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BONES
80 terms share this category
Atlas

The most superior (first) cervical vertebra of the spine med for the Greek Titan "Atlas" who held the world on his shoulders.

  • Atlas (Greek) - The Titan known for holding up Earth
  • Atlas is the topmost vertebra and with the axis forms the joint connecting the skull and spine. The atlas and axis are specialized to allow a greater range of motion than normal vertebrae. They are responsible for the nodding and rotation movements of the head
  • The atlas is the first cervical vertebrae atop which rests the skull. The bone is appropriately named after the Greek Titan who held the world on his shoulders, much the way this bone holds the skull.
  • Axis

    The second cervical vertebra which forms the "pivot" upon which the first cervical vertebra rotates.

    • Axis (Latin) - Axle, Pivot
  • This bone has a odontoid process known as the dens which rises perpendicularly from the upper surface of the body. Sometimes in hangings the odontoid process may break and hit the medulla oblongata, causing death.
  • Calcaneus

    The bone of the heel once taken from animals to be used as "chalk".

    • Calx (Greek) - Chalk, limestone
  • Functions as an insert point for the gastrocnemius, soleus and plantaris muscles.
  • Capitate bone

    Largest "bone" in the wrist whose proximal end forms a smooth, round "head"like surface

    • Caput (Latin) - Head
    • Ban (Old English) - Bone, tusk
  • It is located lateral to the hamate and medial to the trapezoid

  • Mnemonics
    So Long To Pinky, Here Comes The Thumb
    The bones of the wrist
    Scaphoid, Lunate, Triqutrim, Pisiform, Hamate, Capitate, Trapezoid, Trapezium
    Carpus

    Group of bones in the "wrist" that connect the forearm to the hand

    Cervical vertebrae

    Small "joints" of the spine in the "neck" region.

    • Cervix (Latin) - The Neck, pe of the Neck
    • Vertere (Latin) - To turn, joint or articulation of the body
  • C1 through C7, inferior to the skull, foramen in transverse process
  • Smallest of the true vertebrae immediately inferior to the skull, distinguished from the other vertebrae by the presence of a foramen in each transverse process, through which the vertebral artery passes, and its comparatively mobile nature.
  • Nodding, shaking, and rotating of the head takes places at the atlantooccipital joint between the atlas and the occipital bone

  • Mnemonics
    Breakfast at 7:00, Lunch at 12:00 Dinner at 5:00
    The number of vertebrae in each spinal section
    Cervicle Spine has 7, Thoracic has 12, and lumbar has 5
    Chest

    A region of the body between the neck and the stomach that functions as a "box" in containing organs such as the heart and lungs.

    • Kiste (Greek) - Chest, box
  • Thorax, ribcage, heart, lungs, thymus
  • Injury to the chest (aka chest trauma or thoracic trauma) results in 1/4 of deaths due to trauma in the USA.
  • Clavicle

    A bone whose shape is reminiscent of a "little key" which connecting the scapula to the sternum

  • Aka collarbone,
  • This is the only long bone that lies horizontally. It is called little key in Latin because the bone rotates along its axis like a key when the shoulder is abducted (lifted). May also be med after the Latin "clavicula" after a vinetendril due to its winding course
  • Coccygeal Vertebrae

    The spine termites with 35 fused vertebrae in the shape of a "cuckoo bird's beak."

    • Coccyx (Greek) - Cuckoo, Resembling the beak of the Cuckoo Bird
    • Vertere (Latin) - To turn, joint or articulation of the body
  • Aka coccyx
  • Aka tailbone
  • 35 fused bones
  • The Greek me for cuckoo was given to the last 35 bones of the coccyx because it resembled the cuckoo's beak when viewed from the side. A 16th/17th century French atomist gave a funny explantation of the etymology by stating because the sound of the farts that leave the anus and dash against this bone, shows a likeness to the call of the cuckoo.
  • Condyle

    In anatomy, the round "knuckle" appearing structures at the end of long bones.

