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CARDIOLOGY
246 terms share this category
Abdominal aortic aneurysm

The "dilation" of the major "artery springing from the heart" at the level of the "belly".

  • Abdominis (Latin) - Belly
  • Aorte (Greek) - The arteries springing from the heart, What is hung up
  • Aneurysmos (Greek) - Dilation
  • Most common in men around the age of 65+
  • Usually occur between renal arteries and iliac bifurcation
  • Rupture presents as classic triad of (1) abdomen pain, (2) hypotension, palpable, pulsatile mass. It is a surgical emergency
  • Presidential candidate Bob Dole had surgery for an abdomen aortic aneurysm in 2001
  • Adventitia

    The outermost connective tissue layer covering a vessel or organ that interacts with the other "foreign" organs within the body.

  • Tunica adventitia of a blood vessel is the outermost covering layer
  • Afterload

    A term used to describe the pressure in the "course, or way" of blood "following" its exit from the left ventricle and out into circulation.

    • Aefter (Old English) - Next, Following in Time, Later
    • Lad (Old English) - Way, course, carrying
  • Increased afterload seen in hypertension, aortic stenosis, and aortic regurgitation
  • Decreased afterload seen in mitral regurgitation
  • Allantoic duct

    A "sausage" "shaped" cell that "leads" waste products out of the embryo and help to exchange gas.

    • Alanto (Greek) - Sausage
    • Eidos (Greek) - Form, Resemblance or Shape, Likeness
    • Ducere (Latin) - To Lead
  • Connects the bladder of the fetus to the umbilicus
  • An allantoic cyst can develop with improper degradation of the allantoic duct
  • The urachus is the allantoic duct remnant
  • Aneurysm

    A "ballooning" or widening of a blood vessel.

  • Commonly seen in vessels that lack a muscular adventitial layer
  • Berry aneurysm is a common aneurysm that occurs in the cerebral artery (a branch of the circle of Willis).
  • Angina

    "A strangling".

  • Commonly used to describe chest pain cardiac in nature, caused by lack of blood flow, a strangling of the heart.
  • Angina can come as stable or unstable, where unstable is at a 90% stenosis and chest pain at rest, or stable when there is 70% occlusion and pain on exertion
  • Angina means to strangle and can also be demonstrated with herpangina, a condition in which herpetic vesicles form in the back of the throat leading to a strangling like feeling.
  • Angiosarcoma

    A malignant "mass or growth" of "flesh", usually in the form of endothelial cells, and of "blood vessels".

    • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
    • Sarx (Latin) - Flesh, Meat
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Vinyl Chloride exposure leads to angiosarcoma of the liver and is often times fatal.
  • Due to their direct position within the blood vessel itself, this type of cancer leads to early metastasis beyond its original site of growth.
  • Angiotensin

    An organic molecule that causes an intense "stretch" or vasoconstriction of "blood vessels" in order to increase blood pressure.

  • The second step in the reninangiotensinaldosterone pathway that becomes activated when one is hypovolemic or has decreased blood pressure
  • A popular target for antihypertensive drugs
  • Ace inhibitors block the action of angiotensin converting enzyme, the enzyme responsible for turning angiotensin 1 into angiotensin 2 and completing the RAA cascade to decrease blood pressure
  • Anitschkow cells

    Enlarged macrophages found within Aschoff bodies, small granulomas associated with rheumatic heart disease.

    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
  • Rheumatic Heart Disease
  • Also known as caterpillar cells due to the unique structure of their nuclei that look very similar to a caterpillar.
  • Aortic dissection

    A condition in which the "artery that springs from the heart" is "cut" apart" from the inside leading to blood buildup between the innermost and middle layers of the vessel.

    • Aorte (Greek) - The arteries springing from the heart, What is hung up
    • Dis (Latin) - Not, In a Different Direction, Between
    • Secare (Latin) - To cut
  • Blood ruptures through the intima and into the media layer of tissue
  • A tearing chest pain that radiates to the back
  • Associated with hypertension, and inherited connective tissue disorder
  • There are 3 types, each of which is differentiated by the part of the aorta in which the tear occurs and how far down the vessel the blood collects.
  • Aortic regurgitation

    An "overflow" of blood from the "artery that springs from the heart" back into the left ventricle.

    • Aorte (Greek) - The arteries springing from the heart, What is hung up
    • Regurgitare (Latin) - To overflow
  • Causes include aortic root dilation (syphilitic aneurysm, aortic dissection) or valve damage (infectious endocarditis)
  • High pitched blowing early diastolic decrescendo murmur
  • Wide pulse pressure
  • Head bobbing

  • Mnemonics
    Aortic Regurgitation is CREAM
    Causes of Aortic Regurgitation
    Congenital, Rheumatic, Endocarditis, Aortic Root Dilation, Marfan Syndrome
    Aortic root dilation

    A "widening" of the "underground part", or base of the "artery which springs from the heart".

    • Aorte (Greek) - The arteries springing from the heart, What is hung up
    • Rot (Old English) - Underground part of a plant
    • Dilatare (Latin) - To Spread Out, to Widen
  • Occurs with syphilitic aneurysm or aortic dissection
  • May lead to aortic regurgitation
  • Aortic stenosis

    A "condition" in which the valve separating the left ventricle, from the "artery which springs from the heart" (aortic valve) becomes "narrow" and hardened.

    • Aorte (Greek) - The arteries springing from the heart, What is hung up
    • Stenos (Greek) - Narrow
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Causes a visible throbbing in the carotid on physical exam
  • Holosystolic blowing murmur heard at the upper left sternal border
  • Occurs due to congenital bicuspid valve, old age related calcification or after chronic rheumatic heart disease (mitral valve stenosis is most common)

  • Mnemonics
    Aortic Stenosis makes me SAD
    3 Major Symptoms of Aortic Stenosis
    Syncope, Angina, Dyspnea
    Arteriole

    Originally referred to as "windpipes" because they did not contain blood post mortem, the arterioles carry blood from the arteries to the capillary beds.

  • Composed of muscular walls (usually only one to two layers of smooth muscle) and are the primary site of vascular resistance. The greatest change in blood pressure and velocity of blood flow occurs at the transition of arterioles to capillaries.
  • Arteriolosclerosis: hardening of arteriole walls. This can be due to decreased elastic production from fibrinogen, associated with ageing, or hypertension or pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis
  • Arteriolosclerosis

    The "hardening" and growing of the "windpipes or arteries" within the body.

  • Two types: Hyaline arteriolosclerosis: due to long standing benign hypertension or diabetes which causes proteins to leak into vessel wall, seen as pink hyaline
  • Hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis: due to malignant hypertension which causes circular hyperplasia of smooth muscle
  • Described as onion skin appearance.
  • Artery

    Originally referred to as "windpipes" because they did not contain blood post mortem, they carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body.

  • Arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the tissues, except for pulmonary arteries, which carry blood to the lungs for oxygen
  • In ancient Greece, the arteries were thought to be air holders, responsible for the transport of air to the tissues and were connected to the trachea. They thought this because upon examining dead bodies, they found blood vessels to be emptied of blood.
  • Aschoff bodies

    Granuloma (area of collected cells/site of inflammation) with giant cells, seen in acute rheumatic fever (pancarditis).

    • Bodig (Old English) - Trunk, chest
  • Associated with Anitschkow cells (enlarged macrophages with ovoid, wavy, rodlike nucleus
  • Atherosclerosis

    A "hardening" of the "arteries" that are "on the inside".

    • Athere (Greek) - Groats, referring to what's on the inside
    • Skleroun (Greek) - To Harden
  • Intimal plaques obstruct blood flow
  • Abdominal aorta most commonly affected
  • Rupture of plaques can cause myocardial infarction
  • Atrial fibrillation

    An abnormal heart rhythm in which the "main room" in which blood reenters the heart's "small fibers" twitch, but don't contract.

    • Atrium (Latin) - Central court or main room of an ancient Roman house, or either of the upper cavities of the heart
    • Fibrilla (Latin) - Small fiber
  • Appears irregularly irregular on an ECG
  • No discrete P waves because there are no atrial contractions resulting in atrial stasis and can lead to thromboembolic stroke
  • An alcohol binge (Holiday Heart Syndrome) can precipitate this condition
  • Atrial flutter

    An abnormal heart rhythm in which the "main room" in which blood reenters the heart "flickers to and fro" faster than normal.

    • Atrium (Latin) - Central court or main room of an ancient Roman house, or either of the upper cavities of the heart
    • Floterian (Old English) - To flutter, fly, flicker to and fro
  • Commonly see a sawtooth appearance on EKG
  • Caused often by reentrant arrhythmia
  • Associated with tachycardia (beats over 100 per minute)
  • There is rapid identical atrial depolarization.
  • Atrial septal defect

    A "failure or falling away" of the "fence or partition" separating the two "main rooms" in which blood reenters the heart.

    • Atrium (Latin) - Central court or main room of an ancient Roman house, or either of the upper cavities of the heart
    • Saeptum (Latin) - A fence, enclosure, partition
    • Defectus (Latin) - Failure, revolt, falling away
  • Mid systolic flow murmur
  • Loud S1
  • Wide, fixed split S2
  • Occurs in septum secundum
  • Distinct from patent foramen ovale in that here, tissue is unformed not unfused
  • Usually blood goes left to right through opening, but if ASD is present for a long time reversal of flow can occur especially in setting of right ventricular hypertrophy.
  • Atrioventricular node

    The "knot" that conducts electrical signal through the heart that lies between the "main room" in which blood reenters the heart, and the "little belly" of it.

    • Atrium (Latin) - Central court or main room of an ancient Roman house, or either of the upper cavities of the heart
    • Ventriculus (Latin) - Little belly
    • Nodus (Latin) - Knot
  • The speed of electrical conduction through the AV node is slowest (allows for ventricular filling)
  • Acts as pacemaker (40 60 beats per minute) if the SA node fails
  • Atrium

    The "main room" in which blood reenters the heart.

    • Atrium (Latin) - Central court or main room of an ancient Roman house, or either of the upper cavities of the heart
  • Thin walled structure that allows blood to return from the periphery to the heart
  • Bacillary Angiomatosis

    A "disease" caused by the "stick"shaped Bartonella, in which blood "vessels" form "tumor"like masses in the skin and other organs.

    • Baculum (Latin) - Stick
    • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Caused by either Bartonella henselae or Bartonella quinti
  • Beck's triad

    "Three" signs med after American cardiac surgeon Claude Beck associated with cardiac tampoe hypotension, distended neck veins, and distant, muffled heart sounds

    • Triados (Greek) - A triad, the number three
  • Pathognomonic for cardiac tampoe
  • Benign hypertension

    A condition in which "excessive" blood pressure "stretches" the vessel walls and is not actually "well""born".

    • Benigmus (Latin) - Kindly, kindhearted, friendly
    • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
    • Tensio (Latin) - Stretching
  • Leads to heart disease
  • Not accompanied by any symptoms until a later stage
  • Stage I is systolic (140159) and diastolic (9099)
  • Stage II is systolic (160179) and diastolic (100119).
  • Blastula

    A hollow sphere of "budding, or sprouting" cells in a developing embryo.

    • Blastos (Greek) - Germ, sprout, bud or budding, immature
  • A hollow sphere of cells produced during embryogenesis
  • Bruit

    The abnormal "noise" produced by turbulent blood flow.

