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ENDOCRINOLOGY
161 terms share this category
Acromegaly

A condition characterized by "great, large" "tips" or extremities, as well as face and jaw,

  • Akron (Greek) - Tip, Extremity
  • Megalo (Greek) - Great, large
  • A result of large amounts of growth hormone secretion by an anterior pituitary adenoma
  • Treatment is octreotide or surgery
  • Causes secondary diabetes mellitus due to progluconeogenesis effect of GH
  • Adenohypophysis

    The "gland" "under or beneath" the brain that secretes hormones to promote "growth", also known as the anterior pituitary gland.

    • Aden (Greek) - Gland
    • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
    • Phusis (Greek) - Growth, movement
  • Located inside the sella turcica
  • Derived from Rathke's pouch (ectoderm)
  • Produces FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH, PRL, GH
  • Med literally as an offshoot gland under the brain because of its location and function as a secretor of hormones
  • Sheehan syndrome is a condition seen in pregnant women when the pituitary grows, but the blood supply to it doesn't leading to ischemia
  • Adenoma

    A benign "mass" of "glandular" tissue.

    • Aden (Greek) - Gland
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Benign tumor

  • MedyQuestion
    • A 26 year old woman presents to her primary care physician complaining of an inability to see in her peripheral view. On exam, you notice the patient’s shirt appears to be wet over the breasts bilaterally. On questioning, she reveals that she has had a white substance coming from her breasts in the recent few weeks and that she regularly needs to change her bra and shirt. What is the best non-surgical treatment for this patient’s condition?

    USMLE Step 1

    Adrenal cortex

    The "bark", or outer covering of the organ "near" or on top of the "kidney".

    • Ad (Latin) - Near, At, To Add On
    • Renes (Latin) - Kidneys
    • Cortex (Latin) - Bark of a Tree, Outer layer
  • Zona glomerulosa, fasciculata, and reticularis producing aldosterone, cortisol, and androgens, respectively
  • The me of the structure, or bark comes from the fact that this is the outer layer of the adrenal gland, versus the medulla or core of the adrenal gland
  • Adrenal medulla

    The "marrow or pith" of the organ "near" or on top of the "kidney".

    • Ad (Latin) - Near, At, To Add On
    • Renes (Latin) - Kidneys
    • Medulla (Latin) - Bone marrow, pith
  • Secretes epinephrine, norepinephrine, and some dopamine in response to sympathetic nerves
  • The me of the structure, or marrow comes from the fact that this is the inner portion, or core of the adrenal gland, versus the cortex or bark.
  • Aldosterone

    A "steroid that acts as a second messenger" whose chemical structure is composed of an "alcohol group deprived of oxygen".

    • Aldehyde (Latin) - Alcohol deprived of oxygen
    • Sterol (English) - Steroid, act as second messengers and in membrane stabilizers
  • A steroid hormone produced by the Zo Glomerulosa. It is involved in the regulation of blood pressure by causing the kidneys to absorb sodium and excrete potassium and hydrogen
  • Acts on the collecting tubule section of the nephron
  • Conn syndrome is a disease in which a person produces an appropriate amount of ADH leading to symptoms of hyponatremia leading to hypertension and edema.
  • ACE inhibitors indirectly affect aldosterone levels by preventing conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II. Angiotensin II promotes release of aldosterone.
  • Amenorrhea

    "Without" a "monthly" "flow", or lack of a period in a woman.

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Men (Greek) - Month
    • Rhein (Greek) - Flow
  • Commonly seen in anorexic patients due to decreased caloric intake and excess exercise resulting in hormone dysregulation in the pituitary
  • It can be caused my many medical illnesses but usually an alteration in hormones is the main cause
  • Literally called Without a monthly flow
  • Androgen

    A hormone that "produces or originates" the development of a "man".

    • Andro (Greek) - Man, male
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
  • A steroid hormone
  • Development of male sex organs
  • Androgen literally means making man
  • Testosterone is the most well known androgen
  • Angiotensin

    An organic molecule that causes an intense "stretch" or vasoconstriction of "blood vessels" in order to increase blood pressure.

  • The second step in the reninangiotensinaldosterone pathway that becomes activated when one is hypovolemic or has decreased blood pressure
  • A popular target for antihypertensive drugs
  • Ace inhibitors block the action of angiotensin converting enzyme, the enzyme responsible for turning angiotensin 1 into angiotensin 2 and completing the RAA cascade to decrease blood pressure
  • Aromatase

    An "enzyme" responsible for a key step in the biosynthesis of estrogen, an important factor in sexual development (helps convert androgens (male hormone) to estrogen (female hormone).

    • Aromatic (French) - Obsolete
    • Ase (English) - Used to form the me of enzymes
  • Excess aromatase activity in boys, it can lead to gynecomastia, and in girls to precocious puberty and gigantomastia. In both sexes, early epiphyseal closure leads to short stature
  • Accumulations of androgens low aromatase leads to accumulation of androgens leading to virilization of a female at birth (males are not affected). Females will have primary amenorrhea. Individuals of both sexes will be tall, as lack of estrogen does not bring the epiphyseal lines to closure.
  • Arteriolosclerosis

    The "hardening" and growing of the "windpipes or arteries" within the body.

  • Two types: Hyaline arteriolosclerosis: due to long standing benign hypertension or diabetes which causes proteins to leak into vessel wall, seen as pink hyaline
  • Hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis: due to malignant hypertension which causes circular hyperplasia of smooth muscle
  • Described as onion skin appearance.
  • Atrophy

    "Without" "food or nourishment".

    • A (Greek) - Not, Without
    • Trophe (Greek) - Food, Nourishment
  • Pathologic reasons include: decreased physical workload, loss of innervation, decreased blood supply, adequate nutrition, absent endocrine stimulation, aging, pressure
  • Bronchial carcinoid

    A "cancer" of the "windpipe or throat".

  • Most symptoms associated with this type of cancer are due to mass effect and release of serotonin which leads to flushing, wheezing and diarrhea
  • One of two types of lung cancer not associated with smoking
  • Nests of neuroendocrine cells that are chromogranin positive
  • Carcinoid symptoms can arise without liver metastases since secreted serotonin goes directly into the bloodstream without activation by the liver
  • Calcitonin

    Hormone that decreases the amount of "chalk" like substance in the blood.

