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CARDIAC PHARMACOLOGY
46 terms share this category
Nifedipine

Calcium Channel Blocker

  • HTN
  • Blocks Ca2+ channel > inhibits vascular smooth muscle and myocardial muscle contraction > peripheral vasodilation and decreased myocardial contractility
  • Verapamil

    Calcium Channel Blocker

    • HTN
    • SVTs
    • Blocks Ca2+ channel > inhibits vascular smooth muscle and myocardial muscle contraction > peripheral vasodilation and decreased myocardial contractility
    • Diltiazam

      Calcium Channel Blocker

      • HTN
      • SVTs
      • Blocks Ca2+ channel > inhibits vascular smooth muscle and myocardial muscle contraction > peripheral vasodilation and decreased myocardial contractility
      • Amlodipine

        Calcium Channel Blocker

        • HTN
        • Blocks Ca2+ channel > inhibits vascular smooth muscle and myocardial muscle contraction > peripheral vasodilation and decreased myocardial contractility
        • Hydralazine

          Arteriolar Vasodilator

          • HTN
          • Heart failure
          • Directly relaxes arteriolar smooth muscle by increasing cGMP > decreasing blood pressure (reduces afterload)
          • Nitroprusside

            Mixed Vasodilator

            • Acute HTN
            • Severe heart failure
            • Cardiogenic shock
            • Turns into nitric oxide > stimulates guanylate cyclase > increases cGMP > smooth muscle relaxation of veins and arteries > decreases blood pressure (afterload and preload)
            • Nicardipine

              Calcium Channel Blocker

              • HTN
              • Blocks Ca2+ channel > inhibits vascular smooth muscle and myocardial muscle contraction > peripheral vasodilation and decreased myocardial contractility
              • Clevidipine

                Calcium Channel Blocker

                • HTN
                • Blocks Ca2+ channel > inhibits vascular smooth muscle and myocardial muscle contraction > peripheral vasodilation and decreased myocardial contractility
                • Labetalol

                  Mixed Alpha/Beta Antagonist

                  • HTN
                  • Preeclampsia
                  • Blocks alpha and beta adrenergic receptors
                  • Fenoldopam

                    Selective D1 receptor partial agonist

                    • Postop HTN, IV for hypertensive crisis, HTN in patients with rel insufficiency
                    • Activates peripheral D1 receptors> activates adenyl cyclase > increased cAMP> relaxation of smooth muscle/ vasodilation > reduced blood pressure
                    • Promotes sodium excretion via dopamine receptors in the kidney
                    • Nitroglycerin

                      Vasodilator/ Nitrate

                      • Angina, acute corory syndrome, pulmory edema
                      • Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogese converts it into nitric oxide > NO stimulates guanylate cyclase > increases cGMP > activates protein kise G > intracellular calcium concentration decreases > decreases myosin light chain kise activity > decreases crossbridge cycling > relaxation of smooth muscle/ vasodilation
                      • Dilates vens >> arteries
                      • Decreases preload
                      • Isosorbine dinitrate

                        Vasodilator/ Nitrate

                        • Angi, acute corory syndrome, pulmory edema
                        • Converted to nitric oxide > relaxes smooth muscle > vasodilation of veins >> arteries > reduces preload, afterload, myocardial oxygen demand
                        • Lovastatin

                          Statin/Lipid lowering agent

                          • High cholesterol
                          • Competitively inhibits HMGCoAreductase > blocks the rate limiting step in cholesterol synthesis
                          • Decrease LDL and triglycerides, increase HDL
                          • Pravastatin

                            Statin/Lipid lowering agent

                            • High cholesterol
                            • Competitively inhibits HMGCoAreductase > blocks the rate limiting step in cholesterol synthesis
                            • Decrease LDL and triglycerides, increase HDL
                            • Simvastatin

                              Statin/Lipid lowering agent

                              • High cholesterol
                              • Competitively inhibits HMGCoAreductase > blocks the rate limiting step in cholesterol synthesis
                              • Decrease LDL and triglycerides, increase HDL
                              • Atorvastatin

                                Statin/Lipid lowering agent

                                • High cholesterol
                                • Competitively inhibits HMGCoAreductase > blocks the rate limiting step in cholesterol synthesis
                                • Decrease LDL and triglycerides, increase HDL
                                • Rosuvastatin