    • Bruit (Old French) - Noise
  • Can be heard in arteries all throughout the body
  • Always auscult for a carotid bruit before palpating for pulse
  • Usually a gurgling sound of an vascular problem that can be detected by auscultation with a stethoscope
  • Particularly used to detect vascular problems with the TMJ
  • Buerger disease

    A medium vessel necrotizing vasculitis with recurrent inflammation and thrombosis of the affected blood vessels in the hands and feet. It presents with gangrene, autoamputation of the fingers and toes, ulceration and pain in the affected areas

    • Vasculitis
    • Strong association with tobacco and smoking
    • Smoking cessation can slow the progression of the disease
    • Bulbus cordis

      "Bulblike" embryonic structure that gives rise to the smooth parts of the left and right ventricles "of the heart"

      Capillary

      Network of thin "hair" like blood vessels that connect the arterioles and venules. Where gas and nutrient exchange occurs.

    • Composed of one layer of endothelial tissue
    • Can control blood flow with autoregulation
    • Have the largest surface area and smallest size of all the vessels
    • Cardiac cirrhosis

      "Condition" of right sided "heart" failure that causes back up of blood leading to chronic venous congestion and fibrosis and a "tawny appearance" of the liver

    • Also referred to as nutmeg liver due to uneven, different shaded spots throughout the liver
    • Cardiac tamponade

      A condition in which fluid accumulates and "plugs up" the "heart",

    • Blood and fluid buildup in the pericardial space, which is between the heart muscle (myocardium) and outer covering (pericardium), leads to increased pressure on the heart
    • Caused by pericardial effusion that can be rapid or gradual
    • Beck's triad of hypotension, distended neck veins and muffled heart sounds
    • Pulsus paradoxus.

    • Mnemonics
      The 3 D's
      Beck's Triad of Cardiac Tamponade
      Distant heart sounds, Distended jugular veins, Decrease arterial pressure

      Medytoons

      MedyQuestion
      • A 23 year old man is brought into the emergency trauma bay after being involved in a motor vehicle collision. The patient was the driver of a vehicle that was struck head on by an oncoming motorist going 40mph. The patient is noticeably short of breath. Blood pressure demonstrates a marked decrease to 80/40 and there are muffled heart sounds on auscultation. ECG demonstrates varying sized QRS complexes. What is the best treatment for this patient?

      USMLE Step 1

      Cardiogenic shock

      "Violent attack" on the body in which the "origin" of the problem is the ventricles of the "heart"

      • Kardia (Greek) - Heart
      • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
      • Choc (Middle French) - Violent Attack
    • Low output heart failure with decreased cardiac output, decreased venous return and increased total peripheral resistance
    • Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure is increase
    • Vasoconstriction throughout the body producing a cold, clammy patient
    • Blood pressure can be restored with IV fluids
    • Cardiomyopathy

      A "disease" of the "muscles" of the "heart."

      • Kardia (Greek) - Heart
      • Mus (Greek) - Muscle, mouse
      • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
    • A problem with functioning and weakness of the heart, most commonly due to failure of the heart's pumping mechanism
    • Chordae tendineae

      Cordlike structures in the heart chambers, reminiscent of the "strings of a musical instrument" that "stretch" to connect the heart muscle to the heart valves.

      • Khorde (Greek) - Gut, string of a musical instrument
      • Tenein (Greek) - To stretch, strain
    • Mitral valve, tricuspid valve, papillary valve, tendon
    • Connect the papillary muscles to the tricuspid and mitral valves
    • During ventricular systole, the increased pressure pushes the valves close to prevent backflow of blood. Since the pressure in the atria is lower than in the ventricles, the valves attempt to evert (flip upward) to the lower pressure atria. However, the chordae tendineae prevent the eversion by becoming tense and pulling on the flaps keeping them closed.
    • Chronotropy

      A "change" in the "timing" of heartbeats resulting in an increased or decreased heart rate.

      • Khronikos (Greek) - Of time, concerning time
      • Tropos (Greek) - Turn, turning, change, response
    • Heart rate, positive chronotrope increase heart rate, negative chronotrope decrease heart rate
    • Chronotropic drugs may changes the heart rate by affecting the nerves that control the heart or by changing the rhythm produced by the sinoatrial (SA) node.
    • ChurgStrauss syndrome

      An autoimmune disease, med after pathologists who discovered it, that is characterized by inflammation of small and medium sized blood vessels.

      • Aka eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) or allergic granulomatosis, autoimmune, vasculitis
      • Rare, uninheritable, noncontagious autoimmune disease causing inflammation of the small and mediumsized vessels in people with a history of allergic airway hypersensitivity (atopy such as asthma).
      • Has 3 stages: allergic (airway inflammation, usually asthma or allergic rhinitis), eosinophilic (abnormally high levels of eosinophils causing tissue damage in the lungs and digestive tract), and vasculitic (inflammation of the blood vessels reducing blood flow and causing cell death).
      • Circumflex

        An artery supplying blood to the heart whose course winds "around" from the front of the heart to the back.

      • Aka left circumflex artery (LCX), branch of left coronary artery (LCA) supplying the posterolateral ventricle, the anterolateral papillary muscle, and the sinoatrial (SA) node in some people.
      • In rightdominant people, the LCX supplies 1525% of the left ventricle. In leftdominant people, the LCX supplies 4050% of the left ventricle.
      • Claudication

        Poor blood flow in the legs that causes one to "limp" as a result of the pain.

      • Pain, calves, impairment in walking
      • Can be due to vascular problems or neurological problems, and is usually relieved by rest
      • Claudication that appears after walking for a short time is sometimes described by doctors by the number of city street blocks the patient can walk before the pain begins. Oneblock claudication is pain in a patient's legs after walking one city street block.
      • Clubbing

        A deformity of the fingers resembling a "short, thick stick" called a "cudgel" that occurs in response to low oxygen in the blood for an extended period of time.

      • Aka drumstick fingers, aka watchglass nails, heart disease, lung disease, decreased oxygen in blood
      • Characterized by loss of the norma < 165 degree angle (Lovibond angle) between the nailbed and the cuticle.
      • Hippocrates was the first to document clubbing as a sign of disease, therefore the phenomenon is occasionally called Hippocratic fingers.
      • Coagulative necrosis

        A "condition" in which lack of oxygen causes "death" of cells, resulting in "curdling" of tissue.

        • Coagulare (Latin) - To Cause to Curdle
        • Nekros (Greek) - Dead body, Corpse, Death
        • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
      • Ischemia results in necrosis, but the architecture of the dead tissue is maintained for a few days due to the denaturation of structural proteins and lysosomal enzymes, which prevents proteolysis from occurring before regeneration begins.
      • While ischemia in most tissues will cause coagulative necrosis, it is important to note that in the central nervous system, ischemia causes liquefactive necrosis because there is very little structural framework in neural tissue.
      • Coarctation of the aorta

        An abnormal "constriction" or "growing" of the aorta, an "artery springing from the heart," that is present from birth and causes decreased blood flow to the body.

        • Coarctare (Latin) - To Constrict, rrow
        • Aorte (Greek) - The arteries springing from the heart, What is hung up
      • Aka aortic growing in the area where the ductus arteriosus inserts in the aortic arch, leading to reduced blood flow to lower half of body, left ventricle hypertrophy due to increased resistance to the outflow of blood from the heart
      • Seen in Turner syndrome
      • Congenital
      • Preductal or postductal growing
      • There are three types of CoA: preductal: growing is proximal to the ductus arteriosus so blood flow distal to the growing is dependent on the ductus arteriosus
      • This type is seen in Turner Syndrome
      • Ductal: growing occurs where the ductus arteriosus inserts into the aorta and symptoms usually appear when the ductus arteriosus closes
      • Post ductal: growing is distal to the insertion of the ductus arteriosus
      • This type is the most common in adults and is associated with notching of the ribs (collateral circulation), hypertension in the upper extremities, and weak pulses in the lower extremities.
      • Commissure

        A place where two things "join together".

      • Leaflets in the heart valves
      • Parts of the brain
      • As they arise from the heart, the aortic and pulmonic valves normally have a single point of contact (commissural apposition).
      • Compliance

        The distensibility, or degree of stretch, of blood vessels that allows them to "accommodate" a volume of blood

        • Complir (Old French) - To Accomplish, Fulfill, Carry Out
      • Blood vessel, distend, increase volume with pressure, resist recoil
      • It is the reciprocal of elastance, which is the tendency of a hollow organ to recoil to its original dimensions upon removal of a distending force.
      • Contraction band necrosis

        A form of tissue "death" in which muscle fibers of the heart "shorten" forming a "strip" .

        • Contrahere (Latin) - To Draw Together
        • Band (Old Norse) - The strip that ties or constrains
        • Nekros (Greek) - Dead body, Corpse, Death
        • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
      • Heart attack, myocardial infarction, reperfusion, thick eosinophilic band, contraction bands
      • Uncontrolled cell death unique to cardiac muscle cells that is thought to arise due to reperfusion (oxidative damage that occurs when the blood supply returns to a tissue after a period of ischemia) from hyper contraction, resulting in sarcolemmal rupture
      • Histologically, it is a finding of a recent heart attack and shows contraction bands, which are thick and intensely eosinophilic staining bands.
      • The contractile machinery of the heart is activated due to calcium in the setting of ischemia or activated due to low ATP causing hyper contraction that leads to reperfusion and eventual contraction band necrosis.
      • Corneal arcus

        A "ring" of lipid deposit in the periphery of the cornea

        • Cornus (Latin) - Horn
        • Arcus (Latin) - Bow (the weapon), a curve
      • Arcus senilis, hypercholesterolemia, bluegray ring around corneal margin
      • Gray, white, or blue ring opacity occurring in the periphery of the cornea in adults due to lipid infiltration of the corneal stroma. Present at birth but fades, but very common in the elderly. often confused with the limbus sign, which reflects calcium rather than lipid deposits
      • Coronary Sinus

        A site where multiple veins empty, resembling the tips of "crown".

        • Corona (Latin) - Crown
        • Sinus (Latin) - Bend, fold, curve, a bent surface; a bay, bight, gulf; a fold in land; hollow curve or cavity in the body
      • Primary collector of cardiac venous blood
      • Collection of veins joined together to form a large vessel that collects blood from the myocardium (heart muscle) and drains into the right atrium. located in the posterior portion of the coronary sulcus ( or groove) on the posterior surface of the heart. present in all mammals
      • Coronary steal syndrome

        A physiologic state in which one vessel of the heart steals blood flow from other vessels.

        • Corona (Latin) - Crown
        • Stelan (Olde English) - To take and carry off clandestinely and without right or leave
        • Syn (Greek) - With, together
        • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
      • Coronary steal syndrome, dipyridamole, nitroprusside
      • Phenomenon when there is growing of the coronary arteries and the use of a coronary vasodilator causes stealing of blood from already low perfused parts of the heart. This happens because the arrowed arteries are already maximally dilated to compensate for the decreased upstream blood supply. Thus, using a vasodilator causes dilation and decreased resistance only in normal coronary vessels, causing blood to be shunted away from the coronary vessels supplying the ischemic zones, creating more ischemia. associated with dipyridamole and nitroprusside.
      • Coronary steal is the mechanism of most drugbased cardiac stress tests.
      • Creatine kinase

        An enzyme that assists in the "movement" of "flesh".