    • Calx (Greek) - Chalk, limestone
    • Tonos (Greek) - Stretched, Tension, Pressure
  • Opposes actions of parathyroid hormone
  • Increased levels in medullary thyroid carcinoma
  • Hormone produced by the perifollicular cells in the thyroid that decreases breakdown of bones which releases calcium and overall decreases the amount of calcium in the blood
  • Carcinoid syndrome

    Describes the symptoms that "run" "together" as a result of the "cancer" "like" tumor

  • Increased serotonin production can decrease tryptophan levels leading to niacin deficiency
  • Serotonin secreted by gastro intestinal carcinoid tumors gets metabolized by the liver while serotonin secreted by bronchial carcinoid enters the systemic circulation
  • Most common tumor of appendix
  • GI carcinoids arise from enterochromaffin cells
  • Group of symptoms including flushing, diarrhea, secondary restrictive
  • Flushing is due to kallikrein secretion rather than serotonin secretion
  • Catabolism

    Metabolic processes that release energy by "throwing" or breaking "down" large molecules into smaller units.

  • Catabolic processes use D+
  • Catecholamine

    Water soluble proteins derived from the amino acid tyrosine that are responsible for the sympathetic fight or flight response. Three important catecholamines are dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine

    • Catechol (English) - An compound used in Malaysian medicine and dyes
    • Amine (English) - Compound in which one of the hydrogens of ammonia is replaced by a hydrocarbon radical
  • Pheochromocytoma is an adrenal tumor that produced large amounts of catecholamines
  • DA, NE, Epi
  • Tyrosine (precursor amino acid)
  • Central diabetes insipidus

    A disease in which there is a "central" lack of antidiuretic hormone in the brain, which leads to excessive urine that just "flows through" and has "no" "flavor"

  • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), thirst, dilute urine
  • Lack of reabsorption of water by the kidneys
  • Diabetes insipidus was unrecognized in the 17th century even after the sweetness of urine was reported characteristic of diabetes mellitus. It would be another century before diabetes insipidus was recognized from the insipid, or bland rather than sweet taste of urine in cases of polyuria. The word "diabetes" comes from Latin diabetes, which literally means “a passer through
  • A siphon." Ancient Greek physician Aretaeus of Cappadocia (used that word, with the intended meaning “excessive discharge of urine”, as the med for the disease.
  • Chromaffin cells

    Cells produced in the adrenal glands that release hormones needed for the stress response. They are med for their "affinity" with chromium salts, which causes the hormones they produce to turn brown in "color."

    • Khroma (Greek) - Color, complexion character
    • Affinis (Latin) - Related, Near the border
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Neuroendocrine cells, adrenal glands, epinephrine, norepinephrine, paracrine signals
  • The word 'Chromaffin' comes from a portmanteau of chromium and affinity. They are med as such because they can be visualized by staining with chromium salts. Chromium salts oxidize and polymerize catecholamines to form a brown color, most strongly in the cells secreting noradreline.
  • Cortisol

    A steroid hormone with an "alcohol" group produced in the "outer layer" of the adrenal glands.

  • Hydrocortisone, stress hormone, glucocorticoid, Zo fasciculata, adrenal cortex
  • A steroid hormone, known as a glucocorticoid, produced by the Zo fasciculata of the adrenal cortex produced in response to stress and low levels of blood glucocorticoid. Functions to increase blood sugar by stimulating gluconeogenesis.
  • Hydrocortisone is the me for cortisol when used as a medication.
  • Craniopharyngioma

    A benign "mass" in the "head" or "throat".

    • Kranion (Greek) - Head, Skull
    • Pharynx (Greek) - Throat, windpipe
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Aka Rathke pouch tumors, hypophyseal duct tumors, pituitary gland
  • A typically benign brain tumor derived from the pituitary gland embryonic tissue
  • It is most common is childhood and adolescence and then again common in 50 60 year olds.
  • Diabetes mellitus

    A condition in which the urine that "goes through" the body ends up "sweet" like "honey".

    • Dia (Greek) - Through, completely
    • Bainein (Latin) - To go
    • Mel (Latin) - Honey, Sweet
  • Chronically elevated blood sugar levels
  • Classic symptoms include polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia
  • Type I Caused when the body produces antibodies against the beta cells of the pancreas
  • Type II Caused by chronically high sugar levels leading to decreased sensitivity to it
  • In ancient Rome, they used to taste people's urine, and if it was sweet, that was how they diagnosed diabetes mellitus.
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis

    A complication of untreated diabetes, in which "ketones" and "acid" buildup in the blood stream.

  • Type 1 diabetes
  • Increased ketone bodies
  • Nausea
  • Thirst
  • Vomiting
  • A complication in type 1 diabetic patients due to a lack of insulin leading to decreased intracellular glucose levels. As a result, the body starts to use fatty acids as an energy source and creates ketone bodies. The buildup of ketone bodies leads to the symptoms of DKA, including vomiting, nausea, thirst, and increased urine production.
  • Dihydrofolate reductase

    An "enzyme" converting "folate" (derived from leaves) from a form with 2 "water" molecules to 4.

    • Di (Greek) - Two, Double, Twice
    • Hydro (Greek) - Water
    • Folium (Latin) - Leaf
    • Reducere (Latin) - To bring back, restore
  • Enzyme
  • Dihydrofolic acid
  • Tetrahydrofolate
  • DPH
  • Electron donor
  • An enzyme that reduces dihydrofolic acid to tetrahydrofolic acid by using DPH as electron donor.
  • Diphyllobothrium latum

    A tapeworm found in freshwater fish that inhabits the GI system and commonly causes B12 deficiency.

    • Di (Greek) - Two, Double, Twice
    • Phyllon (Greek) - Leaf
    • Bothrium (Greek) - Pit
    • Latum (Latin) - Broad, wide; generous, bounteous
  • A tapeworm under the diphyllobothrium genus that causes Diphyllobothriasis in humans through the consumption of raw or undercooked fish
  • It is also known as the broad or fish tapeworm
  • It can lead to Vit B12 deficiency.
  • Historically, this was referred to as the Jewish Woman's tapeworm because of their use of many freshwater fish in making homemade gefilte fish, that would lead to infection of whoever ate it.
  • Distribution

    The transfer or "division" of a drug to various locations in the body.

  • Distribution is influenced by many factors including vascular permeability, regional blood flow, cardiac output, pH, and perfusion rate.
  • Dolor

    "Pain".

  • One of the main characteristics of inflammation, along with rubor (redness), calor (heat), tumor (swelling), and functio laesa (loss of function).
  • Dysgerminoma

    Think "bad germ cells".

    • Dys (Greek) - Bad, Ill, Abnormal, Evil
    • Germen (Latin) - Sprout
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • A malignant ovarian germ cell tumor.
  • Ectoderm

    The "outermost" of the three germ layers during embryonic development.