  • The ends of lone bones that form the articulation of a joint
  • Seen in many long bones including the tibia, femur and humerus
  • The condyle is a component of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). It fits into the articular fossa (aka. mandibular fossa, glenoid fossa) of the temporal bone.
  • Corynebacterium diphtheriae

    "Club"shaped "small stuff" whose pathology includes the formation of a "leather"like pseudomembrane in the throat.

  • Exotoxin inhibits protein synthesis via ADPribosylation, causes pseudomembranous pharyngitis, lymphadenopathy, myocarditis, and arrhythmias. Use the Elek test for toxin.
  • Cranial

    The bones of the "head".

  • Skull, frontal, occipital, occipital, parietal
  • The bones of the skull, particularly the part of the cranium that encloses the brain.
  • Cuboid bone

    A bone in the ankle joint med for its "cube" shape.

    • Kubos (Latin) - Cube
    • Ban (Old English) - Bone, tusk
  • Tarsal bone, cuboid syndrome
  • One of the seven tarsal bones of the foot, articulates with several other tarsal bones and has two muscles the flexor hallucis brevis and the tibialis posterior
  • Can be dislocated downward causing swelling along the central part of the lateral border of the foot
  • Cuneiform

    A set of 3 "wedgeshaped" bones in the foot.

    • Cuneus (Latin) - Wedge, WedShaped Stone, Area
  • Tarsal bone
  • Three bones ( medial, intermediate, and lateral) located medial to the cuboid bone and articulate with the navicular posteriorly and the first three metatarsal bones anteriorly.
  • Dissociative identity disorder

    A "difference" from the "normal" brain in which a person's mind becomes broken "apart" into multiple "companions" within the "same" person.

    • Dis (Latin) - Not, In a Different Direction, Between
    • Socius (Latin) - Companion, ally
    • Idem (Latin) - Same
    • Dis (Latin) - Not, In a Different Direction, Between
    • Ordinare (Latin) - Ordain, regular
  • Commonly referred to as multiple personality disorder because of the at least two distinct identities that can determine a person's behavior
  • It is accompanied by memory impairment not explained by ordinary forgetfulness.
  • Dissociative identity disorder is formerly known as multiple personality disorder!
  • Epicondyle

    In anatomy, the round "knuckle" appearing structures at the end of long bones.

    • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
    • Kondulos (Greek) - Knuckle, knob
  • Specifically references the medial and lateral condyles of the humerus and femur
  • The articular surface of these 2 long bones
  • Estrone

    Female sex steroid hormone produced "uniquely" by fat tissue leading to "frenzied " individuals.

    • Oestrus (Latin) - Frenzy
    • One (Greek) - Unique
    • One (English) - Medication Naming Convention
  • Weaker than estradiol
  • Abbreviated as E1
  • Femoral nerve

    Lower extremity nerve "cord" from L2L4 in the "thigh."

    • Femur (Latin) - Thigh, but applide to the one of the upper leg
    • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
  • Motor lesion presents as impaired thigh flexion and impaired leg extension
  • Sensation over the anterior and medial aspects of the thigh, medial shin, and arch of the foot
  • Fibrosis

    "Condition" of excessive deposition of "fibrous" connective tissue.

    • Fibra (Latin) - A fiber, filament, entrail
    • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
  • Pulmonary fibrosis
  • Cirrhosis
  • Often a response to injury
  • Francisella Tularensis

    Gramnegative zoonotic bacillus

  • Facultative intracellular
  • Cause of tularemia
  • Transmitted by ticks, deer fly, and rabbits
  • The genus was Named in honor of American bacteriologist Edward Francis
  • Gastrula

    The phase of embryogenesis in which there is an invagition of the cell ball giving it a "stomach" and producing the three different germ layers.