        • Kreas (French) - Flesh, meat
        • Kinein (Greek) - Motion, to move
      • Aka creatine phosphokinase (CPK), muscle damage
      • An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of creatine to phosphocreatine (PCr) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) while consuming adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Enzyme levels may be used to detect inflammation of muscles or serious muscle damage (rhabdomyolysis).
      • Cushing reaction

        The physiological nervous system response to increased intracranial pressure that leads to increased BP, irregular breathing, and a decrease in heart rate (Cushing's triad).

        • Aka vasopressor response, Cushing effect, increased intracranial pressure, Cushing's triad
        • Cyanosis

          A "deep blue" discoloration of the skin due to insufficient levels of oxygen in the blood.

          • Kyanos (Greek) - Dark blue color
        • Blue skin, low oxygen,
        • Cyanosis means the blue disease. The word is derived from the color cyan, which comes from kyanos, the Greek work for blue.
        • Cystic hygroma

          A "fluid filled" "mass" that appears in newborns.

          • Kustis (Greek) - Bladder, atomical pouch or sac
          • Hygros (Greek) - Moist
          • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
        • Cystlike cavities
        • Lymphangioma
        • Turner's syndrome
        • Noon syndrome
        • Abnormal growths that resemble fluid filled cystlike cavities that appear on a newborn's head and neck. The most common form of lymphangioma. Benign and rarely presents in adulthood. Associated with Turner's syndrome or with Noon syndrome (male Turner's).
        • A German writing from the 18th century about the disease translated: "Woe to the child who tastes salty from a kiss on the brow, for he is cursed and soon must die,"
        • Dextrocardia

          A condition in which the "heart" is on the "right" side.

        • A condition in which the heart points to the right side of the body instead of the left
        • Typically dextrocardia exists with situs inversus, a condition in which the heart is a mirror image located on the right side of the body
        • A commonly seen complication in Kartagener's syndrome
        • Diapedesis

          A process describing the movement of blood cells "across" capillaries.

          • Dia (Greek) - Through, completely
          • Pedan (Greek) - Throb or leap
        • Movement across capillaries
        • Diaphragm

          A major muscle in respiration that also functions as a "fence" separating contents of thorax and abdomen.

          • Dia (Greek) - Through, completely
          • Phragma (Greek) - Fence
        • Respiration
        • Breathing
        • Referred pain to the shoulder
        • A muscle situated at the base of the rib cage between the thoracic cavity and the abdominal cavity that facilitates respiration by contracting and relaxing. Injury to the diaphragm can lead to referred pain in the shoulder.
        • Down syndrome

          Trisomy 21. Results when part or all of a third copy of chromosome 21 is present.

          • The most common chromosomal abnormality. It can lead to physical impairment, characteristic facial features, and decreased mental capacity.
          • John Langdon Down was the first to describe Down Syndrome as a mental disability!
          • Ductule

            A very small duct

            • Ductus (Latin) - A Leading, Conducting, or Aqueduct
          • From the Latin "ductus", leading.
          • Ductus deferens

            A vessel or "duct" that "carries" sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory ducts. AKA the vas deferens.

            • Ductus (Latin) - A Leading, Conducting, or Aqueduct
            • Deferens (Latin) - Carry Away
          • Sperm
          • Ejaculation
          • Epididymis
          • Ejaculatory ducts
          • Penis
          • Vas deferens
          • Dysplastic kidney

            The "malformation" of the kidneys during fetal development.

            • Dys (Greek) - Bad, Ill, Abnormal, Evil
            • Plassein (Greek) - To mold or form
            • Kidnere (Middle English) - Kidney
          • The kidney is generally not functional and can have multiple cysts.
          • Dystrophic calcification

            The process by which damaged, necrotic, or degenerative tissue becomes "chalk" like as a result of "bad nourishment" of tissues with calcium.

            • Dys (Greek) - Bad, Ill, Abnormal, Evil
            • Trophe (Greek) - Food, Nourishment
            • Calx (Greek) - Chalk, limestone
          • This is a reaction to damage and there does not need to be an elevated blood calcium for it to occur.
          • EhlersDanlos syndrome

            A connective tissue disorder due to abnormal crosslinking of type 3 collagen.

            • Typically presents with hyper extensible joints and hyper elastic skin.
            • One of the oldest known causes of bruising and bleeding. Described by Hippocrates in 400 BC, then described as a distinct entity by Edvard Ehlers in 1901. In 1908, HenriAlexandre Danlos proposed that skin hyper elasticity and fragility were the cardinal symptoms of the syndrome. The genetic makeup of the syndrome was not identified until the 1960's.
            • Ejaculation

              The process of "throwing" or "ejecting" semen from the penis.

              • Eiaculari (Latin) - To Throw Out, To Shoot Out
            • Penis
            • Ejaculation
            • Sperm
            • Semen
            • Orgasm
            • Embolism

              The "insertion" of a particle in a blood vessel causing a blockage or "plugging" of blood flow.

            • Commonly seen as a pulmonary embolism
            • Many times originate as DVTs
            • Encephalopathy

              "Disease" of the "brain".

              • Enkephalos (Greek) - Brain, WIthin the Head
              • Pathos (Greek) - Suffering, disease, feeling
            • Characterized by behavior changes
            • Causes Cheyne Stokes respirations
            • Wernicke's encephalopathy in alcoholics
            • Endocardium

              The "internal" layer of the "heart".

              • Endon (Greek) - Within, Inside, Interl
              • Kardia (Greek) - Heart
            • Heart
            • Inner layer
            • Endonuclease

              An "enzyme" that cleaves D at phosphodiester bonds "within" the "kernel" or nucleus.

              • Endon (Greek) - Within, Inside, Interl
              • Nucleus (Latin) - Kernel
              • Ase (English) - Used to form the me of enzymes
            • Enzyme
            • D
            • Cleavage
            • Phosphodiester bond
            • Nucleotide
            • Erector spinae spinalis

              The most medial muscle of the erector spinae muscle group. It is "set up" or appears like a arrow "thorn."

            • Extends vertebral column
            • Erector spinae was known as sacrospinalis in older texts
            • Erythroplasia of Queyrat

              Carcinoma in situ of the glans penis or vulva appearing as a red patch

            • Usually seen only in uncircumcised men
            • Originally described by Tarnovsky in 1891 and refined by Queyrat in 1911
            • Fasciculus gracilis

              "Bundle" of "slender" nerves that carries dorsal column innervation of the lower body and legs.

            • Associated with BrownSequard syndrome, tertiary syphilis, and pernicious anemia
            • Medial to fasciculus cuneatus
            • Ferroportin

              "Iron" transport channels or "gates" found in the intestines and macrophages.

            • Inhibited by hepcidin
            • Fibrinoid

              "Fiber"like material found in walls of blood vessels and placenta.

              • Fibra (Latin) - A fiber, filament, entrail
              Fibromatosis

              "Condition" of benign "fibrous" soft tissue "tumors" that can be very locally aggressive.

              • Fibra (Latin) - A fiber, filament, entrail
              • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
              • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
            • Can be associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)
            • Fluorescence in situ hybridization

              Lab technique in which a fluorescent tag is injected "in its normal place" within the subject and the "mongrel" (marriage of the tag and its complement) is visualized; fluorescence was first discovered using "fluorine"

              • Fluor (Latin) - To flow, pertaining to fluorine
              • Escentia (Latin) - Process or State of Being
              • In situe (Latin) - In its place or position
              • Hybridia (Latin) - Mongrel
            • Invented in 1980
            • Foramen magnum

              "Large" "opening" at the bottom of the occipital bone, through which the spinal canal, vertebral arteries, spinal arteries, and CN XI travel.

              • Foramen (Latin) - Hole, opening, aperture, orifice
              • Magnus (Latin) - Great in size, Greater
              Foramen ovale

              An "eggshaped" "hole" located on the posterior sphenoid bone, through which the mandibular nerve (CN V3), lesser petrosal nerve (CN IX), accessory meningeal artery, emissary veins. and otic ganglion travel

              • Foramen (Latin) - Hole, opening, aperture, orifice
              • Ovalis (Latin) - Eggshaped
              Foramen rotundum

              A "round" "hole" in the sphenoid bone through which the maxillary nerve (CN V2) travels

              • Foramen (Latin) - Hole, opening, aperture, orifice
              • Rotundum (Latin) - Turn around, revolve
              Fornix

              A "arched" bundle of fibers that carries signals from the hippocampus to the hypothalamus.

              • Fornix (Latin) - Arch, vaulted chamber
            • Part of the limbic system
            • Galactocele

              A "tumor" or mass filled with "milk".

              • Gala (Greek) - Milk
              • Kele (Greek) - Swelling, hernia, tumor
            • A benign cyst in of the mammary glands that contains milk
            • Forms from a blockage of the mammary ducts
            • Resolves after a woman stops lactating
            • The cyst is sterile
            • Glomerulus

              The "ballshaped mass" at the beginning of the nephron of the kidney

              • Glomus (Latin) - Ballshaped mass
            • Site of filtration
            • Afferent arteriole feeds into the glomerulus
            • Efferent arteriole leads away from the glomerulus
            • Ultrafiltrate flows into Bowman's capsule
            • Granuloma

              A "seed"like "mass" composed of macrophages.

              • Granum (Latin) - Grain, seed
              • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
            • An organized balllike collection of "epithelioid" macrophages that have elongated nuclei and appear similar to epithelial cells
            • Seen in tuberculosis, leprosy, histoplasmosis, and other infections
            • Occurs when the immune system attempts to walloff a foreign body that it can not eliminate
            • Similar to a jailcell containing a foreign body (prisoner) with the "epithelioid" macrophages acting as the jailcell bars
            • Granulomatosis with polyangiitis

              "Seed"like "inflammation" of "multiple" "blood vessels".

              • Granum (Latin) - Grain, seed
              • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
              • Polloi (Greek) - Many
              • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
              • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
            • Affects the nasopharynx, lung, and kidneys
            • May be diagnosed by presence of PR3ANCA/cANCA
            • Triad of necrotizing vasculitis, necrotizing glomerulonephritis, and necrotizing granulomas in the lung
            • May present clinically with hemoptysis, hematuria, and saddlenose deformity
            • Originally known as Wegener's Granulomatosis, the me has been changed to granulomatosis with polyangiitis due to Wegener's Nazi past.
            • Hemangioblastoma

              CNS "tumor or mass" that originates from "budding" cells of "blood vessels".

              • Haima (Greek) - Blood
              • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
              • Blastos (Greek) - Germ, sprout, bud or budding, immature
              • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
            • Associated with VHL syndrome
            • May produce EPO
            • Hemorrhoid

              An area in the anus in which there is inflammation secondary to a change in "blood" "flow".

            • Can be seen secondary to increased pressure as in constipation
            • May be internal or external
            • Internal associated with painless bleeding and found above the pectite line
            • External associated with pain with minimal bleeding and are found below the pectite line
            • The first recorded hemorrhoid in history was documented on Egyptian papyrus.

            • Medytoons
              Hemosiderosis

              "Disease" from accumulation of "iron" storage complex commonly found in macrophages that have engulfed red "blood" cells.