  • The ectoderm gives rise to the epidermis, nervous system, tooth enamel, and the lining of the mouth, anus, nostrils, sweat glands, hair, and nails.
  • Epiglottitis

    Acute inflammation of the tissue "above" the windpipe and behind the "tongue."

    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Glossa (Greek) - Tongue
  • Commonly associated with H. influenza Type B
  • Commonly presents as enlarged cherryred epiglottis and arytenoids
  • Thumb print sign on lateral xray
  • George Washington may died of complications from epiglottitis in 1799.
  • Essential thrombocytosis

    A condition in which there is an excessive production of "clotting" "cells"

    • Essentia (Latin) - Essence
    • Thrombos (Greek) - Clump of blood, clot of blood
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Chronic myeloproliferative disorder with sustained megakaryocyte proliferation, excess platelets, splenomegaly, and thrombotic or hemorrhagic episodes
  • First described in 1934
  • Estrogen

    Group of primary female sex steroid hormones that lead to the "birth" or creation of "frenzied" individuals.

    • Oestrus (Latin) - Frenzy
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
  • Used as part of oral contraceptives and estrogen replacement therapy
  • Increases risk of thrombosis (MI, stroke)
  • When used without progesterone, increases risk of endometrial cancer
  • DES is a synthetic form of estrogen used from 1940 until 1971 when it was discovered to be ineffective and cause clear cell adenocarcinoma to children that were exposed to the drug inutero
  • Exocrine glands

    "Acornshaped" glands with a duct responsible for secreting their waste or metabolic products "outside" of the system.

    • Exo (Greek) - Outside
    • Crine (Gaelic) - To whither
    • Glans (Latin) - Acornshaped ball
  • Sweat glands
  • Pancreas
  • The pancreas acts as an exocrine gland by way of lipases and proteases secreted directly into the duodenum
  • Exogenous

    Something "produced" separately "out of" the body.

    • Ex (Latin) - Out of
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
  • Exogenous insulin lacks Cpeptide
  • Exogenous testosterone as anabolic steroids
  • Exogenous thyroxine for hypothyroidism
  • Follicle

    "Little bag" in the ovary that contains an oocyte, granulosa cells, and theca cells

  • Grows most during the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle
  • Follicular carcinoma (thyroid)

    "cancerous" "growth" of the "little bag" of cells within the thyroid

  • Invades fibrous capsule
  • Functio laesa

    "Loss" of "function"

  • One of the five cardinal signs of inflammation (dolor, calor, rubor, tumor) originally recorded by Aulus Cornelius Celsus in 'De Medici,' published in the 1st century BCE
  • Gametes

    A haploid cell that "marries" another haploid cell, forming the diploid cell during sexual reproduction

  • Human gametes include sperm and ova
  • From modern Latin gameta, from Greek gametē ‘wife,’ gametēs 'husband,’ from gamos ‘marriage.’
  • Glanzmann thrombasthenia

    A very rare disorder of platelets that involves low levels of GPIIb/IIIA

    • Thrombos (Greek) - Clump of blood, clot of blood
    • Athenia (Greek) - Want of strenght weakness, feebleness, sickness, a sickness, a disease
  • Autosomal recessive disorder
  • Decreased binding of fibrinogen
  • Increased bleeding time
  • Nose bleeds, easy bruising, menorrhagia, and GI bleeds
  • Understanding of this disease and the GPIIb/IIIa receptor is what led to the development of a variety of antiplatelet drugs that act on this location.
  • Glossopharyngeal nerve

    The 9th cranial nerve that innervates the "tongue" and "throat/ windpipe"

    • Glossa (Greek) - Tongue
    • Pharynx (Greek) - Throat, windpipe
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Taste and touch sensation from the posterior 1/3 of the tongue
  • Salivation of the parotids
  • Monitors carotid body and sinus
  • Motor innervation to the stylopharyngeus
  • Glucagon

    Metabolic hormone released by the alpha cells of the pancreas involved in "bringing" "sweet wine" or sugar, into the blood.

    • Glykys (Greek) - Sweet, sweet wine
    • Agon (Greek) - Leading, Bringing
  • Stimulates gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis, lipolysis, ketogenesis
  • Acts via a cAMP pathway
  • Glycosuria

    The excretion of "sweet wine" or sugar in the "urine".

    • Glykys (Greek) - Sweet, sweet wine
    • Ouron (Greek) - Urine
  • Usually seen in those with untreated diabetes or renal damage
  • Gubernaculum

    Embryonic structure from mesenchyme that is thought to "steer" the development and descent of the testes.

  • Anchors testes within scrotum
  • Ovarian ligament and round ligament of uterus
  • Involved in gonadal descent
  • Gynecomastia

    Benign enlargement of "breast" tissue (mammary glands) in men, sometimes to the point of secreting milk

    • Gyne (Greek) - Queen, Woman, female
    • Mazos (Greek) - Breast
  • Seen in Klinefelter's syndrome (XXY) and in men with increased estrogen. Adverse effect of many drugs, especially those inhibiting dopamine/activating prolactin.
  • Associated with spironolactone, digitalis, cimetidine, ketoconazole, alcohol use, and marijuana use
  • Homocystinuria

    Disease that results in the presence of amino acids that are almost the "same" as cystine in the "urine". The amino acid cysteine was so med for having been found in the "bladder"

    • Homos (Greek) - Once and the same, like
    • Kustis (Greek) - Bladder, atomical pouch or sac
    • Ouron (Greek) - Urine
  • Disorder of metabolism of methionine
  • Characterized by elevated urine homocysteine, mental retardation, osteoporosis, lens subluxation, and atherosclerosis
  • May be due to cystathionase deficiency, decreased pyridoxal phosphate affinity, or homocysteine methyltransferase deficiencies
  • Hyperacute

    A "sharp" change that happens "excessively" quickly, within minutes.

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Acuere (Latin) - To Sharpen, sharply onset
  • Hyperacute transplant rejection type II hypersensitivity reaction that manifests as ischemia and necrosis of graft vessels
  • Hyperbolic

    Adjective describing something that resembles or pertains to a hyperbola (a curve). It resembles the curve of an "extreme" "throw" of a projectile.

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Bole (Greek) - To throw
  • Enzymatic reactions follow MichaelisMenten kinetics, represented by the hyperbolic curve
  • Hypergastrinemia

    "Excess stomach" hormone, or gastrin, in the "blood.

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Gaster (Greek) - Stomach, belly, eater, devourer
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • May result from gastrinoma (ZollingerEllison syndrome) or chronic proton pump inhibitor use
  • May present with stomach ulcers
  • Literally "excess gastrin in blood."
  • Hyperglycemia

    "Excess sweet wine," or glucose, in the "blood."

