              • Ulus (Latin) - Little
              • Oris (Latin) - Mouth
            • Innervated by the facial nerve
            • Otic ganglion

              One of four parasympathetic ganglion "swellings" of the head, located near the "ear."

            • Responsible for innervation of the parotid gland for salivation
            • Pagophagia

              A form of pica in which a person "eats" "frost" or excessive ice.

            • Associated with irondeficiency anemia due to an unknown mechanism
            • Hypothesized that the ice can numb the tongue in irondeficiency associated glossitis
            • Pancreatic plexus

              An "interwoven" group of vessels in the endocrine and exocrine organ of the digestive system that "creates" various hormones for the "entire" body.

              • Pan (Greek) - All, every
              • Plexus (Latin) - Braid, network
              Papilledema

              Optic disc "swelling" due to increased intracranial pressure leading to the appearance of "nipple"like blemishes on fundoscopic examination.

              Paracoccididoides Brasilliensis

              "Berry"like fungi that can live "two" "ways"

              • Parare (Latin) - Make ready
              • Kokkos (Greek) - Berry
              • Di (Greek) - Two, Double, Twice
              • Hodos (Greek) - Way
            • Dimorphic fungus responsible for Paracoccidioidomycosis
            • Was first discovered by Adolfo Lutz in 1908 in Brazil
            • Paraurethral glands

              "Acorn shaped balls" located "near" the tube that allows for the "passage of urine".

              • Para (Greek) - Along, side, beside, near, against, contrary to
              • Ourethra (Greek) - Passage for urine
              • Glans (Latin) - Acornshaped ball
            • Glands located near the urethra that swells during sexual arousal
            • Paresthesia

              A feeling of "against/disordered" "sensation"

              • Para (Greek) - Along, side, beside, near, against, contrary to
              • Aisthesis (Greek) - Sensation
            • Sensation of tingling, tickling, prickling, pricking, or burning of a person's skin
            • Pins and needles
            • Peau d'orange

              A "covering" that has an "orangelike" texture.

            • Tissue resembling the skin of an orange
            • Inflammatory breast carcinoma
            • Blockage of lymphatic drainage
            • Dimpled appearance of skin
            • Pectoralis minor

              The "smaller" muscle in the anterior "chest."

            • Muscle in anterior chest underneath the pectoralis major which depresses and medially rotates the scapula
            • Proximally attached at sternal ends of ribs 35
            • Distally attached at coracoid process of scapula
            • Peripheral neuropathy

              Disease of the nerves that run in the "outer" parts of the body outside the central nervous system.

              • Peripheria (Greek) - Circumference, outer surface, line round a circular body
              • Neuron (Greek) - Nerve, straw, tendon
              • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
            • Damage or disease affecting the peripheral nervous system.
            • Peripheral neuropathy is a common finding in diabetes
            • Vitamin B1, B6, 12 or E deficiency can cause peripheral neuropathy
            • Neuropathic pain can be treated with gabapentin
            • Neuropathic pain typically has a burning characteristic.
            • Peristalsis

              Rhythmic "constriction" of the smooth muscle "around" the gut lumen.

              • Peri (Greek) - Around, about, beyond
              • Stalsis (Greek) - Constricting, checking
            • Rhythmic contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle in the gastrointestinal tract to help push material along the gastrointestinal tract.
            • Constipation is decreased bowel motility, whereas diarrhea is increased bowel motility
            • Hirschsprung's disease causes lack of peristalsis in the colon
            • Chagas disease can cause lack of peristalsis in the esophagus
            • Parasympathetic M3 activity increases peristalsis.
            • Peritoneum

              The "toned" lining "around" of the abdominal cavity.

              • Peri (Greek) - Around, about, beyond
              • Tonos (Greek) - Stretched, Tension, Pressure
            • Peritonitis is inflammation of the peritoneum
            • Appendicitis and pelvic inflammatory disease can spread to the peritoneum
            • Retroperitoneal organs are only partially covered by peritoneum
            • Dialysis can take place using the peritoneal cavity.
            • Petrous ganglion

              A "swelling" of nerves found in the "stone" like part of the temporal bone.

            • Also known as the inferior ganglion of the glossopharyngeal nerve it is found in the petrous part of the temporal bone.
            • Contains the bodies of general somatic sensory fibers
            • Derived from the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX).
            • Phosphatase

              An "enzyme" that removes a phosphate group. Phosphate gets it's me as "bringer of light" because it was discovered emitting light when exposed to oxygen.