            • Associated with hemochromatosis and frequent blood transfusions
            • Hypercalcemia

              "Excess chalk," or calcium, in the "blood."

              • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
              • Calx (Greek) - Chalk, limestone
              • Haima (Greek) - Blood
            • Associated with primary hyperparathyroidism, sarcoidosis, hypervitaminosis D, paraneoplastic syndromes (squamous cell lung cancer, lymphomas, renal cell carcinoma, breast cancer), and multiple myeloma
            • Literally "excess calcium in blood."

            • Medytoons
              Hypercapnea

              "Excess" carbon dioxide, or "smoke."

              • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
              • Kapnos (Greek) - Smoke, vapor
            • Metabolic condition characterized by elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the blood over 45 mmHg
            • Caused by hypoventilation, lung disease, or diminished consciousness
            • Literally "excess smoke."
            • Hypertriglyceridemia

              "Excess" triglycerides in the "blood."

              • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
              • Tri (Greek) - Three
              • Glyceride (English) - Compound of glycerol and organic acids
              • Haima (Greek) - Blood
            • May be caused by autosomal dominant mutation that results in hepatic overproduction of VLDL
            • May cause acute pancreatitis
            • Hypovolemia

              A state of "less" than normal "blood" plasma "size".

              • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
              • Volumen (Latin) - Roll, coil, wreath, size, volume
              • Haima (Greek) - Blood
            • Hypovolemic shock
            • Regulates antidiuretic hormone
            • Hypoxemia

              A metabolic condition characterized by "low" levels of "oxygen" in the "blood".

              • Hypo (Greek) - Under, beneath, less
              • Oxys (Greek) - Sharp
              • Haima (Greek) - Blood
            • Hypoxic ischemic stroke
            • Respiratory alkalosis
            • Cyanosis
            • Causes of normal Aa gradient hypoxemia include high altitude, hypoventilation
            • Causes of increased Aa gradient hypoxemia include V/Q mismatch, diffusion limitation, right to left shunt
            • Infundibulopelvic ligament

              This is a fold of peritoneum that runs in the pelvis (which is shaped like a "bucket") and attaches to the "infundibulum" of the uterus, which is located between the ampulla and the fimbriae.

            • Contains ovarian vessels
            • Ligate vessels during oophorectomy to prevent bleeding
            • Ureters at risk of injury during ligation due to close proximity
            • Also known as the suspensory ligament of the ovary
            • Is actually a fold of peritoneum
            • Inhibitor

              An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to enzymes and "prohibits" their activity

              Intertransversarii

              Small muscles located "between" the pieces of the spinal column that protrude "across" or sideways.

              • Inter (Latin) - Among, between, betwixt, in the midst of
              • Trans (Latin) - Across, over, beyond
              • Vertere (Latin) - To turn, joint or articulation of the body
              Interventricular septum

              Muscular wall of the heart "fencing" off the lower "ventricles" from one another. It is located "between" the ventricles.

              • Inter (Latin) - Among, between, betwixt, in the midst of
              • Ventriculus (Latin) - Little belly
              • Saeptum (Latin) - A fence, enclosure, partition
            • The greater portion of it is thick and muscular and constitutes the muscular ventricular septum
            • Its upper and posterior part is thin and fibrous, and is called the membranous ventricular septum
            • Ischemia

              A restriction in "blood" supply to tissues, either due to blockage or excess vasodilation (blood is literally "kept from" the tissues). The shortage of blood causes a shortage of oxygen.

            • Ischemia is generally caused by problems with blood vessels, with resultant damage to or dysfunction of tissue.
            • Isolation

              A defense mechanism where one attempts to avoid a painful thought or feeling by objectifying and emotionally detaching oneself from the feeling. The me is derived from "island," and islands are physically detached from other pieces of land.

            • An example of this is acting aloof and indifferent toward someone you dislike.
            • Jejunum

              Part of the small intestine meaning "fasting" because this part of the small intestine was typically found to be empty in dead people due to its high peristaltic activity.

            • The change from the duodenum to the jejunum is usually defined as the duodenojejunal flexure and is defined by the Ligament of Treitz.
            • Kallikrein

              A subgroup of serine proteases that are responsible for the coordination of various physiological functions including blood pressure, semen liquefaction and skin desquamation. The molecule was med for the "pancreas" because high quantities were discovered there; however, the pancreas is not the only place in the body that produces this molecule.

              Karyotype

              An "image" that shows the number and appearance of chromosomes in the "kernel", or nucleus of a eukaryotic cell.

              • Karyon (Greek) - Kernel, nut
              • Typus (Latin) - Figure, image, from kind
              Kulchitsky cells

              A type of neuroendocrine cell present in the epithelia lining the lumen of the digestive tract and respiratory tract. These cells contain 90% of the body's serotonin stores.

              • Also called enterochromaffin cells.
              • Med after Russian atomist Nikolai Kulchitsky
              • Langerhans cell histiocytosis

                A rare disease involving clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells (histiocyte), abnormal cells deriving from bone marrow and capable of migrating from skin to lymph nodes.

                • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
                • Histos (Greek) - Tissue, web, warp
                • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
                • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
              • Symptoms of this disease range from isolated bone lesions to multisystem disease
              • Contains Birbeck granules
              • Langerhans med after German physician and atomist Paul Langerhans
              • Laryngomalacia

                A "soft" "larynx or upper windpipe" as a result of immature cartilage formation.

                • Laryngeus (Latin) - Relating to the larynx, the upper windpipe
                • Malacia (Latin) - A softness, a calm at sea
              • Common cause of stridor in newborn infants as a result of the collapse of the soft larynx
              • Liddle syndrome

                Autosomal dominant disorder that increased sodium reabsorption in the distal and collecting tubules of the kidneys

                • Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, decreased aldosterone
                • Liddle med after American endocrinologist Grant Liddle
                • Ligamentum arteriosum

                  An vestigial "band" connecting the pulmonary "artery" and aorta

                • Patent ductus arteriosus, left recurrent laryngeal runs posterior to the ligamentum arteriosum
                • Ligamentum teres hepatis

                  A "rounded" "band" found by the "liver"

                • Found along the free edge of the falciform ligament
                • Remnant of the fetal umbilical vein, also known as the round ligament of the liver
                • Locus heterogeneity

                  The same phenotypic pattern caused by the mutation of a gene at multiple different "positions" on a chromosome with a "different" "family" or place.

                  • Locus (Latin) - A place, spot, position
                  • Hetero (Greek) - Other, different
                  • Genus (Latin) - Birth, family, tion
                • Albinism, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, retinitis pigmentosa
                • Lymphadenopathy

                  A "disease" or condition of the "clear water" "gland".

                  • Lympha (Latin) - Water, clear water, a goddess of water
                • Disease of the lymph nodes that refers to the state in which lymph nodes are swollen or enlarged, commonly due to infection or malignant tumors.
                • Infectious mononucleosis, cat scratch disease, tularemia, brucellosis, diphtheria, Hodgkin lymphoma, nonHodgkin lymphoma, Virchow's node
                • Malignant

                  A process that "maliciously injures" the body.

                • Commonly referred to tumors characterized by aplasia, invasiveness, and/or metastasis
                • Micromelia

                  Abnormally "small" "limbs".

                  • Mikros (Greek) - Small, little, petty, trivial, slight
                  • Melos (Greek) - Limb
                  Migraine

                  Unilateral pulsating pain inside "skull" for 472 hrs. with nausea, photophobia, or phonophobia; may have aura.

                • Due to irritation of CN V, meninges, or blood vessels (release of substance P, CGRP, vasoactive peptides)
                • Mitochondria

                  "Granule"shaped organelles with "threadlike" inclusions.

                • Creates most of the energy used by the cell.
                • Mitral regurgitation

                  Systolic murmur characterized by "overflow" across the "turban" into left atrium due to ischemic heart disease, MVP, or LV dilation.

                • Holosystolic, blowing murmur, radiates towards axilla
                • Mittelschmerz

                  When ruptured follicle or follicular enlargement causes peritoneal "pain" in "middle" of body that can mimic appendicitis.

                • Also named due to the fact that it occurs in the "middle" of the ovulatory cycle
                • Mobitz type I (Wenckebach)

                  Type of second degree heart block due to progressive PR interval prolongation followed by a dropped QRS.

                  • Progressive PR prolongation with dropped beat
                  • Mobitz type II

                    Type of second degree heart block that is not preceded by PR interval prolongation, but QRS beats are dropped randomly

                    • Treated with pacemaker (along with type 3 heart block)
                    • Molluscum Contagiosum

                      Viral infection of skin caused by D poxvirus that leads to "soft", pulpy tumors.

                    • Fleshcolored dome lesions with central dimple
                    • A genetic relative to smallpox
                    • Mylohyoid nerve

                      Branch of mandibular "nerve" that innervates mylohyoid muscle and anterior belly of digastric muscle used in "grinding" of teeth.

                      • Myle (Greek) - Grinder, A mill
                      • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
                      Myocardial infarction

                      When the vessels feeding the "muscles" of the "heart" become "stuffed" or closed off.

                    • Blockage of the coronary arteries that leads to a dramatic decrease in blood flow to the heart tissue, inducing ischemia
                    • Characterized as STEMI (ST Elevated myocardial infarction) or nonstemi, the former of which is a medical emergency requiring immediate intervention
                    • Vegetations within the heart or ruptured plaques may clog the coronary arteries.
                    • Myxedema

                      "Mucus" deposition in the dermis causing doughy "swollen" appearance.

                    • Associated with thyroid dysfunction
                    • Pretibial myxedema in hyperthyroidism, facial myxedema in hypothyroidism, nonpitting edema
                    • Myxoid

                      The "forming" of a mass of extracellular "mucus" matrix, such as a myxoid liposarcoma or cardiac myxoma.

                      • Muxa (Greek) - Mucus
                      • Eidos (Greek) - Form, Resemblance or Shape, Likeness
                      Nasopharynx

                      Upper portion of the "throat" posterior to the "sal" cavity

                      Obliquus capitis superior

                      A pair of "slanted" muscles that connect the atlas (C1) to the base of the "head." It courses "above" neighboring muscles to attach to the occipital bone.

                      • Obliquus (Latin) - Slanted, sideways
                      • Caput (Latin) - Head
                      • Super (Latin) - In excess, above, Beyond
                    • Functions in head positioning
                    • Orthomyxovirus

                      This virus, "poisonous substance," has a linear "straight" negative sense R as genetic material. It causes the flu with symptoms such as "mucus", fever, and body aches.

                      • Orthos (Greek) - Straight, correct
                      • Myxa (Greek) - Mucus
                      • Virus (Latin) - Poison, poisonous substance
                    • The segments of this virus allows for reassortment that is responsible for its seasonal resistance
                    • Segmented negativesense R virus
                    • Orthopnea

                      Shortness of "breath" that occurs and worsens while lying down "straight."

                      • Orthos (Greek) - Straight, correct
                      • Pnoia (Greek) - Breath
                    • Symptom of leftsided heart failure or pulmonary edema
                    • Osteosarcoma

                      Malignant "tumor" of the "bone" "flesh."