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Glykys (Greek) - Sweet, sweet wine
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • Chronic hyperglycemia associated with Cushing syndrome and diabetes
  • May lead to peripheral neuropathy and retinopathy
  • Side effect of cyclosporine, protease inhibitors, glucocorticoids, tacrolimus, niacin, hydrochlorothiazide, beta blockers
  • Literally "excess glucose in blood."
  • Hyperkeratosis

    "Disease" resulting in an "excess horny" layer of the skin.

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Keras (Greek) - Horn
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Thickening of the outermost layer of the epidermis (stratum corneum)
  • Often associated with an abnormal increase in the amount of keratin
  • Associated with psoriasis, calluses, and verrucae
  • Literally "excess horny tissue disease." Horny tissue is keratin, which is found in skin.
  • Hyperopia

    "Excess sight," leading to farsightedness.

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Opsis (Greek) - Sight, eye
  • Also known as hypermetropia or farsightedness
  • Causes difficulty in focusing on near objects as a result of the eyeball being too short in length
  • Light focused behind retina
  • Hyperparathyroidism

    "Excess" hormone from the parathyroid, which is "beside" the "oblong shieldshaped" thyroid.

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Para (Greek) - Along, side, beside, near, against, contrary to
    • Thureos (Greek) - Oblong shield
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism caused by adenomas, hyperplasia, and carcinoma
  • May lead to osteitis fibrosa cystica
  • Secondary hyperparathyroidism due to hypocalcemia of chronic kidney disease
  • Causes hypercalcemia, which can present as stones, bones, groans and psychiatric overtones (renal stones, weakness and constipation, abdominal/flank pain, depression)
  • Hypertelorism

    "Excess distance" between two organs.

    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Tele (Greek) - Far off, afar, at or near a distance
  • Commonly used to describe abnormally widely spread eyes (ocular hypertelorism)
  • Associated with a number of congenital syndromes, such as DiGeorge syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome and Greig's syndrome
  • Hypertension

    "Excess stretching" of blood vessels from increased blood pressure.

  • Blood pressure in the arteries elevated above 140/90 mmHg
  • Risk factors include increased age, obesity, diabetes, smoking, genetics, African American
  • Predisposes to atherosclerosis, left ventricular hypertrophy, stroke, heart failure, renal failure, retinopathy, and aortic dissection
  • Hypoblast

    "Germ" cells located "under" the epiblast within a developing blastocyte.

    • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
    • Blastos (Greek) - Germ, sprout, bud or budding, immature
  • Gives rise to the endoderm (respiratory tract and digestive tract)
  • Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

    A condition which is characterized by an "less" than normal secretion of hormones that allow for "nourishment" of sexual "seeds" by the pituitary gland in the brain; this decrease in secretion leads to decreased sex steroids and libido

    • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
    • Gone (Greek) - Generation, seed
    • Trophe (Greek) - Food, Nourishment
  • Decrease in folliclestimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)
  • Characterized by low levels of testosterone and LH
  • Kallmann syndrome
  • Hypokalemia

    "Less" "potassium" in the "blood."

    • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
    • Kalium (Latin) - Potassium
    • Haima (Greek) - Blood
  • May cause U waves on ECG
  • Seen in 17 alpha hydroxylase deficiency (congenital adrenal hyperplasia), hyperaldosteronism (Conn syndrome), VIPoma, Bartter syndrome, Liddle syndrome, Type 1 Rel tubular acidosis
  • Hypospadias

    An opening to the urethra that results in a "tear under" the penis, usually on the underside of the shaft.

    • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
    • Spado (Latin) - A tear or gouge
  • Foreskin used to repair hypospadias
  • Hypothalamus

    A structure of the brain that lies "under" another structure likened to an "inner chamber" (thalamus) of the brain

    • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
    • Thalamos (Greek) - Inner chamber, sleeping room
  • Produces hormones that control a variety of functions, including body temperature, thirst, hunger, sleep, circadian rhythm, moods, sex drive and the release of other hormones in the body
  • Hypothyroidism

    "Less" hormone from the "oblongshaped" thyroid.

    • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
    • Thureos (Greek) - Oblong shield
  • Decreased T3 and T4
  • Symptoms include cold intolerance, weight gain, constipation, decreased reflexes, myxedema
  • Cretinism
  • May be caused by drugs (lithium, amiodarone, sulfonamides)
  • Inotrope

    An agent that changes the way muscle "fibers" contract (or "turn").

    • Inos (Greek) - Fiber
    • Tropos (Greek) - Turn, turning, change, response
    Kernicterus

    A bilirubininduced brain (the "kernel") dysfunction that can be seen in neonates. This type of "jaundice" causes irreversible neurological damage.

  • Hyperbilirubinemia may cause bilirubin to accumulate in the gray matter of the central nervous system, potentially causing irreversible
  • Ketone

    The word "ketone" is derived from a word that means "acetone." However, acetone is actually categorized as a ketone.

  • These are molecules that are produced by the liver from fatty acids during periods of fasting for cells of the body to use as energy instead of glucose
  • The ketone bodies are acetone, acetoacetic acid, and betahydroxybutyrate
  • Ketones are a secondary source used by the body to produce energy
  • Ketonemia

    The presence of "ketones "in the "blood"

    Lymphocyte

    A "Clear water" "cell" med for living primarily within the "clear water" system of the body, mely B and T cells.

    • Lympha (Latin) - Water, clear water, a goddess of water
    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Count commonly increased in viral infections, chronic intracellular bacterial infections, protozoal infections, leukemia, and lymphoma
  • Count commonly decreased in recent infection (e.g. common cold), HIV infection (primarily T cells),corticosteroid use, malnutrition, lupus, and sarcoidosis.

  • Mnemonics
    Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas!
    % Concentrations of the Types of White Blood Cells
    Neutrophils (65%). Lymphocytes (25%). Monocytes (6%). Eosinophils (3%). Basophils (1%)
    Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas
    The concentrations of the various immune cell types
    Neutrophils (the most), Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Erythrocytes, Basophils (least)
    Macrosomia

    The condition of having a "large" "body".

    • Makros (Greek) - Large, large to scale
    • Soma (Greek) - Body
  • A condition of newborns commonly seen in mothers with uncontrolled diabetes
  • Sometimes referred to as LGA or large for gestational age
  • Considered to be macrosomic if the baby weighs more than 4500 grams, or 9lbs 15oz
  • Medullary invasive carcinoma

    Malignant "invasive" "cancer" of the "pith" of the breast that consist of lymphocytic infiltrate that typically has a good prognosis.

