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ENDOCRINE PHARMACOLOGY
38 terms share this category
Gynecomastia

Benign enlargement of "breast" tissue (mammary glands) in men, sometimes to the point of secreting milk

  • Gyne (Greek) - Queen, Woman, female
  • Mazos (Greek) - Breast
  • Seen in Klinefelter's syndrome (XXY) and in men with increased estrogen. Adverse effect of many drugs, especially those inhibiting dopamine/activating prolactin.
  • Associated with spironolactone, digitalis, cimetidine, ketoconazole, alcohol use, and marijuana use
  • Lispro

    Insulin Rapid Acting

    • Type 1 DM, Type 2 DM, gestatiol diabetes, lifethreatening hyperkalemia, stressinduced hyperglycemia.
    • Bind insulin receptor (tyrosine kise activity). Increases glucose stored as glycogen in liver, increases glycogen and protein synthesis in the muscle, and aids TG storage in visceral fat
    • Aspart

      Insulin rapid Acting

      • Type 1 DM, Type 2 DM, gestatiol diabetes, lifethreatening hyperkalemia, stressinduced hyperglycemia.
      • Bind insulin receptor (tyrosine kise activity). Increases glucose stored as glycogen in liver, increases glycogen and protein synthesis in the muscle, and aids TG storage in visceral fat
      • Glulisine

        Insulin Rapid Acting

        • Type 1 DM, Type 2 DM, gestatiol diabetes, lifethreatening hyperkalemia, stressinduced hyperglycemia.
        • Bind insulin receptor (tyrosine kise activity). Increases glucose stored as glycogen in liver, increases glycogen and protein synthesis in the muscle, and aids TG storage in visceral fat
        • Regular

          Insulin Short Acting

          • Type 1 DM, Type 2 DM, gestatiol diabetes, lifethreatening hyperkalemia, stressinduced hyperglycemia.
          • Bind insulin receptor (tyrosine kise activity). Increases glucose stored as glycogen in liver, increases glycogen and protein synthesis in the muscle, and aids TG storage in visceral fat
          • NPH

            Insulin Intermediate Acting

            • Type 1 DM, Type 2 DM, gestatiol diabetes, lifethreatening hyperkalemia, stressinduced hyperglycemia.
            • Bind insulin receptor (tyrosine kise activity). Increases glucose stored as glycogen in liver, increases glycogen and protein synthesis in the muscle, and aids TG storage in visceral fat
            • Glargine

              Insulin Long Acting

              • Type 1 DM, Type 2 DM, gestatiol diabetes, lifethreatening hyperkalemia, stressinduced hyperglycemia.
              • Bind insulin receptor (tyrosine kise activity). Increases glucose stored as glycogen in liver, increases glycogen and protein synthesis in the muscle, and aids TG storage in visceral fat
              • Detemir

                Insulin Long Acting

                • Type 1 DM, Type 2 DM, gestatiol diabetes, lifethreatening hyperkalemia, stressinduced hyperglycemia.
                • Bind insulin receptor (tyrosine kise activity). Increases glucose stored as glycogen in liver, increases glycogen and protein synthesis in the muscle, and aids TG storage in visceral fat
                • Metformin

                  Biguanides

                  • 1st line for Type 2 DM. Oral.
                  • Decrease gluconeogenesis, Increase glycolysis, Increase peripheral glucose uptake (insulin sensitivity)
                  • Tolbutamide

                    Sulfonylureas

                    • Stimulate release of endogenous insulin in type 2 DM. Requires islet function, so useless in type 1 DM
                    • Close K+ channel in Betacell membrane in the islets, so cell depolarizes > triggering of insulin release via increase Ca2+ influx
                    • Chlorpropamide

                      Sulfonylureas

                      • Stimulate release of endogenous insulin in type 2 DM. Requires islet function, so useless in type 1 DM
                      • Close K+ channel in Betacell membrane in the islets, so cell depolarizes > triggering of insulin release via increase Ca2+ influx
                      • Glyburide

                        Sulfonylureas

                        • Stimulate release of endogenous insulin in type 2 DM. Requires islet function, so useless in type 1 DM
                        • Close K+ channel in Betacell membrane in the islets, so cell depolarizes > triggering of insulin release via increase Ca2+ influx
                        • Glimepiride

                          Sulfonylureas

                          • Stimulate release of endogenous insulin in type 2 DM. Requires islet function, so useless in type 1 DM
                          • Close K+ channel in Betacell membrane in the islets, so cell depolarizes > triggering of insulin release via increase Ca2+ influx
                          • Glipizide

                            Sulfonylureas

                            • Stimulate release of endogenous insulin in type 2 DM. Requires islet function, so useless in type 1 DM
                            • Close K+ channel in Betacell membrane in the islets, so cell depolarizes > triggering of insulin release via increase Ca2+ influx
                            • Pioglitazone