              • Phosphoros (Greek) - Bringer of light
              • Ase (English) - Used to form the me of enzymes
            • Many important enzymes in the body are phosphatases examples include alkaline phosphatase, prostatic acid phosphatase, and glucose6phosphatase
            • Photophobia

              A "fear" of "light."

            • Pain and discomfort when exposed to light sources
            • Associated with meningitis
            • Associated with migraine headaches
            • Associated with rabies infection
            • Photophobia can be literally translated to fear of light. However, in the medical context photophobia means discomfort or pain when a patient looks at light.
            • Plasma cell

              A mature Bcell whose primary function is generation of antibodies. "Stores" information to "mold, shape" antibodies.

              • Plasm (Greek) - Mold, shape
              • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
            • Have a friedegg appearance
            • Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell cancer
            • Platysma

              A "flat, broad" muscle in the anterior neck.

            • Responsible for grimacing
            • Pleiotropy

              A genetic phenomenon in which one gene is responsible for "larger, greater in quantity" phenotypic effects.

              • Pleion (Greek) - Larger, greater in quantity
              • Tropos (Greek) - Turn, turning, change, response
            • Pleiotropy can be seen in phenylketonuria
            • Many other genetic disorders with several clinical manifestations
            • Pleuritic

              Relating to the pleura (located on the "side of the body, rib, flank")

              • Pleura (Greek) - Side of body, rib, flank
            • Pleuritic chest pain is a sharp pain upon inspiration (characteristic of invasive aspergillosis)
            • Can be seen in pericarditis
            • Pleuroperitoneal

              Relating to the pleural (on the "side of the body, rib, flank) and peritoneal membranes (which "stretch" "around, about, beyond" the abdominal cavity)

              • Pleura (Greek) - Side of body, rib, flank
              • Peri (Greek) - Around, about, beyond
              • Tenein (Greek) - To stretch, strain
              Plexus

              A "braid, network" of interconnected nerves or vascular structures

              • Plectere (Latin) - To twine, braid, fold, plait
            • Comes from the latin word that means braid. Medically speaking, a plexus is a braid of nerves and vessels.
            • Pneumocytes

              "Cells" lining the alveoli of the "lungs"

              • Pneumon (Greek) - Lung
              • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
            • Type 1 pneumocytes are the majority of the cells and are involved in gas exchange
            • Type 2 pneumocytes secrete surfactant and replicate to replace damaged cells in the lungs
            • Literally means cells of the lungs
            • Polydipsia

              Abnormally high to extreme levels of "thirst". To drink "many" more times than baseline.

            • Seen in diabetes, hypokalemia
            • Is a symptom of anticholinergic poisoning
            • Related to word dipsomaniac, meaning alcoholic
            • Polyomavirus

              "Poisonous substance" that can cause "many" types of "tumors"

              • Polloi (Greek) - Many
              • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
              • Virus (Latin) - Poison, poisonous substance
            • Family of potentially oncogenic, double stranded D viruses with a circular genome
            • Several found to infect humans, most notably JC and BK viruses
            • JC Virus PML (progressive multifocal encephalopathy that is an AIDS defining illness)
            • BK Virus Kidney transplant infection (immunosuppressed transplant patients susceptible)
            • Respiratory infections seen in immunocompromised patients, such as HIV
            • Porphyria cutanea tarda

              The most common porphyria. Low levels of uroporphyrinogen III decarboxylase enzyme are present in this disorder. This porphyria presents with photosensitivity and blisters on "skin," symptoms often appear "slow, late" in life.

            • Alcohol, iron, estrogen all exacerbate symptoms
            • Porphyrin

              Group of organic compounds, which includes heme. Aromatic, highly conjugated systems, have intense absorption bands in the visible region and may be deeply colored "purple"

            • Protoporphyrin is a substance in the heme synthesis pathway.
            • Posterior urethral valves

              A posterior urethral valve or "fold" is an obstructing membrane in the posterior male urethra as a result of abnormal in utero development. It is the most common cause of bladder outlet obstruction in male newborns. It blocks the "passage of urine" and causes a build up "behind" the valve.