                                  Statin/Lipid lowering agent

                                  • High cholesterol
                                  • Competitively inhibits HMGCoAreductase > blocks the rate limiting step in cholesterol synthesis
                                  • Decrease LDL and triglycerides, increase HDL
                                  • Niacin (Vitamin B3)

                                    Lipid lowering agent

                                    • High cholesterol
                                    • Inhibits lipolysis in adopose tissue
                                    • Reduces hepatic VLDL synthesis
                                    • Decreases LDL, increases HDL, decreases triglycerides
                                    • Cholestyramine

                                      Bile Acid Resin/Lipid lowering agent

                                      • High cholesterol
                                      • Prevent intestil reabsorption of bile acids > liver must use cholesterol to make more
                                      • Decreases LDL, slightly increases HDL and triglycerides
                                      • Colestipol

                                        Bile Acid Resin/Lipid lowering agent

                                        • High cholesterol
                                        • Prevent intestil reabsorption of bile acids > liver must use cholesterol to make more
                                        • Decreases LDL, slightly increases HDL and triglycerides
                                        • Colesevelam

                                          Bile Acid Resin/Lipid lowering agent

                                          • High cholesterol
                                          • Prevent intestil reabsorption of bile acids > liver must use cholesterol to make more
                                          • Decreases LDL, slightly increases HDL and triglycerides
                                          • Ezetimibe

                                            Cholesterol absorption blocker/Lipid lowering agent

                                            • High cholesterol
                                            • Prevents cholesterol absorption at small intestine brush border
                                            • Decreases LDL
                                            • Gemfibrozil

                                              Fibrates/Lipid lowering agent

                                              • Fibrate (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                            • High cholesterol
                                            • Upregulate lipoprotein lipase > increase triglyceride clearance
                                            • Activates PPARalpha to induce HDL synthesis
                                            • Clofibrate

                                              Fibrates/Lipid lowering agent

                                              • Fibrate (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                            • High cholesterol
                                            • Upregulate lipoprotein lipase > increase triglyceride clearance
                                            • Activates PPARalpha to induce HDL synthesis
                                            • Bezafibrate

                                              Fibrates/Lipid lowering agent

                                              • Fibrate (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                            • High cholesterol
                                            • Upregulate lipoprotein lipase > increase triglyceride clearance
                                            • Activates PPARalpha to induce HDL synthesis
                                            • Fenofibrate

                                              Fibrates/Lipid lowering agent

                                              • Fibrate (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                            • High cholesterol
                                            • Upregulate lipoprotein lipase > increase triglyceride clearance
                                            • Activates PPARalpha to induce HDL synthesis
                                            • Digoxin

                                              Cardiac glycoside

                                              • CHF, atrial fibrillation
                                              • Direct inhibition of +/K+ ATPase > leads to indirect inhibition of + / Ca2+ exchanger > increases intracellular calcium concentration > increases contractility
                                              • Stimulates vagus nerve to decrease conduction at AV node and depress SA node > decrease heart rate
                                              • Quinidine

                                                Class IA antiarrhythmic Na Channel Blocker

                                                • Atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, reentrant and ectopic SVT and VT
                                                • Increase action potential duration, increase effective refractory period, increase QT interval
                                                • Procaimide

                                                  Class IA antiarrhythmic Na Channel Blocker

                                                  • Atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, reentrant and ectopic SVT and VT
                                                  • Increase action potential duration, increase effective refractory period, increase QT interval
                                                  • Disopyramide

                                                    Class IA antiarrhythmic Na Channel Blocker

                                                    • Atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, reentrant and ectopic SVT and VT
                                                    • Increase action potential duration, increase effective refractory period, increase QT interval
                                                    • Lidocaine

                                                      Class IB antiarrhythmic Na Channel blocker

                                                      • Acute ventricular arryhthmias (especially postMI), digitalis induced arrhythmias
                                                      • Decrease action potential duration
                                                      • Preferentially affect ischemic or depolarized purkinje and ventricular tissue
                                                      • Mexiletine

                                                        Class IB antiarrhythmic Na Channel blocker

                                                        • Acute ventricular arryhthmias (especially postMI), digitalis induced arrhythmias
                                                        • Decrease action potential duration
                                                        • Preferentially affect ischemic or depolarized purkinje and ventricular tissue
                                                        • Flecanide