                      • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
                      • Sarx (Latin) - Flesh, Meat
                      • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
                    • Commonly occurs in the metaphysis region of the bones
                    • Ostium primum

                      The "first" "opening" formed between the right and left atrium during embryogenesis.

                      • Ostium (Latin) - Door, opening
                      • Primus (Latin) - First, the first part
                    • Malformation of septum can lead to atrial septal defect
                    • Panacinar

                      Affecting "all" of the "grapelike" structure in the lung.

                      • Pan (Greek) - All, every
                      • Acinus (Latin) - Grape
                      Parasitology

                      The "study of" "parasites."

                      • Parasitos (Latin) - One who eats from another's table
                      • Logy - Branch of knowledge, Study of
                    • Study of parasites
                    • Just med as parasites are infectious organisms that feed off of the intake of the host
                    • Patellar plexus

                      "Network" of terminal filaments of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve surrounding the "pan"shaped bone of the knee

                      • Patella (Latin) - Little plate or pan
                      • Plexus (Latin) - Braid, network
                    • Terminal filaments of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve
                    • Patent ductus arteriosus

                      A "duct" that remains "lying open" between the pulmonary "artery" and the aorta.

                      • Patent (Latin) - Lying open
                      • Ductus (Latin) - A Leading, Conducting, or Aqueduct
                      • Arteria (Greek) - Windpipe, artery
                    • Persistence of the blood vessel between the pulmonary artery and proximal descending aorta
                    • Close with indomethacin, keep open with prostaglandins (PGE2)
                    • Perforin

                      A protein that "pierces" the cell membrane.

                      • Perforare (Latin) - To bore or pierce through
                    • Used by natural killer cells and cytotoxic Tcells
                    • With granzymes, induces apoptosis in target cells
                    • Targets tumor cells and virally infected cells
                    • Cellmediated killing
                    • Pericardial tamponade

                      "A plugging" up of the space "nearby" the "heart" by fluid.

                    • Compression of the heart by fluid filling the pericardial sac
                    • Can lead to pulsus paradoxus and decreased cardiac output
                    • Causes beck triad of hypotension, distended neck veins, and muffled heart sounds
                    • Electrical alternans on ECG
                    • Can be caused by aortic dissection or MI
                    • Platypnea

                      A shortness of breath or "air" when a patient lies down "flat" on their back.

                    • Platypnea may be caused by hepatopulmonary syndrome, in which there is vasodilation in the lungs in patients who have liver disease, or an anatomical defect in which a right to left shunt causes blood to bypass either the lungs or portal circulation.
                    • Poliovirus

                      A "poisonous substance" med for infecting the "grey" matter of the spinal cord and "brain".

                      • Polios (Greek) - Grey
                      • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
                      • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
                    • Causes destruction of anterior horns of spinal cord
                    • Can result in flaccid paralysis with lower motor neuron damage
                    • Transmitted via fecaloral
                    • Franklin D. Roosevelt had poliomyelitis.
                    • Polyarteritis Nodosa

                      An autoimmune "inflammation" of "many" "arteries" leading to micro aneurysms that cause small "knots" along the chest.

                      • Polloi (Greek) - Many
                      • Arteria (Greek) - Windpipe, artery
                      • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
                      • Nodosus (Latin) - Tied into many knots, full of knots
                    • Polyarteritis nodosa is a type III hypersensitivity disorder characterized by transmural inflammation, fibrinoid necrosis and aneurysm formation in medium sized vessels
                    • Characteristically see "rosary bead" like nodules on the front of the chest
                    • PAN is usually seen in young adults and is associated with Hepatitis B and presents with malaise, fever, rash, abdominal pain
                    • Corticosteroids are the cornerstones of treatment
                    • Known for sparing of pulmonary vasculature
                    • Polycystic ovarian syndrome

                      A hormonal disorder of the "egg"bearing organ resulting in the formation of "many" "sacs" and other symptoms that "run" "together"

                      • Polloi (Greek) - Many
                      • Kustis (Greek) - Bladder, atomical pouch or sac
                      • Ovum (Latin) - Egg
                      • Syn (Greek) - With, together
                      • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
                    • Increased LH:FSH ratio
                    • Associated with obesity
                    • Hyperandrogenism can be seen in this condition
                    • Hirsutism can be seen in this condition
                    • Polymenorrhea

                      "Many" cycles of "monthly" "flow." Menstrual cycles with intervals of 21 days or fewer

                    • Can be seen in endometriosis, Perimenopause, Fibroids, STIs, and other conditions
                    • Polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (Torsades de pointes)

                      A type of ventricular "swift, rapid" "heart" beat distinguished by "many" different "forms/shapes" (morphology) for each heart beat. Of significance, 'torsades de pointes' is a specific type of PVT, unique in its presence of prolonged resting QT intervals.

                    • Torsades de Pointes is a type of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, Long QT syndrome predisposes to Torsades de Pointes
                    • Can be drug induced (sotalol, amiodarone)
                    • Polyposis

                      A "condition" of having "many" "foot" like projections from the walls of mucous membranes including the nose and intestines.

                      • Polloi (Greek) - Many
                      • Pous (Greek) - Foot
                      • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
                    • Familial adenomatous polyposis is most often caused by a mutation in the tumor suppressor gene called FAP
                    • Polypus is a me used for hydras and sea anemones in various languages and resemble the "polyps" of the colon.
                    • Preeclampsia

                      A disease that affects pregnant women "before" the baby is "out," characterized by high blood pressure and protein in the urine

                      • Prae (Latin) - Before in time or place
                      • Ek (Greek) - Out
                      • Lampein (Greek) - To shine
                    • No seizures seen in preeclampsia
                    • Associated with swelling and edema

                    • Mnemonics
                      HELLP!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! the pregnant women
                      The symptoms of HELLP syndrome
                      Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes, Low Platelets
                      Priapism

                      A persistently erect penis named for the Greek god of male fertility.

                      • Priapus (Greek) - Greek god who personified male reproductive power
                    • Can be seen in G6PD deficiency, sickle cell disease, and drug reactions among other things
                    • Aspiration of the penis can be a treatment
                    • Named for the Greek God Priapismos, the male god of fertility
                    • Primitive streak

                      The "first" streak that marks the beginning of gastrulation in the blastocyst.

                      Pudendal nerve

                      Responsible for sensation of "external genitalia" and peroneal region.

                      • Pudendum (Latin) - Thing to be ashamed of, the exterl genitals
                      • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
                    • Pudendal nerve block is a common procedure performed during childbirth
                    • Pudendum in Latin means 'parts to be ashamed of'
                    • Pulsus alternans

                      Poor prognosis "Alternating" "pushes" of blood through major arteries.

                    • Arterial pulses with alternating weak and strong beats. Highly suggestive of left ventricular impairment during contraction (systole).
                    • Pulsus paradoxus

                      An appearing and dissapearing "beat or push" of blood at the radial artery, that occurs "contrary to expectation".

                      • Pulsus (Greek) - Beat, push, strike
                      • Paradoxos (Greek) - Contrary to expectation
                    • Abnormally large decrease in pressure during contraction (systole) during inspiration more than 10mmHg
                    • The term name comes from the fact that when the individual inspires, their pressure can drop so low, that their radial pulse dissapears. Hence, the individual has no pulse, but is still alive,
                    • Pericarditis
                    • Coarctation of the Aorta
                    • Cardiac Tamponade
                    • Pyknosis

                      Irreversible "compaction" of the D during the first step of cell death

                    • Apoptosis, Programmed cell death in embryogenesis
                    • Rationalization

                      Defense mechanism where controversial behavior is justified by logical or "reasonable" thought process

                      • Rationalis (Latin) - Of or belonging to reason, reasoble
                    • Defense mechanism
                    • Termed by Ernest Jones in 1908, the inventing of a reason for an attitude or action the motive of which is not recognized
                    • Renal tubular acidosis

                      "A condition or disease" relating to the "small pipes" or tubules of the "kidneys" being unable to secrete "acid" or reabsorb base (bicarbonate)

                      • Renes (Latin) - Kidneys
                      • Tubulus (Latin) - A small pipe
                      • Acidus (Latin) - Relating to acid
                      • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
                      Renin

                      Hormone of the "kidney" that regulates blood flow to the kidney through the reninangiotensin cascade

                    • Also known as angiotensinogen
                    • Regulates the body's arterial blood pressure and cleaves angiotensinogen into angiotensin I.
                    • Reperfusion

                      The "return of flow, once again" of oxygenated blood "through" vessels "spread" to an area previously deprived of oxygenated blood.

                      • Re (Latin) - Again, anew
                      • Per (Latin) - Through, by means of
                      • Fundere (Latin) - Pour, spread
                    • Reperfusion injuries are injuries in which oxygenated blood is returned to an ischemic tissue and as a result a large number of oxygen radicals are formed leading to cell damage
                    • There are currently studies going on that involve giving xanthine oxidase inhibitors such as allopurinol and febuxostat, to patients with ischemic events to prevent the formation of oxygen radicals upon reperfusion and prevent further cell damage.
                    • Rett syndrome

                      A genetic disorder that almost exclusively affects the brain of females. It looks similar at early stages to autism

                      • Hand wringing at the midline
                      • Associated with scoliosis and seizures
                      • Rhabdomyosarcoma

                        A "morbid growth or mass" composed of "wand or rod shaped" skeletal muscle.

                        • Rhabdos (Greek) - Wand, rod
                        • Mus (Greek) - Muscle, mouse
                        • Sarx (Latin) - Flesh, Meat
                        • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
                      • Sarcoma botryoides is a vaginal rhabdomyosarcoma that affects young girls.
                      • The word mus meaning mouse came from the notion that muscles looked like mice under the skin.
                      • RNA Virus

                        Infectious agents that contain RNA as their genetic material

                        • RNA (English) - Ribonucleic Acid
                        • Virus (Latin) - Poison, poisonous substance
                        Rotavirus

                        A "wheelshaped" "poisonous substance" made up of double stranded R virus that causes severe cases of diarrhea in children

                        • Rotatore (Latin) - To rotate, wheel
                        • Virus (Latin) - Poison, poisonous substance
                      • Commonly seen in children
                      • Commonly referred to as the Right out the Ass virus because it causes severe diarrhea
                      • The name comes from it being literally a wheel shaped virus under the microscope
                      • Sarcoma botryoides

                        A "cluster" of "fleshlike" "tumors"

                        • Sarx (Latin) - Flesh, Meat
                        • Botry (Greek) - Cluster of grapes
                        • Oides (Greek) - From, like
                      • A type of cancer derived from skeletal muscle tissue in the nasopharynx and common bile duct
                      • Septic shock

                        Disseminated inflammation caused by "putrefaction" of the body by an infection, leading to a systemic "attack" or inflammation of the body

                        • Sepein (Greek) - Make rotten
                        • Choc (Middle French) - Violent Attack
                      • A type of physiological shock caused by bacterial infection
                      • Requires SIRS criteria, A focus of bacterial infection, organ failure, and low blood pressure that cannot be improved with fluid or drug administration
                      • Appendicitis, bacteremia, and pneumonia are common causes of septic shock
                      • Septum primum

                        The "first" "partition" between the right and left atria in an embryo.