              • Posterior (Latin) - After, later, behind
              • Ourethra (Greek) - Passage for urine
              • Valva (Latin) - That which turns, fold of a door
            • Type 1 most common type of posterior urethral valves
            • VCUG used for diagnosis
            • Treated with endoscopic valve ablation
            • Rel reflux, recurrent UTIs, renal failure are all complications
            • Progeria

              A condition in which children become "old age" appearing "before" they are supposed to.

              • Pro (Greek) - Before, Forward
              • Geras (Greek) - Old age
            • Progeria is an extremely rare genetic disorder
            • Symptoms appear during first months of life and aging occurs at a rate 810 times faster than normal
            • Affected patients rarely live past their teens.
            • Also known as HutchinsonGilford syndrome after the two doctors who described it around the same time, independently of one another.
            • Spondylolisthesis

              A "dislocation" of the spinal "vertebra", usually in the lumbar region.

            • There are five types of spondylolisthesis, which include isthmic, degenerative, traumatic, pathologic and dysplastic
            • Strongyloides Stercoralis

              A "round" "shaped" intestinal parasitic nematode, which has rhabditiform larvae (NOT eggs) in the "stool"

            • Nematode responsible for intestinal infections known as strongyloidiasis, which manifests as diarrhea and stomach pain.
            • Larvae infects the body through cutaneous surfaces, often due to barefoot walking in soil
            • Treated with ivermectin
            • Telogen effluvium

              A condition in which the hair "flows out" or falls from the head. It comes from the word "the end" because it references the stage of hair development the follicle is in upon falling out.

            • Telogen effluvium can be either acute or chronic in nature
            • Etiologies vary but include a metabolic disturbance, emotional stress and some medications
            • Thorax

              The "chest or breastplate" of the body.

              • Thorax (Greek) - Chest, breastplate
            • The region between the neck and the abdomen
            • Contains many important atomical structures such as the heart, lungs, thymus, diaphragm, esophagus, trachea, as well as many other structures.
            • Cimetidine

              H2 blocker

              • Idine (English) - Medication Naming Convention
            • Gastritis, peptic ulcer, GERD
            • Reversibly blocks H2 receptors to decrease hydrogen ion secretion by parietal cells
            • Ranitidine

              H2 blocker

              • Idine (English) - Medication Naming Convention
            • Gastritis, peptic ulcer, GERD
            • Reversibly blocks H2 receptors to decrease hydrogen ion secretion by parietal cells
            • Famotidine

              H2 blocker

              • Idine (English) - Medication Naming Convention
            • Gastritis, peptic ulcer, GERD
            • Reversibly blocks H2 receptors to decrease hydrogen ion secretion by parietal cells
            • Nizatidine

              H2 blocker

              • Idine (English) - Medication Naming Convention
            • Gastritis, peptic ulcer, GERD
            • Reversibly blocks H2 receptors to decrease hydrogen ion secretion by parietal cells
            • Omeprazole

              Proton pump inhibitor

              • GERD, peptic ulcer, gastritis, ZollingerEllison syndrome
              • Irreversibly inhibits H+/K+ ATPase in parietal cells
              • Lansoprazole

                Proton pump inhibitor

                • GERD, peptic ulcer, gastritis, ZollingerEllison syndrome
                • Irreversibly inhibits H+/K+ ATPase in parietal cells
                • Esomeprazole

                  Proton pump inhibitor

                  • GERD, peptic ulcer, gastritis, ZollingerEllison syndrome
                  • Irreversibly inhibits H+/K+ ATPase in parietal cells
                  • Pantoprazole

                    Proton pump inhibitor

                    • GERD, peptic ulcer, gastritis, ZollingerEllison syndrome
                    • Irreversibly inhibits H+/K+ ATPase in parietal cells

                    • Medytoons
                      Dexlansoprazole

                      Proton pump inhibitor

                      • GERD, peptic ulcer, gastritis, ZollingerEllison syndrome
                      • Irreversibly inhibits H+/K+ ATPase in parietal cells
                      • Bismuth

                        • Ulcers, Traveler's Diarrhea
                        • Cover ulcer, allowing HCO3 to reestablish pH gradient
                        • Sucralfate

                          • Ulcers, Traveler's Diarrhea
                          • Cover ulcer, allowing HCO3 to reestablish pH gradient
                          • Misoprostol