    Miliary pulmonary tuberculosis

    Widespread "condition" of "tuberculosis" in the "lung" characterized by diffuse granulomas and "millets" sized 15 mm.

    Myositis ossificans

    Metaplasia and "inflammation" of skeletal "muscle" into "bone" following traumatic injury.

    • Mus (Greek) - Muscle, mouse
    • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
    • Ossis (Latin) - Bone
  • Tumor or suspicious mass following injury to extremity
  • Nephrogenesis

    Growth and development "originating" from the "kidneys", the lack of which causes oligohydramnios and poor lung development.

    • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
  • Potter's sequence
  • Nephron

    The functional unit of the "kidney". Traces the path of urine production from the glomeruli to the collecting ducts.

    Nervous

    Relating to nerves which look like thin "cords".

    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
    Neurofibromatosis

    "Condition" of "fibrous" tumor "growth" from "nervous" tissue.

    • Neuro (Greek) - Nerve, sinew, tendon
    • Fibra (Latin) - A fiber, filament, entrail
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Autosomal dominant
  • NF1: chromosome 17, cafe au lait spots, Lisch nodules, neural tumors
  • NF2: chromosome 22, bilateral acoustic neuromas, meningioma, cataracts
  • Neurocutaneous disorders include NF2, Tuberous sclerosis, VHL disease, and SturgeWeber
  • Neurohypophysis

    Posterior pituitary gland of the "nervous system" ectoderm, located on the "underside" of the brain that produces chemicals that promote "growth".

    • Neuron (Greek) - Nerve, straw, tendon
    • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
    • Phusis (Greek) - Growth, movement
  • Releases ADH and ocytocin produced in the hypothalamus.
  • Neuropathy

    "Suffering" caused by "nerves". Multiple causes including diabetes, B12 deficiency, and hereditary diseases.

    • Neuron (Greek) - Nerve, straw, tendon
    • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
  • Tingling
  • Numbness
  • Electric shock pain
  • Nodose ganglion

    "Knotlike" "swelling" of the vagus nerve located at the 1st cervical vertebrae.

  • Contains afferent signals from the GI tract and fibers of CNXI
  • Noradrenergic

    Used to describe nerves and receptors that "work" when norepinephrine, a neurotransmitter produced "near or above" the "kidneys" in the adrenal glands.

    • Ad (Latin) - Near, At, To Add On
    • Renes (Latin) - Kidneys
    • Ergon (Greek) - Activity, Work
  • Multiple types of adrenergic receptors
  • Onchocerca Volvulus

    Nematode transmitted by black fly bite, causes river blindness

  • Black Fly
  • River Blindness
  • Diagnosed by ear snip, leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide
  • Osler nodes

    Painful nodes on the fingers and toes of patients with infective endocarditis

  • Osler nodes make you say ouch
  • Osteitis deformans

    Chronic disorder "pertaining to a disease" that results large, "distorted" "bones."

  • Paget disease of the bone
  • Bisphosphonates are used for treatment
  • Osteoarthritis

    Degenerative arthritis of the "bones" and "joints."

  • Worsens with movement and use of joints
  • Joint growing
  • Osteophytes
  • Eburnation

  • Mnemonics
    LOSS
    Osteoarthritis: x-ray signs
    Loss of joint space, Osteopyhtes, Subcondral sclerosis, Subchondral cysts
    LOSS of bone in osteoarthritis
    X-ray findings of osteoarthritis
    Loss of joint space, Osteophyte formation, Subchondral sclerosis, Subchondral cysts
    Osteochondroma

    "Cartilage" based "tumor" of the "bone" that usually present as cartilaginous bony projections of the metaphysis.

    • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
    • Chondros (Greek) - Cartilage
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Most common benign tumor of the bones
  • Osteoclast activating factor

    It is an interleukin responsible for inflammation that is told what "to do" by macrophages and other immune cells. It also is involved in stimulating "break" down of "bone."

  • Also known as IL1a
  • Promotes inflammation, fever, and sepsis
  • Osteoma

    Benign "tumor" of the "bone".

    • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Most commonly on the face
  • Part of Gardner's syndrome
  • Osteophytes

    "Bony" projections that form along joint margins like leaves off a "plant."

  • Bone spurs
  • Heberden's and Bouchard's nodes
  • Occurs in osteoarthritis
  • Oxidation

    Loss of electrons in a chemical reaction. "Oxygen" (O2) was the first recognized oxidizing agent.

    • Oxide (Greek) - Ozygen with another compound
  • LEO the lion goes GER = loss electron oxidation, gain electron reduction
  • "Oxidation" was originally termed because O2 was the first recognized oxidizing agent. It originally referred to reactions with oxygen to form an oxide.
  • Pancoast tumor

    A "swollen" mass located at the apex of the lung.

    • Horner syndrome, classic triad of ptosis, miosis, and anhidrosis
    • Papillae

      A "nipple"like structure.

      Parasympathetic

      The system that acts "against" the "sympathetic" system.

      • Para (Greek) - Along, side, beside, near, against, contrary to
      • Sympathicus (Latin) - Subject to a common nervous influence
    • Part of the autonomic nervous system that balances and counteracts the sympathetic nervous system
    • Pectoralis minor

      The "smaller" muscle in the anterior "chest."

    • Muscle in anterior chest underneath the pectoralis major which depresses and medially rotates the scapula
    • Proximally attached at sternal ends of ribs 35
    • Distally attached at coracoid process of scapula
    • Peroneus tertius

      The "third" "pinlike" muscle in the leg.

      • Perone (Greek) - Anything sharp or pointed
      • Tertius (Latin) - Third
    • A muscle in the anterior lower leg compartment
    • Also known as the fibularis tertius
    • Innervated by the deep fibular nerve
    • Phenylketonuria

      A genetic disorder of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, leading to phenylalanine (med for properties of gases used to "shine" or illuminate) and "acetone" and other ketone bodies to be expelled via the "urinary system".

      • Phenyl (French) - Shining
      • Ketone (French) - Acetone
      • Uria (Latin) - Of or pertaining to urine, the uriry system
    • Phenylalanine hydroxylase converts phenylalanine to tyrosine
    • Without enzyme phenylalanine builds up and presents with mental/growth retardation, fair skin, mousy odor, eczema, seizures
    • Phenylalanine is an alanine molecule with a phenyl group added to the beta carbon.
    • Pisiform bone

      A sesamoid "bone" found on the ulnar side of the wrist that is in the "form" of a "pear."

      • Pisum (Latin) - Pear
      • Forma (Latin) - Form
      • Ban (Old English) - Bone, tusk
    • Forms the ulnar border of carpal tunnel.