    • Gaster (Greek) - Stomach, belly, eater, devourer
    • Ula (Latin) - Little
  • Composed of the three germ layers: endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm
  • Genu valgum

    A condition in which the "knees" are "bent inwards".

  • May be caused by rickets, a Vitamin D deficiency in kids
  • Normal in children between ages 4 and 8
  • Also referred to as 'knock knees'
  • Remembered by thinking the knees are inward as if stuck by "gum"
  • Hamartoma

    Benign "tumor" that consists of cells or tissue that are normally found in that "bodily" location.

    • Hamartion (Greek) - A bodily defect
    • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
  • Associated with tuberous sclerosis and PeutzJeghers syndrome
  • Howelljolly body

    Small basophilic nuclear remnants found in RBCs that are normally removed by macrophages in the spleen

    • Bodig (Old English) - Trunk, chest
  • Commonly seen in asplenic and hyposplenic patients
  • Associated with mothball ingestion
  • Hyoid artery

    Small "ushaped" "pipe" that transports blood in the neck

    • Hyoides (Greek) - Shaped like the letter u
    • Arteria (Greek) - Windpipe, artery
  • Derived from second branchial arch
  • Branch of the superior thyroid artery
  • Runs along the lower border of the hyoid bone beneath the thyrohyoid muscle
  • Iliacus

    A flat, triangular muscle attached to the "hip bone"

    • Ilia (Latin) - Flanks, entrails, referring to the hip bone
  • Fills the iliac fossa and joins the psoas major muscle to form the iliopsoas
  • Inactive vaccine

    A type of vaccine in which the microbe is killed with chemicals, heat or radiation.

    • Examples include Salk polio vaccine, Influenza, Rabies, Hepatitis A
    • Elicit a weaker immune response as compared to live attenuated vaccines
    • Inferior mesenteric plexus

      A "network" of nerves located "under" the "middle" area of the "intestines".

      • Inferus (Latin) - Lower Down, Below
      • Mesos (Greek) - Middle, in the middle, in between
      • Enteron (Greek) - Intestine, Small intestint, Piece of Gut, Bowel
      • Plexus (Latin) - Braid, network
    • A network of nerves derived from the aortic plexus and divides into secondary plexuses that are distributed to various parts of the colon
    • Interlobar artery

      Arteries that arise from the renal artery and ascends "between" renal lobes from the pelvis across the medulla toward the cortex.

      • Inter (Latin) - Among, between, betwixt, in the midst of
      • Lobus (Latin) - Hull, husk, pod, small lobe
      • Arteria (Greek) - Windpipe, artery
      Intermediate cuneiform bone

      A tarsal bone that is shaped like a "wedge".

      • Inter (Latin) - Among, between, betwixt, in the midst of
      • Medius (Latin) - In the middle
      • Cuneus (Latin) - Wedge, WedShaped Stone, Area
      • Ban (Old English) - Bone, tusk
    • This particular bone articulates with the medial cuneiform, lateral cuneiform, navicular, and second metatarsal bones.
    • Also called "middle" cuneiform bone because it is located between the other 2 cuneiform bones.
    • Ischemic heart disease

      The disease is caused by plaque building up along the inner walls of the coronary arteries of the heart, which arrows the arteries and "holds back" "blood" flow to the heart resulting in necrosis of the cardiac epithelium.

      • Iskhein (Greek) - Keep back, to hold
      • Haima (Greek) - Blood
      • Heorte (Old English) - Heart, breast, soul, spirit, will, courage
      • Desaise (Old French) - Lack of Ease
    • This is the most common type of "heart" disease and cause of heart attacks
    • Greater than 90% stenosis will result in transmural (full wall) necrosis
    • Labioscrotal swelling

      These are paired structures in the human embryo that represent the fil stage of development of the caudal end of the external genitals before sexual differentiation. In males, they develop into the "scrotum" and in females, they develop into the "labia" majora.