                        • Saeptum (Latin) - A fence, enclosure, partition
                        • Primus (Latin) - First, the first part
                      • In embryogenesis, the first interatrial wall that separates and creates the left and right atrium.
                      • Problems with development during embryogenesis of the septum primum can lead to left to right shunting of blood
                      • Named literally primary fence
                      • Silicosis

                        A "condition or disease" affecting the lungs, caused by inhalation of silicon, a "flint"like material

                        • Silex (Latin) - Flint
                        • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
                      • A pneumoconiosis that occurs as a result of exposure to silica, most commonly from occupational exposure.
                      • Occupational exposure to silica include sandblasting and working in mines
                      • Eggshell calcification
                      • Disrupts phagolysosome formation and lead to TB reactivation
                      • Affects the upper lobes of the lung
                      • Most common occupational lung disease worldwide.
                      • Sinoatrial node

                        A "knot" or bundle of nerves in the "hollow cavity" of the "upper heart" that is responsible for normal sinus rhythm.

                        • Sinus (Latin) - Bend, fold, curve, a bent surface; a bay, bight, gulf; a fold in land; hollow curve or cavity in the body
                        • Atrium (Latin) - Central court or main room of an ancient Roman house, or either of the upper cavities of the heart
                        • Nodus (Latin) - Knot
                      • Highly innervated cardiac muscle in the right atrium responsible for normal sinus rhythm
                      • The primary pacemaker of the heart
                      • Supplied by a branch of the right coronary artery in the majority of the population
                      • Spherocyte

                        A "ball"shaped red blood "cell"

                        • Sphero (Greek) - Globe, ball
                        • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
                      • A spherical shaped RBCs, often the result of hereditary spherocytosis or autoimmune hemolysis
                      • Spherical RBCs
                      • Hereditary spherocytosis
                      • Squamous cell carcinoma

                        A "cancer" of "scaly" "cells".

                        • Squama (Latin) - Scale, scaly
                        • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
                        • Karkinos (Greek) - Cancer, crab
                      • Pathognomonic location of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin is the lower half of the face or bottom lip
                      • St. Vitus' dance

                        A sequelae of acute rheumatic fever where the patient has symptoms of uncontrolled, rapid, jerking chorea movement of their face and extremities, resembling dancelike motions. Also known as Sydenham's chorea. med eponymously after Saint Vitus.

                        • Can occur with other neurologic symptoms and can affect all extremities
                        • Chorea movement goes away after a few months and is caused by an autoimmune response as sequelae of acute rheumatic fever.
                        • Steatorrhea

                          A "fatty" "flow" or stool.

                        • Steatorrhea can be caused by lack of bile acids (due to liver disease, cholecystectomy, hyperlipidemia drugs), defective pancreatic enzymes (due to pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, etc.), defective mucosal cells as well as certain medicines that block fat absorption (Orlistat)
                        • Subdural hematoma

                          A "mass" of "blood" "under" the "hard" layer of the meninges

                          • Sub (Latin) - Under, below, beneath, at the foot of
                          • Durus (Latin) - Hard
                          • Haima (Greek) - Blood
                          • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
                        • Hemorrhage that occurs under the dura of the brain, usually secondary to traumatic brain injury.
                        • Crescent shaped hematoma on CT scan
                        • Shaken baby syndrome
                        • Common in elderly due to brain shrinkage
                        • Usually caused by stretching of the bridging veins in the subdural space due to increased intracranial pressure.
                        • Subthalamic nucleus

                          A "kernel" of neurons located "below" the thalamus or "inner chamber" of the brain

                        • Nucleus of the brain that is located ventrally to the thalamus
                        • Injury results in contralateral hemiballismus
                        • Supratrochlear nerve

                          A nerve "above" the "pulley"like superior oblique muscle.

                          • Supra (Latin) - Above, over, beyond, on the upper side
                          • Trochlea (Latin) - Pulley, a small wheel
                          • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
                        • Supplies the lower forehead, conjunctiva, skin of eyelid
                        • Branch of the frontal nerve
                        • Trochlea means pulley in latin
                        • Therefore supratrochlear means above the trochlea. The pulley in this case is the pulley of the superior oblique. This nerve is found above this area.
                        • Supraventricular tachycardia

                          "Fast" "heart rate" originating from an electrical source "above" the heart's "ventricles", the atria.

                          • Supra (Latin) - Above, over, beyond, on the upper side
                          • Ventriculus (Latin) - Little belly
                          • Takhys (Greek) - Swift, rapid, hasty
                          • Kardia (Greek) - Heart
                        • Supraventricular tachycardia(SVT) often refers to paroxysmal SVTs, or SVTs that appear rapidly
                        • The most common cause of SVT is AV nodal reentrant tachycardia, which will show arrow QRS complexes with no discernible P waves on ECG
                        • The first line treatment for SVTs are vagal maneuvers, such as a carotid sinus massage, Valsalva maneuver, or head immersion in cold water
                        • Intravenous adenosine is the pharmacologic agent of choice for treatment of SVTs refractory to vagal maneuvers, with the exception of SVTs caused by WolffParkinsonWhite (WPW) syndrome
                        • Surfactant

                          In the lungs, reduces "surface" tension to prevent alveoli from collapsing.

                          • Infant respiratory distress syndrome is due to lack of surfactant in premature babies
                          • Lecithinsphingomyelin ratio is used to assess whether fetal lungs have enough surfactant
                          • Functions to reduce surface tension of alveoli and prevent atelectasis.
                          • SwanGanz catheter

                            A flowdirected balloontipped catheter "thrusted into" into the pulmonary artery. The pressures of the right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary artery, and pulmonary wedge pressure can be measured..

                          • Used diagnostically in heart failure and sepsis
                          • It was med after its inventors = Jeremy Swan and William Ganz
                          • Syphilis

                            A disease caused by Treponema Pallidum that causes genital sores, full body lesions, and ultimately brain and eye damage if left untreated.

                            • Syphilis can present in either the primary, secondary, latent or tertiary stages
                            • The character in the poem from which this word is derived was said to be the first sufferer of the condition
                            • Syphilis was referred to as "the great imitator" due to its many forms of clinical presentation

                            • Mnemonics
                              ToRCHeS
                              Teratogens: placenta-crossing organisms
                              Toxoplasma, Rubella, CMV, Herpes simplex, Herpes zoster (varicella), Hepatitis B,C,E, Syphilis
                              TORCH infections burn the baby
                              Infections that Cross the Placental Barrier
                              Toxoplasma, Other (syphilis, varicella, parvovirus b19), Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, and Herpes
                              Systemic lupus erythematosus

                              An autoimmune disorder of many different presentations that can affect any different "system" of the body. It often causes joint swelling and "redness".

                            • Malar rash
                            • Antiphospholipid syndrome
                            • Libmansacks endocarditis
                            • In latin, lupus means wolf. Patients with lupus were thought to look like they were bitten by a wolf due to the rash present in many lupus patients.
                            • Taenia Solium

                              The "ribbonlike" tapeworm parasite that has a "seat" in the host's gastrointestinal tract.

                            • Treat with praziquantel
                            • Diagnosis made via stool sample containing eggs
                            • Cysticercosis caused by larvae ingestion
                            • Found in contaminated pork
                            • Telomerase

                              An "enzyme" which extends the "end" "parts" of chromosomes.

                              • Telos (Greek) - The end
                              • Meros (Greek) - Part
                              • Ase (English) - Used to form the me of enzymes
                            • Cri du chat syndrome is a deletion in chromosome 5 resulting in a loss of one copy of telomerase
                            • Telomerase activity associated with cancer
                            • Tetany

                              Involuntary "stretching" or contraction of a muscle.

                              • Teinein (Greek) - Taught, to stretch
                            • Often times caused by a lack of calcium
                            • Chvostek sign is used to diagnose tetany
                            • French professor Arman Trousseau devised the Trousseau sign of latent tetany in which occlusion of the brachial artery by squeezing triggers cramps in the fingers.
                            • Third occipital nerve

                              A "nerve" branch of the third cervical nerve innervating the "back of the head".

                              • Occiput (Latin) - Back of the skull
                              • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
                            • The third occipital nerve innervates the C23 zygapophyseal joint. This joint refers pain to the occipital, frontotemporal, and periorbital regions the third occipital headache
                            • Thrombin

                              A protease molecule in the coagulation cascade with a primary role of converting fibrinogen into fibrin for "blood clotting".

                              • Thrombos (Greek) - Clump of blood, clot of blood
                            • Also known as Factor IIa
                            • Thrombophlebitis

                              A condition in which a blood "clot" blocks a "vein" leading to "inflammation".

                              • Thrombos (Greek) - Clump of blood, clot of blood
                              • Phleb (Latin) - Vein
                              • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
                            • May be seen in patients in hypercoagulable states
                            • Associated with acute leukemia and malignancies of the pancreas, lung, prostate, stomach, and colon
                            • Treat with NSAIDs and anticoagulation
                            • May require thrombolytic or surgical stripping
                            • Torsades de pointes

                              A "twisting" of the "points" seen on an ECG.

                            • A type of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia
                            • Mg2+ can be given to treat torsades de pointes
                            • Widening of the QT interval (including an increased QT interval from congenital conditions) predisposes to torsades de pointes
                            • Med literally twisting of the spikes in French by French physician Francois Dessertenne in 1966. He described the ventricular tachycardia in a 80year old woman with intermittent atrioventricular block. He referred to the Dictionnaire Le Robert, a FrenchEnglish dictionary given to him by his wife when meaning the phenomenon
                            • Transitional cell carcinoma

                              A malignant "cancer" of the epithelial "cells" that go "across" the bladder, lining its interior.

                            • Most common cancer of the urinary tract system
                            • Hematuria without casts (casts indicate a renal origin)
                            • Exposure to aniline dyes, smoking, phenacetin, cyclophosphamide (metabolizes into acrolein), radiation
                            • Transmural infarction

                              When something "stuffs up" a coronary artery leading to tissue death "across" the entire "wall" of the supplied area of the heart.

                            • Associated with a complete occlusion of the blood supply
                            • ST elevation
                            • Pathologic Q waves
                            • Trismus

                              A "gashing or grinding" of the teeth together such that the mouth cannot be opened.

                              • Trismos (Greek) - Trismos (a grinding, gshing, A scream; )
                            • Commonly referred to as 'lockjaw'
                            • Associated with tetanus
                            • Trochlear nerve

                              Cranial nerve 4, which innervates the superior oblique muscle of the eye. Superior oblique acts like a "pulley" when moving the eye.

                              • Trochlea (Latin) - Pulley, a small wheel
                              • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
                            • Lesion to this nerve can cause vertical diplopia, often manifesting while walking up or down stairs
                            • Truncal ataxia

                              A condition where a person cannot move with "order." Causing incoordination.

                              • Truncus (Latin) - Trunk of a tree, trunk of the body
                              • A (Greek) - Not, Without
                              • Taxis (Greek) - Arrangement, order
                            • A type of ataxia that causes widebased, unsteady gait. Caused by damage to the vermis or midline of the cerebellum
                            • Also called the drunken sailor gait
                            • Umbilical cord

                              Connects the placenta to the "vel" of the fetus. Provides blood and nutrients for fetus.

                              • Umbilicus (Latin) - Vel
                              • Khorde (Greek) - Gut, string of a musical instrument
                            • Delayed separation of the umbilical cord is associated with Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency
                            • Uniparental disomy

                              A type of genetic transmission where the offspring receives "two" genetic "bodies" from "one" "ancestor" or parent.