    • Mnemonics
      So Long To Pinky, Here Comes The Thumb
      The bones of the wrist
      Scaphoid, Lunate, Triqutrim, Pisiform, Hamate, Capitate, Trapezoid, Trapezium
      Pituitary

      A small endocrine gland located below the hypothalamus of the brain, near the optic chiasm. It is responsible for "excreting" several endocrine hormones.

    • Pituitary adenomas can cause bitemporal hemianopsia
    • The gland is divided into the posterior and anterior pituitary.

    • Mnemonics
      FLAG ToP
      Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary
      FSH, LH, ACTH, GNRH, TSH, Prolactin

      MedyQuestion
      • A 36 year old man with no past medical history is brought to the emergency room after being found down by his wife unconscious. Finger stick in the ambulance demonstrates a blood sugar of 22., The wife reports that the patient has no history of diabetes in either the patient or the family. The patient was given D50 and become unresponsive again. During his hospital course, the patient is found to have daily recurring drops in blood sugar requiring him to be on a sugar drip. Tumors in what other two organs are most likely?

      USMLE Step 1

      Polycythemia vera

      "True" abnormal rise (too "many") in number of "blood" "cells" (primarily Red Blood Cells) due to bone marrow dysfunction

      • Polloi (Greek) - Many
      • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
      • Haima (Greek) - Blood
      • Verus (Latin) - True
    • Polycythemia vera is caused by a JAK2 gene mutation that causes elevated hematocrit (>55%) and episodic blood clots in the extremities, leading to severe, burning pain and redbluish discoloration
    • Classically presents as intense itching after a hot shower.
    • Polyp

      Improper projection growth of tissue from mucous membrane which resemble "octopi"

    • Sal polyps associated with cystic fibrosis
    • Colonic polyps can be benign or malignant
    • Cervical polyps tend to be estrogen related and are typically benign
    • Polyphagia

      Abnormally increased appetite or hunger. "To eat" "many" more times than baseline.

    • Can be seen in atypical depression, diabetic ketoacidosis, and PraderWilli Syndrome among other conditions
    • Prokaryotes

      Organisms who existed "before" having a bound "nucleus"

      • Pro (Greek) - Before, Forward
      • Karyon (Greek) - Kernel, nut
    • Include bacteria: cocci, bacilli, spirochaete
    • Pronephros

      "First" phase of "kidney" development in embryo, followed by mesonephros.

      • Pro (Greek) - Before, Forward
      • Nephros (Greek) - Kidney
      Prophylaxis

      Therapeutic action taken to "guard" "before" expose to the actual pathogen

      • Pro (Greek) - Before, Forward
      • Phulaxis (Greek) - Precautiory, To guard or ward off
    • Meningitis (Rifampin for Meningococcal), HIV, Dental Antibiotics
    • Protease

      An "enzyme" that breaks down "compounds composed to amino acids"

      • Protein (English) - A compound composed of amino acids
      • Ase (English) - Used to form the me of enzymes
    • PH determines optimal activity in digestive tract
    • Protoporphyrin

      The "first" "purple" precursor of heme, the pigment in red blood cells.

    • Combines with Iron to form heme
    • Pseudogout

      A "false" "dropping" of materials from the blood into joints.

      • Pseudein (Greek) - To deceive, cheat by lies, fake
      • Gutta (Latin) - Drop
    • Rheumatologic disorder with similar presenting symptoms as gout
    • Crystals are accumulation of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate
    • NSAID treatment
    • Renal tubular acidosis

      "A condition or disease" relating to the "small pipes" or tubules of the "kidneys" being unable to secrete "acid" or reabsorb base (bicarbonate)

      • Renes (Latin) - Kidneys
      • Tubulus (Latin) - A small pipe
      • Acidus (Latin) - Relating to acid
      • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
      Retinol

      Animal form of Vitamin A, consists of a diterpenoid and "alcohol", and is important for the "netlike" retina and vision.

      Ribonucleotide reductase

      Enzyme that converts ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides (R > D)

      • Ribonsaure (German) - Shortened, arbitrary alteration of English arabinose, a sugar fromed from gum arabic
      • Nucleus (Latin) - Kernel
      • Reducere (Latin) - To bring back, restore
    • Inhibited by hydroxyurea
    • Somatoform disorder

      A "not" "regular" psychiatric condition in which a person feels like there "body" takes "form" of disease or problem, despite nothing actually being wrong.

      • Soma (Greek) - Body
      • Forma (Latin) - Form
      • Dis (Latin) - Not, In a Different Direction, Between
      • Ordinare (Latin) - Ordain, regular
    • A psychiatric illness in which patients experience and feel symptoms that are not specifically caused by a medical condition
    • Patients with somatoform disorder will present with vague symptoms that cannot be traced to a specific medical finding, positive test results, or pathophysiology of an illness.
    • Somatomedin

      A hormone "inside" the "body" that acts to stimulate tissue growth

      • Soma (Greek) - Body
      • Internus (Latin) - Interl, inside, inward, within
    • Hormones that act to stimulate tissue growth
    • Stimulated by growth hormone and stimulate the production of somatostatin
    • Insulin like growth factor is a somatomedin
    • Often released from the liver
    • Stereocillia

      "Eyelash"like "solid" actin filaments in the inner ear, which transduce sound waves into a signal sent into the auditory nerve

      • Stereos (Greek) - Solid
      • Ciliaris (Latin) - Pertaining to Eyelashes, upper eyelid
    • Microvillilike actin filaments found in the inner ear that are responsible for transducing sound waves into a signal that acts on the auditory nerve.
    • Also located in the semicircular canals and otoliths and play a role in the vestibular pathway
    • Destruction can lead to hearing and balance problems
    • Located on the top of hair cells
    • Sympathetic trunk

      A "trunk"like chain from which the origins of the sympathetic nervous system fibers in the body arise.

      • Syn (Greek) - With, together
      • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
      • Truncus (Latin) - Trunk of a tree, trunk of the body
    • Horner's syndrome
    • Tabes dorsalis

      A neurological condition in which the "dorsal" columns of the spinal cord "waste away" due to syphilis infection.

      • Tabere (Greek) - To melt, waste away, be consumed
      • Dorsualis (Latin) - Of The Back
    • ArgyllRobertson pupil
    • Positive Romberg's test
    • Treponema pallidum spirochete
    • Sir Arthur Con Doyle, famous for his Sherlock Holmes novels, completed his doctorate on Tabes Dorsalis in 1885. Famous painted Edouard Manet died in 1883 from Tabes Dorsalis.
    • Testosterone

      "Steroid" hormone produced by the "testicles" of males and the ovaries of females.