      Lateral cricoarytenoid

      This muscle extend from the lateral cricoid cartilage to the muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage. The muscle is shaped like a "ring" and works in the area of the "windpipe."

      • Latus (Latin) - The side
      • Krikos (Greek) - Ring, circle
      • Arteria (Greek) - Windpipe, artery
      • Eidos (Greek) - Form, Resemblance or Shape, Likeness
    • These muscles adduct the vocal cords and thereby close the rima glottidis, protecting the airway.
    • Lumbar splanchnic nerves

      "Cords" extending from the "loin" to the "internal organs."

      • Lumbus (Latin) - The loin
      • Splanchnon (Greek) - Viscera or interl organs
      • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
      Lumbricals of hand

      The "worm" like muscles of the hand.

      Malingering

      An "improper" or false "weakness".

      • Mala (Latin) - Bad, Wrongly, improperly
      • Haingre (French) - Weak
    • Fabrication of the symptoms of a mental or physical disorder for secondary gain
    • Motives may include financial compensation, avoiding undesired tasks or responsibilities, or obtaining drugs
    • An example is drugseeking behavior
    • Mammillary bodies

      A pair of small "breastshaped" "bodies" in the brain involved in the limbic system.

    • Damaged in WernickeKorsakoff syndrome, which is seen in alcoholics
    • Associated with thiamine deficiency
    • Mature cystic teratoma

      "Monstrous" ovarian "bladdershaped" "mass" composed of cell types derived from at least two different germ layers.

      • Kustis (Greek) - Bladder, atomical pouch or sac
      • Terato (Greek) - Marvel, monster
      • Oma (Greek) - Morbid growth, mass, tumor
    • Most common ovarian neoplasm
    • Medial cord

      A "cord" towards the "middle" of the brachial plexus.

      • Medius (Latin) - In the middle
      • Khorde (Greek) - Gut, string of a musical instrument
    • From the lower trunk
    • Gives rise to the medial pectoral nerve, medial branchial cutaneous nerve, medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve, median nerve, and ulnar nerve
    • Menarche

      The time at which a woman begins to get her period at the "beginning" of the "month".

      • Men (Greek) - Month
      • Arkhe (Latin) - Beginning, first of
    • Generally used in the sense of a woman's first period
    • Irregularities or absence can imply a hormonal or genetic condition. For example, Turner Syndrome (XO) causes children to undergo menopause before menarche.
    • Metabolism

      Function of "changing" energy in the body.

    • Involves consuming and producing energy
    • Metacarpal

      The bones of the hand "beyond" the "wrist".

      • Meta (English) - Beyond, in the midst of
      • Karpos (Latin) - Wrist
      Metastasis

      Characteristic process of tumors in which they move "beyond" where they have "stood or stopped" and continue to invade other tissues

      • Meta (English) - Beyond, in the midst of
      • Histanai (Greek) - To place, cause to stand, to stop
    • Lung/breast cancers frequently metastasize to CNS
    • Colon metastasizes to Liver
    • Prostate and breast cancer frequently metastasizes to bone
    • Natural killer cell

      "natural" "cell" used to "kill" pathogens.

      • Naturalis (Latin) - By birth, according to ture
      • Cwellan (Old English) - To Kill
      • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Some viruses will down regulate MHC1 to avoid immune detection, NK cells defend the body by finding and destroying these infected cells
    • Obturator nerve

      The nerve, "cord," arising from L2L4 that supplies the medial aspect of the thigh and leg. Its initial course is "obstructed" by the psoas muscle.

      • Obturare (Latin) - To stop up, obstructor
      • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
    • Innervates external obturator, gracilis, adductor longus/brevis
    • Obturator nerve block
    • Oxytocin

      Hormone, whose levels increase during and after "childbirth." It is responsible for "sharp" contractions during labor and mammary gland milk letdown.