                                                          Class IC antiarrhythmic Na Channel Blocker

                                                          • SVTs (including atrial fibrillation)
                                                          • Significantly prolongs refractory period in AV node
                                                          • Minimal effect on action potential duration
                                                          • Propafenone

                                                            Class IC antiarrhythmic Na Channel Blocker

                                                            • SVTs (including atrial fibrillation)
                                                            • Significantly prolongs refractory period in AV node
                                                            • Minimal effect on action potential duration
                                                            • Metoprolol

                                                              Class II antiarrhythmic Beta Blocker

                                                              • Olol (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                            • SVT, slows ventricular rate during atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter
                                                            • Decreases SA and AV nodal activity by decreasing cAMP and calcium currents
                                                            • Suppresses abnormal pacemakers by decreasing the rate of depolariztion

                                                            • Mnemonics
                                                              The BP beta B.E.A.M.
                                                              The Beta 1 Selective Beta Blockers (located on the heart) that, as a result, slow the heart rate by blocking stimulation of the beta receptor
                                                              Betaxolol Esmolol Atenolol Metoprolol
                                                              Propranolol

                                                              Class II antiarrhythmic Beta Blocker

                                                              • Olol (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                            • SVT, slows ventricular rate during atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter
                                                            • Decreases SA and AV nodal activity by decreasing cAMP and calcium currents
                                                            • Suppresses abnormal pacemakers by decreasing the rate of depolariztion
                                                            • Esmolol

                                                              Class II antiarrhythmic Beta Blocker

                                                              • Olol (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                            • SVT, slows ventricular rate during atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter
                                                            • Decreases SA and AV nodal activity by decreasing cAMP and calcium currents
                                                            • Suppresses abnormal pacemakers by decreasing the rate of depolariztion

                                                            • Mnemonics
                                                              The BP beta B.E.A.M.
                                                              The Beta 1 Selective Beta Blockers (located on the heart) that, as a result, slow the heart rate by blocking stimulation of the beta receptor
                                                              Betaxolol Esmolol Atenolol Metoprolol
                                                              Atenolol

                                                              Class II antiarrhythmic Beta Blocker

                                                              • Olol (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                            • SVT, slows ventricular rate during atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter

                                                            • Mnemonics
                                                              The BP beta B.E.A.M.
                                                              The Beta 1 Selective Beta Blockers (located on the heart) that, as a result, slow the heart rate by blocking stimulation of the beta receptor
                                                              Betaxolol Esmolol Atenolol Metoprolol
                                                              Timolol

                                                              Class II antiarrhythmic Beta Blocker

                                                              • Olol (English) - Medication Naming Convention
                                                            • SVT, slows ventricular rate during atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter
                                                            • Amiodarone

                                                              Class III antiarrhythmic K Channel Blockers

                                                              • Used when other antiarrhthymics fail
                                                              • K channel blocker. Increases AP duration, Increase effective refractory period, Increase QT interval.
                                                              • Ibutilide

                                                                Class III antiarrhythmic K Channel Blockers

                                                                • Used when other antiarrhthymics fail
                                                                • K channel blocker. Increases AP duration, Increase effective refractory period, Increase QT interval.
                                                                • Dofetilide

                                                                  Class III antiarrhythmic K Channel Blockers

                                                                  • Used when other antiarrhthymics fail
                                                                  • K channel blocker. Increases AP duration, Increase effective refractory period, Increase QT interval.
                                                                  • Sotalol

                                                                    Class III antiarrhythmic K Channel Blockers

                                                                    • Used when other antiarrhthymics fail
                                                                    • K channel blocker. Increases AP duration, Increase effective refractory period, Increase QT interval.
                                                                    • Adenosine

                                                                      Antiarrhythmic

                                                                      • DOC in diagnosing/abolishing supraventricular tachycardia.
                                                                      • Very short acting drug that increase the K+ flow out of the cell, thus hyperpolarizing the cell and decreasing the flow of Ca2+ ions.
                                                                      • Mg2+

                                                                        Antiarrhythmic

                                                                        • Effective in torsades de pointes and digoxin toxicity.
                                                                        • MEDYMOLOGY