      • Testis (Latin) - A witness, testicle
      • Sterol (English) - Steroid, act as second messengers and in membrane stabilizers
      • Ketone (French) - Acetone
    • Produced by leydig cells
    • Thymus

      The "oblong shield"shaped gland of the immune system located in the mediastinum, where Tcells differentiate and mature.

      • Thumos (Greek) - Excrescence like a thyme bud, thymus gland
    • Derived from endoderm (third pharyngeal pouch)
    • Site of Tcell differentiation
    • Thumos in Greek means anger or heart, desire, soul, life. Emotions like anger were subjectively felt in the chest, thus the reason for the me of thymus because of its approximate location near the chest
    • Thyroglossal duct

      A an embryological connection between the "oblong shield" shaped organ's initial position at the posterior "tongue" and it's fil position in the neck.

    • This structure normally involutes
    • Located completely in the midline
    • Persistence of the thyroglossal duct leads to the formation of a thyroglossal duct cyst
    • Thyroglossal duct cysts typically moves up upon protrusion of the tongue
    • Thyroid

      Bilobular "shield"like endocrine gland in the neck that is involved in the production of thyroid hormones (T3/T4).

    • The C cells of the thyroid also produce calcitonin, a hormone responsible for calcium homeostasis
    • In 1656, atomist Thomas Walton med the gland the thyroid because it's shape resembled shields used in Ancient Greece
    • Thyroiditis

      "Inflammation" of the "oblong shield" like gland.

      • Thureos (Greek) - Oblong shield
      • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
    • Hashimoto's thyroiditis, an autoimmune condition, is a common cause of hypothyroidism
    • Virchow triad

      The "three" major contributing factors to forming a blood clot

    • Stasis of Blood Flow
    • Endothelial injury
    • Hypercoagulable state
    • The triad was described by Dr. Virchow in 1856. Originally, the triad referred to what happened as a result of a clot, rather than what caused them. Virchow is also famous for his description of the Virchow node.
    • Yersinia Pestis

      Med after Alexander "Yersinia" and cause of "plague."

    • Infected lymph nodes of the groin called buboes, the Greek work for groin
    • The vector for the bug is fleas, despite the once belief that it was spread by rats
    • This infectious agent caused the black plague in Europe in 1340s, a disease that ended up killing 1/3 of the population of Europe by the 1600s.
    • Zona fasciculata

      Med for the "little bundle" "geographical belt" in the middle layer of adrenal gland.

      • Zona (Latin) - Geographic belt, celestial zone
      • Fasciculus (Latin) - Little bundle
    • Produces glucocorticoids, mainly cortisone
    • Tumors of the zo fasciculata leads to Cushing syndrome, a condition of increased cortisone production
    • Med because of the arrangement of cells into fascicles, or little bundles
    • Remember GFR when remembering the layers of the adrenal glands because they sit on the kidneys. Recall that the juice gets sweeter the deeper you eat i.e. Glomerulosa = aldosterone (salt), Fasciculata = glucocorticoid (sugar), Reticularis = sex hormones (sex)
    • Zona glomerulosa

      Med for the "ballshaped" "geographic belt", or outer most layer of cells of the adrenal glands.

      • Zona (Latin) - Geographic belt, celestial zone
      • Glomus (Latin) - Ballshaped mass
    • Secretes aldosterone
    • Regulated by renin
    • Med because of the circular/oval shape of the cells that compose it forming the circular capsule of the adrenal gland
    • Remember GFR when remembering the layers of the adrenal glands because they sit on the kidneys. Recall that the juice gets sweeter the deeper you eat i.e. Glomerulosa = aldosterone (salt), Fasciculata = glucocorticoid (sugar), Reticularis = sex hormones (sex)
    • Lispro

      Insulin Rapid Acting

      • Type 1 DM, Type 2 DM, gestatiol diabetes, lifethreatening hyperkalemia, stressinduced hyperglycemia.
      • Bind insulin receptor (tyrosine kise activity). Increases glucose stored as glycogen in liver, increases glycogen and protein synthesis in the muscle, and aids TG storage in visceral fat
      • Aspart

        Insulin rapid Acting

        • Type 1 DM, Type 2 DM, gestatiol diabetes, lifethreatening hyperkalemia, stressinduced hyperglycemia.
        • Bind insulin receptor (tyrosine kise activity). Increases glucose stored as glycogen in liver, increases glycogen and protein synthesis in the muscle, and aids TG storage in visceral fat
        • Glulisine

          Insulin Rapid Acting

          • Type 1 DM, Type 2 DM, gestatiol diabetes, lifethreatening hyperkalemia, stressinduced hyperglycemia.
          • Bind insulin receptor (tyrosine kise activity). Increases glucose stored as glycogen in liver, increases glycogen and protein synthesis in the muscle, and aids TG storage in visceral fat
          • Regular

            Insulin Short Acting

            • Type 1 DM, Type 2 DM, gestatiol diabetes, lifethreatening hyperkalemia, stressinduced hyperglycemia.
            • Bind insulin receptor (tyrosine kise activity). Increases glucose stored as glycogen in liver, increases glycogen and protein synthesis in the muscle, and aids TG storage in visceral fat
            • NPH

              Insulin Intermediate Acting

              • Type 1 DM, Type 2 DM, gestatiol diabetes, lifethreatening hyperkalemia, stressinduced hyperglycemia.
              • Bind insulin receptor (tyrosine kise activity). Increases glucose stored as glycogen in liver, increases glycogen and protein synthesis in the muscle, and aids TG storage in visceral fat
              • Glargine

                Insulin Long Acting

                • Type 1 DM, Type 2 DM, gestatiol diabetes, lifethreatening hyperkalemia, stressinduced hyperglycemia.
                • Bind insulin receptor (tyrosine kise activity). Increases glucose stored as glycogen in liver, increases glycogen and protein synthesis in the muscle, and aids TG storage in visceral fat
                • Detemir

                  Insulin Long Acting

                  • Type 1 DM, Type 2 DM, gestatiol diabetes, lifethreatening hyperkalemia, stressinduced hyperglycemia.
                  • Bind insulin receptor (tyrosine kise activity). Increases glucose stored as glycogen in liver, increases glycogen and protein synthesis in the muscle, and aids TG storage in visceral fat
                  • Metformin

                    Biguanides

                    • 1st line for Type 2 DM. Oral.
                    • Decrease gluconeogenesis, Increase glycolysis, Increase peripheral glucose uptake (insulin sensitivity)
                    • Tolbutamide