      • Oxys (Greek) - Sharp
      • Tokos (Greek) - Childbirth
    • Oxytocin analogs are used to induce labor
    • Produced by the hypothalamus and secreted by the posterior pituitary
    • Means swift birth
    • Parietal

      Relating to the "wall" of a hollow body cavity

      Patch

      A condition where "a portion" of the skin is abnormal

      • Piece (Old French) - A portion of
    • A patch describes lesions which are circumscribed, flat, and greater than 5mm in diameter
    • Macule greater than 1 cm
    • Compare to macules, which are circumscribed, flat, and 5mm or smaller in diameter
    • Pelvic splanchnic nerves

      Parasympathetic "nerves" that innervate "organs" in the "pelvis."

    • Parasympathetic nerves arising from S2S4 that join sacral plexus
    • Innervation of hindgut
    • Regulation of urinary bladder and rectum
    • Responsible for maintaining erection
    • Phagosome

      A "body" formed within a cell after "eating" a molecule or another cell.

    • An intracellular body formed after phagocytosis of something external to the phagocyte.
    • Usually combines with lysosomes for destruction and/or processing
    • Impaired phagolysosome formation in ChediakHigashi syndrome.
    • Piriformis

      A muscle in the gluteal region in the shape/"form" of a "pear."

    • Involved in the lateral rotation of the hip
    • Can cause sciatica by irritating sciatic nerve
    • Piriformis literally means pear shaped.
    • Proximal convoluted tubule

      The "nearest" "intertwined" "pipe" of the functional unit of the kidney.

    • First segment of the nephron that includes Bowman's capsule
    • Location where many solutes, including glucose, are reabsorbed
    • Rel Cell Carcinoma, Acute Tubular Necrosis
    • Puberty

      The time at which an individual becomes "ripe" or "adult".

      • Puber (Latin) - Ripe, adult, time of maturity
    • Occurs in girls before boys
    • The development of a child into reproductively functional adults characterized by pubic hair, development of breasts and menstrual cycle in women, and with penis thickening and lengthening in men
    • Radial nerve

      Nerve that runs along the radius bone

      • Radius (Latin) - Staff, spoke, ray
      • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
    • Supplies triceps, posterior forearm muscles, and cutaneous sensation of the dorsum of the hand
    • Branches off the posterior cord of brachial plexus
    • Saturday night palsy is a radial nerve injury that can result in wrist drop
    • Midshaft humeral fractures can damage the radial nerve
    • Rectal tenesmus

      The feeling of "tension" within the "straight" part of the colon that feels like the person needs to pass stool.

      • Rectus (Latin) - Straight
      • Tenein (Greek) - To stretch, strain
    • Rectal tenesmus is associated with many conditions, included inflammatory bowel diseases, diverticular disease, colorectal cancer, prolapsed hemorrhoids, kidney stones, ischemic colitis, celiac disease as well as some infections (cytomegalovirus, amebiasis, shigellosis)
    • Rhinorrhea

      A "flowing" or running "nose".

    • Rhinorrhea occurs when the amount of mucus production exceeds its processing in the sal cavity, causing blocked air flow (sal stuffiness)
    • Mucus can build up in the eustachian tube, leading to an ear infection, or in the sinus cavities which may result in sinusitis
    • Causes of rhinorrhea include cold temperature, the common cold, infection, allergies, lacrimation, cystic fibrosis, cocaine abuse, withdrawal from opioids.
    • Sacral plexus

      A "network" of nerves near the sacrum or "sacred bone" at the base of the spine, that provides motor and sensory innervation to the leg

    • The lower level equivalent of the brachial plexus for the lower extremities of the body
    • Scalenus posterior

      A "triangular" muscle with "unequal sides" that comes "behind" the rest of the body

      • Scalenus (Latin) - Having three unequal sides, shell pod, husk
      • Post (Latin) - Behind, afterward
    • Vertebral muscle that arises from the lower three cervical vertebrae and inserts to second rib.
    • Thoracic outlet Syndrome
    • Derived from skalenos meaning uneven as in uneven sides of a scalene triangle and the borders of the set of scalene muscles
    • Scaphoid bone

      A "boatshaped" "bone" in the wrist

    • The largest carpal bone of the wrist that is the major attachment to the radius. Primary blood supply is from the radial artery.
    • Scaphoid fracture results in avascular necrosis
    • Scaphoid palpated at the base of atomical snuffbox
    • Fall from outstretched hand
    • Early text referred to it as the navicular bone of the wrist.