                              Glitazones

                              • Used as monotherapy in type 2 DM or combined with metformin/sulfonylureas
                              • Increases insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissue by binding to PPARgamma nuclear transcription regulator.
                              • Rosiglitazone

                                Glitazones

                                • Used as monotherapy in type 2 DM or combined with metformin/sulfonylureas
                                • Increases insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissue by binding to PPARgamma nuclear transcription regulator.
                                • Acarbose

                                  Alphaglucosidase inhibitors

                                  • Used as monotherapy in type 2 DM or combined with metformin/sulfonylureas
                                  • Inhibit intestil brushborder alphaglucosidase enzymes. This delays sugar hydrolysis and glucose absorption, which will decrease postprandial hyperglycemia.
                                  • Miglitol

                                    Alphaglucosidase inhibitors

                                    • Used as monotherapy in type 2 DM or combined with metformin/sulfonylureas
                                    • Inhibit intestil brushborder alphaglucosidase enzymes. This delays sugar hydrolysis and glucose absorption, which will decrease postprandial hyperglycemia.
                                    • Pramlinitide

                                      Amylin alogs

                                      • Type 1 DM, Type 2 DM
                                      • Decreases the release of glucagon.
                                      • Exetide

                                        GLP1 alogs

                                        • Type 2 DM
                                        • Increase the release of insulin, decrease the release of glucagon.
                                        • Liraglutide

                                          GLP1 alogs

                                          • Type 2 DM
                                          • Increase the release of insulin, decrease the release of glucagon.
                                          • Ligliptin

                                            DDP4 inhibitor

                                            • Gliptin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                          • Diabetes mellitus, Type 2
                                          • Increases insulin release, decreases glucagon release
                                          • Saxagliptin

                                            DDP4 inhibitor

                                            • Gliptin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                          • Diabetes mellitus, Type 2
                                          • Increases insulin release, decreases glucagon release
                                          • Sitagliptin

                                            DDP4 inhibitor

                                            • Gliptin (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                          • Diabetes mellitus, Type 2
                                          • Increases insulin release, decreases glucagon release
                                          • Propylthiouracil

                                            Thyroid peroxidase inhibitor

                                            • Hyperthyroidism
                                            • Inhibits oxidiation of iodide, inhibits organification of iodine, blocks 5'deiodise to decrease peripheral conversion of T4 to T3
                                            • Methimazole

                                              Thyroid peroxidase inhibitor

                                              • Hyperthyroidism
                                              • Inhibits oxidiation of iodide, inhibits organification of iodine
                                              • Levothyroxine

                                                Thyroid hormone replacement

                                                • Hypothyroidism, myxedema
                                                • Replaces T4
                                                • Trioodothyronine

                                                  Thyroid hormone replacement

                                                  • Hypothyroidism, myxedema
                                                  • Replaces T3
                                                  • GH

                                                    Pituitary drug

                                                    • Growth hormone deficiency, Turner syndrome
                                                    • Somatostatin (octreotide)

                                                      Pituitary drug

                                                      • Glucagonoma, carcinoid, acromegaly
                                                      • Oxytocin

                                                        Pituitary drug

                                                        • Uterine hemorrhage, stimulates labor, uterine contractions, and milk letdown
                                                        • ADH (desmopressin)

                                                          Pituitary drug

                                                          • Central nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
                                                          • Demeclocycline

                                                            ADH antagonist

                                                            • Cycline (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                          • Syndrome of Ippropriate ADH
                                                          • Hydrocortisone

                                                            Glucoscorticoid

                                                            • Inflammatory conditions, autoimmune diseases, asthma, Addison's disease
                                                            • Acts on glucocorticoid steroid receptors to regulate gene expression
                                                            • Prednisone

                                                              Glucoscorticoid

                                                              • Inflammatory conditions, autoimmune diseases, asthma, Addison's disease
                                                              • Acts on glucocorticoid steroid receptors to regulate gene expression
                                                              • Triamcinolone

                                                                Glucoscorticoid

                                                                • Inflammatory conditions, autoimmune diseases, asthma, Addison's disease
                                                                • Acts on glucocorticoid steroid receptors to regulate gene expression
                                                                • Dexamethasone

                                                                  Glucoscorticoid

                                                                  • Inflammatory conditions, autoimmune diseases, asthma, Addison's disease, commonly used to test for causes of Cushing's syndrome
                                                                  • Acts on glucocorticoid steroid receptors to regulate gene expression
                                                                  • Beclomethasone

                                                                    Glucoscorticoid

                                                                    • Inflammatory conditions, autoimmune diseases, asthma, Addison's disease
                                                                    • Acts on glucocorticoid steroid receptors to regulate gene expression
                                                                    • MEDYMOLOGY