                      Sulfonylureas

                      • Stimulate release of endogenous insulin in type 2 DM. Requires islet function, so useless in type 1 DM
                      • Close K+ channel in Betacell membrane in the islets, so cell depolarizes > triggering of insulin release via increase Ca2+ influx
                      • Chlorpropamide

                        Sulfonylureas

                        • Stimulate release of endogenous insulin in type 2 DM. Requires islet function, so useless in type 1 DM
                        • Close K+ channel in Betacell membrane in the islets, so cell depolarizes > triggering of insulin release via increase Ca2+ influx
                        • Glyburide

                          Sulfonylureas

                          • Stimulate release of endogenous insulin in type 2 DM. Requires islet function, so useless in type 1 DM
                          • Close K+ channel in Betacell membrane in the islets, so cell depolarizes > triggering of insulin release via increase Ca2+ influx
                          • Glimepiride

                            Sulfonylureas

                            • Stimulate release of endogenous insulin in type 2 DM. Requires islet function, so useless in type 1 DM
                            • Close K+ channel in Betacell membrane in the islets, so cell depolarizes > triggering of insulin release via increase Ca2+ influx
                            • Glipizide

                              Sulfonylureas

                              • Stimulate release of endogenous insulin in type 2 DM. Requires islet function, so useless in type 1 DM
                              • Close K+ channel in Betacell membrane in the islets, so cell depolarizes > triggering of insulin release via increase Ca2+ influx
                              • Pioglitazone

                                Glitazones

                                • Used as monotherapy in type 2 DM or combined with metformin/sulfonylureas
                                • Increases insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissue by binding to PPARgamma nuclear transcription regulator.
                                • Rosiglitazone

                                  Glitazones

                                  • Used as monotherapy in type 2 DM or combined with metformin/sulfonylureas
                                  • Increases insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissue by binding to PPARgamma nuclear transcription regulator.
                                  • Acarbose

                                    Alphaglucosidase inhibitors

                                    • Used as monotherapy in type 2 DM or combined with metformin/sulfonylureas
                                    • Inhibit intestil brushborder alphaglucosidase enzymes. This delays sugar hydrolysis and glucose absorption, which will decrease postprandial hyperglycemia.
                                    • Miglitol

                                      Alphaglucosidase inhibitors

                                      • Used as monotherapy in type 2 DM or combined with metformin/sulfonylureas
                                      • Inhibit intestil brushborder alphaglucosidase enzymes. This delays sugar hydrolysis and glucose absorption, which will decrease postprandial hyperglycemia.
                                      • Pramlinitide

                                        Amylin alogs

                                        • Type 1 DM, Type 2 DM
                                        • Decreases the release of glucagon.
                                        • Exetide

                                          GLP1 alogs

                                          • Type 2 DM
                                          • Increase the release of insulin, decrease the release of glucagon.
                                          • Liraglutide

                                            GLP1 alogs

                                            • Type 2 DM
                                            • Increase the release of insulin, decrease the release of glucagon.
                                            • Ligliptin

                                              DDP4 inhibitor

                                              • Gliptin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                            • Diabetes mellitus, Type 2
                                            • Increases insulin release, decreases glucagon release
                                            • Saxagliptin

                                              DDP4 inhibitor

                                              • Gliptin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                            • Diabetes mellitus, Type 2
                                            • Increases insulin release, decreases glucagon release
                                            • Sitagliptin

                                              DDP4 inhibitor

                                              • Gliptin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                            • Diabetes mellitus, Type 2
                                            • Increases insulin release, decreases glucagon release
                                            • Propylthiouracil

                                              Thyroid peroxidase inhibitor

                                              • Hyperthyroidism
                                              • Inhibits oxidiation of iodide, inhibits organification of iodine, blocks 5'deiodise to decrease peripheral conversion of T4 to T3
                                              • Methimazole

                                                Thyroid peroxidase inhibitor

                                                • Hyperthyroidism
                                                • Inhibits oxidiation of iodide, inhibits organification of iodine
                                                • Levothyroxine

                                                  Thyroid hormone replacement

                                                  • Hypothyroidism, myxedema
                                                  • Replaces T4
                                                  • Trioodothyronine

                                                    Thyroid hormone replacement

                                                    • Hypothyroidism, myxedema
                                                    • Replaces T3
                                                    • GH

                                                      Pituitary drug

                                                      • Growth hormone deficiency, Turner syndrome
                                                      • Somatostatin (octreotide)

                                                        Pituitary drug

                                                        • Glucagonoma, carcinoid, acromegaly
                                                        • Oxytocin

                                                          Pituitary drug

                                                          • Uterine hemorrhage, stimulates labor, uterine contractions, and milk letdown
                                                          • ADH (desmopressin)

                                                            Pituitary drug

                                                            • Central nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
                                                            • Demeclocycline

                                                              ADH antagonist

                                                              • Cycline (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                            • Syndrome of Ippropriate ADH
                                                            • Hydrocortisone

                                                              Glucoscorticoid

                                                              • Inflammatory conditions, autoimmune diseases, asthma, Addison's disease
                                                              • Acts on glucocorticoid steroid receptors to regulate gene expression
                                                              • Prednisone

                                                                Glucoscorticoid

                                                                • Inflammatory conditions, autoimmune diseases, asthma, Addison's disease
                                                                • Acts on glucocorticoid steroid receptors to regulate gene expression
                                                                • Triamcinolone

                                                                  Glucoscorticoid

                                                                  • Inflammatory conditions, autoimmune diseases, asthma, Addison's disease
                                                                  • Acts on glucocorticoid steroid receptors to regulate gene expression
                                                                  • Dexamethasone

                                                                    Glucoscorticoid

                                                                    • Inflammatory conditions, autoimmune diseases, asthma, Addison's disease, commonly used to test for causes of Cushing's syndrome
                                                                    • Acts on glucocorticoid steroid receptors to regulate gene expression
                                                                    • Beclomethasone

                                                                      Glucoscorticoid

                                                                      • Inflammatory conditions, autoimmune diseases, asthma, Addison's disease
                                                                      • Acts on glucocorticoid steroid receptors to regulate gene expression
                                                                      • Test3tes

                                                                        Teste3

                                                                      • Tet
                                                                      • Test4

                                                                        Test4

                                                                      • Test4
                                                                      • Testkr1

                                                                        Testkr1

                                                                      • Testkr1
                                                                      • Osteopenia

                                                                        The condition of having low bone density, but not low enough to be considered osteoporosis.

                                                                        • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
                                                                        • Penia (Latin) - Deficiency, a lack
                                                                      • OsteoPenia = deficiency of bone, versus osteoPorosis = porous bone
                                                                      • MEDYMOLOGY