    • Mnemonics
      So Long To Pinky, Here Comes The Thumb
      The bones of the wrist
      Scaphoid, Lunate, Triqutrim, Pisiform, Hamate, Capitate, Trapezoid, Trapezium
      Serum sickness

      An "illness" caused by a hypersensitivity reaction in the "watery" component of blood

      • Serum (Latin) - Watery fluid, whey
      • Seoc (Old English) - Affected by illness
    • Type III hypersensitivity that occurs a few days after exposure to an antiserum, antitoxins, or drugs
    • Symptoms of serum sickness can include rash, pruritus, arthralgia, lymphadenopathy, fever and malaise.
    • Spermatogonia

      The male germ cell or "seed"producing cell that maintains and produces spermatocytes, or "sperm" cells. They are found lining the seminiferous tubules.

      • Sperma (Latin) - Seed, sperma
      • Gonos (Greek) - Offspring, seed, birth
    • Male germ cell
    • Create spermatocytes
    • Stapedius

      A muscle attached to the "stirrupshaped bone in the middle ear"

    • A muscle that protects the inner ear by stabilizing the stapes bone and prevent overvibration of the stapes bone
    • Innervated by cranial nerve 7. Damage can cause hyperacusis
    • Mainly protects inner ear from one's own voice
    • Steatorrhea

      A "fatty" "flow" or stool.

    • Steatorrhea can be caused by lack of bile acids (due to liver disease, cholecystectomy, hyperlipidemia drugs), defective pancreatic enzymes (due to pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, etc.), defective mucosal cells as well as certain medicines that block fat absorption (Orlistat)
    • Sternothyroid

      Muscle that connects the "breast" to the "oblongshield"shaped thyroid cartilage

    • Muscle that connects the manubrium and thyroid cartilage and acts to depress the thyroid cartilage.
    • Takayasu arteritis

      "Inflammation" of large "arteries", mainly the aorta and its branches.

      • Arteria (Greek) - Windpipe, artery
      • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
    • Commonly associated with Rayud's phenomenon
    • Pulseless disease
    • Large vessel vasculitis with intimal fibrosis
    • Affects the aorta and associated branches
    • It was med after Dr. Mikito Takayasu.
    • Target cell

      Abnormal red blood "cells" that have a "shield" or bulls eye like appearance.

      • Targa (Olde English) - Light shield
      • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
    • Associated with a higher than normal membrane: cytoplasm ratio
    • Iron deficiency anemia
    • Temporal arteritis

      "Inflammation" of large "arteries", commonly including the "temporal" artery and others nearby.

      • Temporalis (Latin) - Of a time, but for a time, pertaining to the temples.
      • Arteria (Greek) - Windpipe, artery
      • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
    • Also known as giant cell arteritis
    • Commonly involves the ophthalmic artery and can lead to blindness
    • Diagnosed via palpation of the temporal arteries and/or biopsy of vessel
    • It is med giant cell arteritis because these were the cells described on biopsy of involved inflammatory cells. It is also called temporal arteritis because the temporal artery is commonly involved.
    • Thoracic splanchnic nerves

      Group of "nerves" that arise from the sympathetic trunk in the "chest" and provide sympathetic innervation to the abdominal "visceral organs".