                              • Unus (Latin) - One
                              • Parentem (Latin) - Farther or mother, ancestor
                              • Di (Greek) - Two, Double, Twice
                              • Soma (Greek) - Body
                            • Uniparental disomy of chromosome 15 is one of the mechanisms that cause PraderWilli or Angelman syndrome
                            • The first reported clinical case of UPD was in 1988 and involved a girl with cystic fibrosis and short stature who had two maternal copies of chromosome 7
                            • Varicocele

                              A "dilation" or "swelling" of veins.

                              • Varix (Latin) - Dilated vein
                              • Kele (Greek) - Swelling, hernia, tumor
                            • Varicoceles are transilluminated to differentiate it from a solid tumor
                            • Can occur due to defective valves that lead to a pooling of blood in the veins
                            • Varicoceles don't need to be treated unless the are symptomatic, a change in size, or distinct difference in testicular size or feel.
                            • Vasoconstriction

                              "Binding together" or constriction of a "blood vessel."

                              • Vas (Latin) - Vessel
                              • Constrict (Latin) - Bound Tightly Together
                            • Vasoconstriction of the arterioles specifically accounts for the majority of increased vascular resistance
                            • The relationship of radius to resistance is to the 4th power, thus halving the radius leads to a 16fold increase in resistance

                            • MedyQuestion
                              • A 25-year-old man is brought to the emergency department 20 minutes after being stung by several bees.. He is altered and is struggling to breathe. His temperature is 100.9°F, pulse is 117/min, respirations are 30/min, and blood pressure is 85/43 mm Hg. Physical examination shows prolonged capillary refill. There are several red, raised, marks on the back and 2+ pitting edema of the ankles. In addition to the administration of 0.9% saline, the most appropriate next step in management is administration of what?

                              USMLE Step 1

                              Vasospasm

                              "Convulsion" of a "blood vessel."

                              • Vas (Latin) - Vessel
                              • Spasmos (Greek) - Spasm, convulsion
                            • Prinzmental angi is a condition in which the coronary arteries spasm leading to pain in the chest
                            • Nimodipine is given to prevent postsubarachnoid hemorrhage vasospasm
                            • Ventral tegmentum

                              Group of neurons on anterior or "belly" of brain.

                            • A group of neurons in the midbrain that house the cell bodies responsible for producing dopamine, thus play a large role in the reward center of the brain.
                            • Because of its close proximity and similarity in function to the substantia nigra, scientists believe that the ventral tegmentum may play a role in disease like schizophrenia and Parkinson's Disease
                            • Ventricle

                              A hollow cavity or "little belly" in an organ

                            • Ventricles of the heart pump oxygenated blood to the body
                            • Ventricles of the brain return deoxygenated blood from the brain to the heart
                            • The ventricle comes from the concept of the belly or stomach being hollow and holding substances within the body much like ventricles are little bellies with the same function.
                            • Ventricular septal defect

                              A "failure" in the "partition" between the ventricles of heart.

                            • The most common congenital heart defect
                            • Commonly seen in patients with Down Syndrome
                            • Characteristically produces a rough loudblowing holosystolic murmur at the cardiac apex does not radiates to the axilla (mitral regurgitation is a holosystolic murmur that DOES radiate to the axilla)
                            • The most common congenital cardiac abnormality
                            • Common condition post MI due to macrophages eating away dead tissue in the interventricular septum leading to rupture.

                            • MedyQuestion
                              • A 6 year old boy is brought to the pediatrician because his mother reports that he has been having bouts of blue colored skin and shortness of breath. She says that when he is outside playing, he becomes short of breath much quicker than the other children. The patient was evaluated for asthma last year, but at that time demonstrated normal PFTs. The pediatrician asked the patient if anything made him feel better when he found it hard to breath, at which time, the boy squatted. What 4 characteristics are pathomnemonic for this child’s condition?

                              USMLE Step 1

                              • A 6 year old boy is brought to the pediatrician because his mother reports that he has been having bouts of blue colored skin and shortness of breath. She says that when he is outside playing, he becomes short of breath much quicker than the other children. The patient was evaluated for asthma last year, but at that time demonstrated normal PFTs. The pediatrician asked the patient if anything made him feel better when he found it hard to breath, at which time, the boy squatted. On cardiac auscultation, what type of murmur is expected to be appreciated and where?

                              USMLE Step 1

                              WiskottAldrich syndrome

                              A "course" of disease characterized by eczema, thrombocytopenia and immunodeficiency.

                              • X linked recessive disease. Because of the characteristics of the disease it is sometimes referred to simply as eczemathrombocytopeniaimmunodeficiency disease
                              • German pediatrician Dr. Alfred Wiskott first studied the syndrome in 1937 and described the disease in three brothers whose sisters were unaffected
                              • Xlinked (Bruton) agammaglobulinemia

                                "Without" "immunoglobulins" in the "blood."

                                • X - Chromosome med by Hermann Henking in 1890 from x (signifying the unknown) due to some baffling properties he had observed
                                • Gelenk (Greek) - Joint
                                • A (Greek) - Not, Without
                                • Gamma (Greek) - The me of the third letter of the Greek alphabet; signifies gamma globulin
                                • Globus (Latin) - Sphere, globe
                                • Haima (Greek) - Blood
                              • X linked disease. Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase enzyme problem
                              • Because of the lack of immunoglobulin, patients are extremely prone to bacterial infections
                              • Common infections are caused by encapsulated bacteria
                              • The doctor who described the condition noticed it in children that were unable to develop an immunity to infections
                              • Xanthochromia

                                A "yellow" "coloring", often times describing the CSF of the spinal cord after brain trauma.

                              • Commonly seen in subarachnoid hemorrhages
                              • Because there is blood in the CSF for one reason or another, the blood breaks down into its parts, yielding bilirubin, a pigment that turns the CSF, much like your skin in jaundice, yellow.
                              • Nifedipine

                                Calcium Channel Blocker

                                • HTN
                                • Blocks Ca2+ channel > inhibits vascular smooth muscle and myocardial muscle contraction > peripheral vasodilation and decreased myocardial contractility
                                • Verapamil

                                  Calcium Channel Blocker

                                  • HTN
                                  • SVTs
                                  • Blocks Ca2+ channel > inhibits vascular smooth muscle and myocardial muscle contraction > peripheral vasodilation and decreased myocardial contractility
                                  • Diltiazam

                                    Calcium Channel Blocker

                                    • HTN
                                    • SVTs
                                    • Blocks Ca2+ channel > inhibits vascular smooth muscle and myocardial muscle contraction > peripheral vasodilation and decreased myocardial contractility
                                    • Amlodipine

                                      Calcium Channel Blocker

                                      • HTN
                                      • Blocks Ca2+ channel > inhibits vascular smooth muscle and myocardial muscle contraction > peripheral vasodilation and decreased myocardial contractility
                                      • Hydralazine

                                        Arteriolar Vasodilator

                                        • HTN
                                        • Heart failure
                                        • Directly relaxes arteriolar smooth muscle by increasing cGMP > decreasing blood pressure (reduces afterload)
                                        • Nitroprusside

                                          Mixed Vasodilator

                                          • Acute HTN
                                          • Severe heart failure
                                          • Cardiogenic shock
                                          • Turns into nitric oxide > stimulates guanylate cyclase > increases cGMP > smooth muscle relaxation of veins and arteries > decreases blood pressure (afterload and preload)
                                          • Nicardipine

                                            Calcium Channel Blocker

                                            • HTN
                                            • Blocks Ca2+ channel > inhibits vascular smooth muscle and myocardial muscle contraction > peripheral vasodilation and decreased myocardial contractility
                                            • Clevidipine

                                              Calcium Channel Blocker

                                              • HTN
                                              • Blocks Ca2+ channel > inhibits vascular smooth muscle and myocardial muscle contraction > peripheral vasodilation and decreased myocardial contractility
                                              • Labetalol

                                                Mixed Alpha/Beta Antagonist

                                                • HTN
                                                • Preeclampsia
                                                • Blocks alpha and beta adrenergic receptors
                                                • Fenoldopam

                                                  Selective D1 receptor partial agonist

                                                  • Postop HTN, IV for hypertensive crisis, HTN in patients with rel insufficiency
                                                  • Activates peripheral D1 receptors> activates adenyl cyclase > increased cAMP> relaxation of smooth muscle/ vasodilation > reduced blood pressure
                                                  • Promotes sodium excretion via dopamine receptors in the kidney
                                                  • Nitroglycerin

                                                    Vasodilator/ Nitrate

                                                    • Angina, acute corory syndrome, pulmory edema
                                                    • Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogese converts it into nitric oxide > NO stimulates guanylate cyclase > increases cGMP > activates protein kise G > intracellular calcium concentration decreases > decreases myosin light chain kise activity > decreases crossbridge cycling > relaxation of smooth muscle/ vasodilation
                                                    • Dilates vens >> arteries
                                                    • Decreases preload
                                                    • Isosorbine dinitrate

                                                      Vasodilator/ Nitrate

                                                      • Angi, acute corory syndrome, pulmory edema
                                                      • Converted to nitric oxide > relaxes smooth muscle > vasodilation of veins >> arteries > reduces preload, afterload, myocardial oxygen demand
                                                      • Lovastatin

                                                        Statin/Lipid lowering agent

                                                        • High cholesterol
                                                        • Competitively inhibits HMGCoAreductase > blocks the rate limiting step in cholesterol synthesis
                                                        • Decrease LDL and triglycerides, increase HDL
                                                        • Pravastatin

                                                          Statin/Lipid lowering agent

                                                          • High cholesterol
                                                          • Competitively inhibits HMGCoAreductase > blocks the rate limiting step in cholesterol synthesis
                                                          • Decrease LDL and triglycerides, increase HDL
                                                          • Simvastatin

                                                            Statin/Lipid lowering agent

                                                            • High cholesterol
                                                            • Competitively inhibits HMGCoAreductase > blocks the rate limiting step in cholesterol synthesis
                                                            • Decrease LDL and triglycerides, increase HDL
                                                            • Atorvastatin

                                                              Statin/Lipid lowering agent

                                                              • High cholesterol
                                                              • Competitively inhibits HMGCoAreductase > blocks the rate limiting step in cholesterol synthesis
                                                              • Decrease LDL and triglycerides, increase HDL
                                                              • Rosuvastatin

                                                                Statin/Lipid lowering agent

                                                                • High cholesterol
                                                                • Competitively inhibits HMGCoAreductase > blocks the rate limiting step in cholesterol synthesis
                                                                • Decrease LDL and triglycerides, increase HDL
                                                                • Niacin (Vitamin B3)

                                                                  Lipid lowering agent

                                                                  • High cholesterol
                                                                  • Inhibits lipolysis in adopose tissue
                                                                  • Reduces hepatic VLDL synthesis
                                                                  • Decreases LDL, increases HDL, decreases triglycerides
                                                                  • Cholestyramine

                                                                    Bile Acid Resin/Lipid lowering agent

                                                                    • High cholesterol
                                                                    • Prevent intestil reabsorption of bile acids > liver must use cholesterol to make more
                                                                    • Decreases LDL, slightly increases HDL and triglycerides
                                                                    • Colestipol