                            Prostaglandin alog

                            • Prost (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                          • Diarrhea
                          • PGE1 alog increase mucus production, lower acid production
                          • Octreotide

                            • Variceal bleeding, acromegaly, VIPoma, carcinoid tumor
                            • Somatostatin alog reduce portal pressures to reduce bleeing
                            • Magnesium Citrate

                              Osmotic laxative

                              • Constipation
                              • Provide osmotic load to draw water out
                              • Polloiethylene glycol

                                Osmotic laxative

                                • Constipation
                                • Provide osmotic load to draw water out
                                • Lactulose

                                  Osmotic laxative

                                  • Hepatic encephalopathy
                                  • Degraded into lactic and acetic acid by gut flora, releasing H+ so it can bind NH3 and covert to NH4+ and prevent absorption
                                  • Infliximab

                                    AntiTNFa

                                    • Mab (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                  • Crohn, UC, RA, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriasis
                                  • Monoclo antibody to TNFa
                                  • Sulfasalazine

                                    • Crohn, UC
                                    • Combition of sulfapyridine, and 5aminosalicylic acid activated by colonic bacteria
                                    • Ondansetron

                                      5HT3 antagonisht

                                      • Control vomiting in chemotherapy patients
                                      • HT3 antagonist, decrease vagal stimulation, powerful centralacting antiemetic
                                      • Metoclopramide

                                        D2 antagonist

                                        • Diabetic, postsurgery gastroparesis
                                        • Increases resting tone, contractility, LES tone, motility
                                        • Achlorhydria

                                          A condition in which there is "no" "green" "water" or acid, in the stomach.

                                          • A (Greek) - Not, Without
                                          • Khloros (Greek) - Green
                                          • Hydro (Greek) - Water
                                        • A lack of hydrochloric secretions in the stomach
                                        • This condition can result in a number of issues including malabsorption due to lack of gastric acid, anemia and infections
                                        • Often times associated with H. Pylori
                                        • Haustra

                                          The "scoops" or sac-like outpouchings of the colon that give it it's segmented appearence.

                                        • Haustra are seen primarily in the large intestines, and not in the small.
                                        • The filling of each haustra with chyme, causes stimulation leading to contraction of that segment which aids in moving fecculant matter through the colon
                                        • Widespread flattening/loss of colonic haustra is a tell-tale sign of chronic ulcerative colitis
                                        • Test4

                                          Test4

                                        • Test4
                                        • Testkr2

                                          Testkr

                                        • Testkr
                                        • Mesenteric Ischemia

                                          A condition in which "blood" is "held back" or blocked from entering the "middle" of the "gut or bowel".

                                          • Mesos (Greek) - Middle, in the middle, in between
                                          • Enteron (Greek) - Intestine, Small intestint, Piece of Gut, Bowel
                                          • Iskhein (Greek) - Keep back, to hold
                                          • Haima (Greek) - Blood
                                        • Presents as extreme abdominal pain that is disproportionate to the patient's physical exam. (i.e. palpating their abdomen does not illicit more pain).
                                        • Often times associated with patient's with Afib, as clots formed in the heart can travel to the blood supply of the intestines
                                        • This is a surgical emergency, and these patients need to go to the OR for bowel resection or risk death

                                        • MedyQuestion
                                          • A 64 year old man with medical history significant for hypertension controlled on hydrochlorothiazide, atrial fibrillation after an MI in 2005, and diabetes type II who presented to the emergency room for abdominal pain. He says the pain is ten out of ten, does not radiate and does not localize anywhere. On physical exam he is lying in the left lateral decubitus position holding his stomach. He has a temperature of 101F, and is tachycardic to 111. Bowel sounds are normal. Palpation of the abdomen reveals no increased tenderness. What is the most likely diagnosis in this patient?

                                          USMLE Step 1

                                          Fundus

                                          Anatomical term referring to that part of a concavity in any organ, which is at the far end from its opening.

                                        • Found in brain, eye, stomach, gallbladder, urinary bladder, and uterus.
                                        • Encopresis

                                          The "action" of releasing "excrement" due to lack of control "within" oneself

                                          • En (Greek) - Within
                                          • Copro (Greek) - Excrement
                                          • Esis (Greek) - Action, process, as a result of
                                        • Aka fecal incontinence
                                        • MEDYMOLOGY