      • Thorax (Greek) - Chest, breastplate
      • Splanchnon (Greek) - Viscera or interl organs
      • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
    • In general, the greater splanchnic nerves (T5T9) innervate the foregut while the lesser splanchnic nerves (T9T12) innervate the midgut, and the least splanchnic nerves (T12L2) innervate the renal ganglia.
    • Thoracodorsal nerve

      "Nerve" (C6C8) that arises from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus and innervates the latissimus dorsi muscle in the "back" of the "chest".

      • Thorax (Greek) - Chest, breastplate
      • Dorsum (Latin) - Back
      • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
    • The thoracodorsal nerve innervates the latissimus dorsi, a muscle of the back that extends, adducts, and internally rotates the arm.
    • Thyrotoxicosis

      A "condition" of elevated hormones produced by the "oblong shield" shaped gland, T3 and T4 "poisoning" the body.

      • Thureos (Greek) - Oblong shield
      • Toxikon (Greek) - Poison
      • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
    • Graves disease, toxic multi or uni nodular goiter, and thyroiditis is the most common cause of thyrotoxicosis
    • Transtentorial herniation

      A "rupture" of the brain "across" the "tent"like structure that separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum.

    • Increased intracranial pressure squeezes parts of the cerebral hemispheres "beyond" the tentorium cerebelli which can lead to "ruptures" and stretching like setting up a "tent."
    • Can result in Duret hemorrhages
    • Uncal herniation is a subtype of transtentorial herniation
    • Descending transtentorial herniations are more common than ascending transtentorial herniation
    • Often presents with mydriasis on the affected side due to compression of CN3
    • Trapezium

      The "four" sided "formed" "bone" of the wrist.

    • Bone of the distal row of wrist bones, adjacent to the 1st metacarpal or the thumb
    • Forms the radial border of the carpel tunnel
    • Important in thumb movement
    • Med for its structure as having 4 sides

    • Mnemonics
      So Long To Pinky, Here Comes The Thumb
      The bones of the wrist
      Scaphoid, Lunate, Triqutrim, Pisiform, Hamate, Capitate, Trapezoid, Trapezium
      Trigone

      A "triangular" region of the bladder composed of the two ureteral orifices and the opening to the urethra.

    • Lined by urothelium
    • French doctor Alfred François Donné (18011878) was the first to describe this protozoan. He also discovered leukemia and invented the photoelectric microscope.
    • Tzanck Smear

      Med for Arult Tzanck. Used to find Tzanck cells, which are multinucleated giant cells.

      • Schmieren (German) - Smear, a mark or stain left by spreading
    • Positive Tzanck cells are found in herpes simplex, CMV, and varicella.
    • Med after Arult Tzanck
    • Zoster

      Forms dermatomal distribution, or "belt" like lesion seen in Shingles.

    • Pain in a dermatomal distribution
    • Reactivation of HSV3 residing within perivertebral ganglion
    • Med for the belt like distribution of the vesicles upon eruption of a reactivated latent HSV infection
    • Kyphosis

      ANything for now

    • Sdfgdsg
    • Sdgsdg

    • Sample Question
      Sdg
      Sdg
      Test1

      Test2

    • Teset3
    • Test3
    • Osteopenia

      The condition of having low bone density, but not low enough to be considered osteoporosis.

      • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
      • Penia (Latin) - Deficiency, a lack
    • OsteoPenia = deficiency of bone, versus osteoPorosis = porous bone
    • Appositional growth

      The growth of successive layers that are "put near" to each other

    • Most notably in bone, as a part of endochondral ossification of long bones. Here, it is seen widening the diameter of the diaphysis by putting bone beneath ("near") the outer periosteal layer.
    • Choana

      A "funnel"-shaped opening towards the back of the nasal cavity

    • - AKA posterior naris, posterior nasal aperature, or internal nostril - Opening in the back of the nasal passage between the nasal cavity and the throat - There's a left and right, plural is choanae
    • MEDYMOLOGY