                                                                      Bile Acid Resin/Lipid lowering agent

                                                                      • High cholesterol
                                                                      • Prevent intestil reabsorption of bile acids > liver must use cholesterol to make more
                                                                      • Decreases LDL, slightly increases HDL and triglycerides
                                                                      • Colesevelam

                                                                        Bile Acid Resin/Lipid lowering agent

                                                                        • High cholesterol
                                                                        • Prevent intestil reabsorption of bile acids > liver must use cholesterol to make more
                                                                        • Decreases LDL, slightly increases HDL and triglycerides
                                                                        • Ezetimibe

                                                                          Cholesterol absorption blocker/Lipid lowering agent

                                                                          • High cholesterol
                                                                          • Prevents cholesterol absorption at small intestine brush border
                                                                          • Decreases LDL
                                                                          • Gemfibrozil

                                                                            Fibrates/Lipid lowering agent

                                                                            • Fibrate (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                          • High cholesterol
                                                                          • Upregulate lipoprotein lipase > increase triglyceride clearance
                                                                          • Activates PPARalpha to induce HDL synthesis
                                                                          • Clofibrate

                                                                            Fibrates/Lipid lowering agent

                                                                            • Fibrate (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                          • High cholesterol
                                                                          • Upregulate lipoprotein lipase > increase triglyceride clearance
                                                                          • Activates PPARalpha to induce HDL synthesis
                                                                          • Bezafibrate

                                                                            Fibrates/Lipid lowering agent

                                                                            • Fibrate (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                          • High cholesterol
                                                                          • Upregulate lipoprotein lipase > increase triglyceride clearance
                                                                          • Activates PPARalpha to induce HDL synthesis
                                                                          • Fenofibrate

                                                                            Fibrates/Lipid lowering agent

                                                                            • Fibrate (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                          • High cholesterol
                                                                          • Upregulate lipoprotein lipase > increase triglyceride clearance
                                                                          • Activates PPARalpha to induce HDL synthesis
                                                                          • Digoxin

                                                                            Cardiac glycoside

                                                                            • CHF, atrial fibrillation
                                                                            • Direct inhibition of +/K+ ATPase > leads to indirect inhibition of + / Ca2+ exchanger > increases intracellular calcium concentration > increases contractility
                                                                            • Stimulates vagus nerve to decrease conduction at AV node and depress SA node > decrease heart rate
                                                                            • Quinidine

                                                                              Class IA antiarrhythmic Na Channel Blocker

                                                                              • Atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, reentrant and ectopic SVT and VT
                                                                              • Increase action potential duration, increase effective refractory period, increase QT interval
                                                                              • Procaimide

                                                                                Class IA antiarrhythmic Na Channel Blocker

                                                                                • Atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, reentrant and ectopic SVT and VT
                                                                                • Increase action potential duration, increase effective refractory period, increase QT interval
                                                                                • Disopyramide

                                                                                  Class IA antiarrhythmic Na Channel Blocker

                                                                                  • Atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, reentrant and ectopic SVT and VT
                                                                                  • Increase action potential duration, increase effective refractory period, increase QT interval
                                                                                  • Lidocaine

                                                                                    Class IB antiarrhythmic Na Channel blocker

                                                                                    • Acute ventricular arryhthmias (especially postMI), digitalis induced arrhythmias
                                                                                    • Decrease action potential duration
                                                                                    • Preferentially affect ischemic or depolarized purkinje and ventricular tissue
                                                                                    • Mexiletine

                                                                                      Class IB antiarrhythmic Na Channel blocker

                                                                                      • Acute ventricular arryhthmias (especially postMI), digitalis induced arrhythmias
                                                                                      • Decrease action potential duration
                                                                                      • Preferentially affect ischemic or depolarized purkinje and ventricular tissue
                                                                                      • Flecanide

                                                                                        Class IC antiarrhythmic Na Channel Blocker

                                                                                        • SVTs (including atrial fibrillation)
                                                                                        • Significantly prolongs refractory period in AV node
                                                                                        • Minimal effect on action potential duration
                                                                                        • Propafenone

                                                                                          Class IC antiarrhythmic Na Channel Blocker

                                                                                          • SVTs (including atrial fibrillation)
                                                                                          • Significantly prolongs refractory period in AV node
                                                                                          • Minimal effect on action potential duration
                                                                                          • Metoprolol

                                                                                            Class II antiarrhythmic Beta Blocker

                                                                                            • Olol (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                          • SVT, slows ventricular rate during atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter
                                                                                          • Decreases SA and AV nodal activity by decreasing cAMP and calcium currents
                                                                                          • Suppresses abnormal pacemakers by decreasing the rate of depolariztion

                                                                                          • Mnemonics
                                                                                            The BP beta B.E.A.M.
                                                                                            The Beta 1 Selective Beta Blockers (located on the heart) that, as a result, slow the heart rate by blocking stimulation of the beta receptor
                                                                                            Betaxolol Esmolol Atenolol Metoprolol
                                                                                            Propranolol

                                                                                            Class II antiarrhythmic Beta Blocker

                                                                                            • Olol (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                          • SVT, slows ventricular rate during atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter
                                                                                          • Decreases SA and AV nodal activity by decreasing cAMP and calcium currents
                                                                                          • Suppresses abnormal pacemakers by decreasing the rate of depolariztion
                                                                                          • Esmolol

                                                                                            Class II antiarrhythmic Beta Blocker

                                                                                            • Olol (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                          • SVT, slows ventricular rate during atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter
                                                                                          • Decreases SA and AV nodal activity by decreasing cAMP and calcium currents
                                                                                          • Suppresses abnormal pacemakers by decreasing the rate of depolariztion

                                                                                          • Mnemonics
                                                                                            The BP beta B.E.A.M.
                                                                                            The Beta 1 Selective Beta Blockers (located on the heart) that, as a result, slow the heart rate by blocking stimulation of the beta receptor
                                                                                            Betaxolol Esmolol Atenolol Metoprolol
                                                                                            Atenolol

                                                                                            Class II antiarrhythmic Beta Blocker

                                                                                            • Olol (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                          • SVT, slows ventricular rate during atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter

                                                                                          • Mnemonics
                                                                                            The BP beta B.E.A.M.
                                                                                            The Beta 1 Selective Beta Blockers (located on the heart) that, as a result, slow the heart rate by blocking stimulation of the beta receptor
                                                                                            Betaxolol Esmolol Atenolol Metoprolol
                                                                                            Timolol

                                                                                            Class II antiarrhythmic Beta Blocker

                                                                                            • Olol (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                                                          • SVT, slows ventricular rate during atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter
                                                                                          • Amiodarone

                                                                                            Class III antiarrhythmic K Channel Blockers

                                                                                            • Used when other antiarrhthymics fail
                                                                                            • K channel blocker. Increases AP duration, Increase effective refractory period, Increase QT interval.
                                                                                            • Ibutilide

                                                                                              Class III antiarrhythmic K Channel Blockers

                                                                                              • Used when other antiarrhthymics fail
                                                                                              • K channel blocker. Increases AP duration, Increase effective refractory period, Increase QT interval.
                                                                                              • Dofetilide

                                                                                                Class III antiarrhythmic K Channel Blockers

                                                                                                • Used when other antiarrhthymics fail
                                                                                                • K channel blocker. Increases AP duration, Increase effective refractory period, Increase QT interval.
                                                                                                • Sotalol

                                                                                                  Class III antiarrhythmic K Channel Blockers

                                                                                                  • Used when other antiarrhthymics fail
                                                                                                  • K channel blocker. Increases AP duration, Increase effective refractory period, Increase QT interval.
                                                                                                  • Adenosine

                                                                                                    Antiarrhythmic

                                                                                                    • DOC in diagnosing/abolishing supraventricular tachycardia.
                                                                                                    • Very short acting drug that increase the K+ flow out of the cell, thus hyperpolarizing the cell and decreasing the flow of Ca2+ ions.
                                                                                                    • Mg2+

                                                                                                      Antiarrhythmic

                                                                                                      • Effective in torsades de pointes and digoxin toxicity.
                                                                                                      • Dromotrope

                                                                                                        An agent or drug that "changes" the "run" of the electrical impulse of the heart, either faster or slower.

                                                                                                        • Dromos (Greek) - Running, race
                                                                                                        • Tropos (Greek) - Turn, turning, change, response
                                                                                                      • Often times, dromotropic medications tend to be either positively or negatively chronoctropic and ionotropic, meaning they cause the heart to squeeze harder and more often.
                                                                                                      • Calcium channel blockers for example, are negative dromotrops, in that they slow the rate of electrical signal through the AV node of the heart

                                                                                                      • Sample Question
                                                                                                        What two commonly used negatively dromotripic drugs are used to slow the heart rate at the AV node with the blockage of calcium channel openings?
                                                                                                        The Non-dihydropyridines, Verapamil and Diltiazem
                                                                                                        Test3

                                                                                                        Teset3

                                                                                                      • Test3
                                                                                                      • Orthostasis

                                                                                                        The act of "standing" "upright"

                                                                                                        • Orthos (Greek) - Straight, correct
                                                                                                        • Stasis (Greek) - Standing still
                                                                                                      • Commonly used as another term for orthostatic hypotension.
                                                                                                      • Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP)

                                                                                                        A "peptide" hormone produced by the cardiac myocytes in heart ventricles causing increased "excretion" of "sodium" by the kidneys to ultimately decrease blood pressure

                                                                                                      • It is secreted in response to stretching of the ventricles caused by increased ventricular blood volume (aka increased blood pressure).
                                                                                                      • It has the same overall effect as ANP to increase sodium excretion to decrease blood volume and reduce blood pressure.
                                                                                                      • Differences between ANP and BNP: BNP is weaker (has a 10-fold lower affinity than ANP to the receptor), but has a much longer half life, making BNP better targets than ANP for diagnostic blood testing.
                                                                                                      • "peptide" = "peptos" (digested) + "ide" (a compound of) = a compound of digested proteins (fewer amino acids in peptides than proteins)
                                                                                                      • BNP is named as such because it was originally identified in extracts of pig brain in 1988, but has since been found to be primarily secreted by ventricular myocardium.
                                                                                                      • Saccular aneurysm

                                                                                                        A sac formed by the "localized dilatation" of only one side of the wall of an artery, a vein, or the heart

                                                                                                      • - The most common type of aneurysm - Form of true aneurysm (all 3 layers involved) with fusiform (bulges out on all sides of vessel) - Common example is berry aneurysm: saccular aneurysm of cerebral artery of the brain, usually at the Circle of Willis. Frequently rupture causing subarachnoid hemorrhage
                                                                                                      • Mycotic aneurysm

                                                                                                        "Dilation" of an artery due to damage of the vessel wall by "fungal" (or nonfungal) infection

                                                                                                        • Mykes (Greek) - Fungus, mushroom, anything shaped like a mushroom
                                                                                                        • Aneurysmos (Greek) - Dilation
                                                                                                      • - The term "mycotic" referring to fungal is a misnomer because many organisms, mainly bacterial, can cause the aneurysm. - At the time, the term "mycotic" was applied to any infection by bacteria or fungus, so the true definition is "infected" aneurysm
                                                                                                      • MEDYMOLOGY