Term Successfully Added to Selected Deck
Unable to Add the term to selected Deck. Please try again later!
BIOCHEMISTRY
118 terms share this category
Adenosine deaminase

Enzyme that converts adenosine to inosine during purine metabolism

  • Adenosine (English) - Blend of Adenine and Ribose
  • De (Latin) - Away, Off, Down
  • Amine (English) - Compound in which one of the hydrogens of ammonia is replaced by a hydrocarbon radical
  • Adenosine deaminase deficiency is a major cause of severe combined immunodeficiency
  • Cladribine is a treatment for hairy cell leukemia that inhibits adenosine deaminase
  • Albinism

    A condition in which a person is "white".

  • A congenital disorder characterized by a lack of pigment (melanin) in the skin, hair, and eyes causing the person to appear completely white.
  • Autosomal Recessive disease
  • A problem with the production of melanin
  • Defect in the enzyme Tyrosine
  • Many people affected by albinism are persecuted around the world. In Tanzania and Burundi, there has been a rise in albinorelated killings due to use of their body parts in potions created by witchdoctors.
  • Alkaptonuria

    An autosomal recessive condition that leads to increased urine levels of homogentisic acid.

    • Alkapton (Greek) - To gulp
    • Uria (Latin) - Of or pertaining to urine, the uriry system
  • The result of a defect in the homogentisate1,2,dioxygese which breaks down tyrosine
  • Chronically high levels homogentisic acid lead to accumulation in cartilage and bone leading to dark pigmentation on microscopic examination
  • A key finding is urine turning black when exposed to air.
  • It was discovered and described by Sir Archibald Edward Garrod in 1902
  • Alport syndrome

    A condition med for Cecil Alport, characterized by inflammatory kidney.

    • Syn (Greek) - With, together
    • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
  • A defect in the protein collagen
  • Characterized by hearing loss due to a problem with the tiny bones of the ear
  • Leads to glomerulonephritis.
  • In 1927, Cecil Alport described 3 generations of a family with combustions of progressive hereditary nephritis and deafness
  • Anticipation

    Increased severity or earlier onset of disease "ahead of time" in succeeding generations.

  • Found in trinucleotide repeat diseases such as Huntington's Disease and Fragile X Syndrome.
  • Aphthous ulcer

    "Eruptive" "sores" within the mouth that appear white on examination.

  • Commonly referred to as Canker Sores
  • Thought to be caused by a T cell response
  • Can be associated with vitamin B12 deficiency
  • Apolipoprotein

    Proteins that bind "fat" soluble molecules to form compounds in order to transport fat through the lymph and circulatory system.

    • Apo (Greek) - From, away from
    • Lipos (Greek) - Fat
    • Proteios (Greek) - The first wuality
  • Apolipoproteins also serve as enzyme cofactors, receptor ligands, and lipid transfer carriers that regulate the metabolism of lipoproteins and their uptake in tissues
  • Areolar

    The "small empty space" around the nipple.

    • Areola (Latin) - Small empty space, garden
    • Areola (Latin) - Small open space
  • Referring to the pigmented area on the human breast around the nipple but can be used to describe other small circular areas around an inflamed area
  • Areolar changes are seen in Paget's disease of the breast
  • Ascorbic acid

    Literally med "scurvy" after the med of the disease caused by a deficiency in this vitamin.

  • Scurvy leads to "pig tail coiling" of the hair, bleeding gums with falling out teeth, and easy bruising.
  • Pirates used to take vitamin C to cure scurvy due to a lack of citrus fruits on long boat trips. The myth began from there that vitamin C could prevent you from getting sick.
  • Biotin

    Water soluble vitamin (B7) that was experimentally proven essential for the growth and "life" of yeast.

  • Acts as a coenzyme for carboxylation enzymes including pyruvate carboxylase (gluconeogenesis), acetyl CoA carboxylase (fatty acid synthesis), and propionyl CoA carboxylase
  • Excessive ingestion of raw eggs can lead to deficiency
  • Avidin in egg whites binds to biotin.
  • Carboxylase

    An "enzyme" that catalyzes transfer of a functional group containing one "carbon" and two "oxygen"

    • Carbo (English) - Carbon
    • Oxys (Greek) - Sharp
    • Ase (English) - Used to form the me of enzymes
  • It uses biotin as a cofactor
  • Carnitine

    Compound found in animal "flesh" that is necessary for long chain fatty acids metabolism

    • Caro (Latin) - Flesh, meat
  • It is synthesized from lysine and methionine
  • It aids in transport of LCFA into the mitochondria for their degradation
  • Carnitine deficiency leads to accumulation of long chain fatty acids into the mitochondria and presents with weakness, low ketone hypoglycemia and low muscle tone
  • Cholesterol

    A "solid," "stiff" substance produced by the body that functions to maintain cell structure and serves as a building block of "bile" and Vitamin D.

  • Cell membrane, fluidity, structural integrity, steroid hormones, bile acids, Vitamin D
  • Abnormal cholesterol levels (hypercholesterolemia), especially high LDL and low HDL, are associated with cardiovascular disease and the development of clots in the arteries.
  • Chromatin

    A dark "colored" complex of D and proteins in the nucleus of cells that allows the genetic material to be packaged to fit in a small space.

    • Khroma (Greek) - Color, complexion character
  • D, histones, control gene expression, control D replication, compact
  • Prevents D damage, and controls gene expression and D replication.
  • During interphase (longest phase of the cell cycle), the D is packaged loosely to allow for D replication and transcription. During mitosis or meiosis, the D condenses to facilitate segregation of chromosomes during anaphase.
  • Chylomicron

    "Small" particles that help transport fats broken down during digestion from the intestines to other parts of the body.

    • Chyle (English) - A milky fluid containing fat droplets
    • Mikros (Greek) - Small, little, petty, trivial, slight
  • Lipoprotein made of fats and proteins
  • , triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol, protein, transport dietary lipids
  • Chylomicrons move lipids to the liver, fat, heart, and muscle tissues.
  • Cilia

    Thin projections from a cell, reminiscent of "eyelashes," that are found in specialized organs in the body. They can move or beat in coordination or remain stationary.

    • Ciliaris (Latin) - Pertaining to Eyelashes, upper eyelid
  • Motile cilia are found in the lining of the trachea, where they sweep mucus and dirt out of the lungs. In females, the beating of cilia in the Fallopian tubes moves the ovum from the ovary to the uterus. Nonmotile cilia are found in rod photoreceptors in the eye and also in odorant receptors of the olfactory nerve. Genetic defects in cilia (ciliopathies) include primary ciliary dyskinesia, BardetBiedl syndrome, polycystic kidney and liver disease, nephronophthisis, and some ectopic pregnancies.
  • Motile cilia: found in the trachea (where they sweep mucus and dirt out of the lungs) and fallopian tubes (move the ovum from the ovary to the uterus)
  • Nonmotile cilia: all cells have one nonmotile cilia, however specialized nonmotile cilia can be found on the photoreceptor rod in the human eye and on the dendritic knob of the olfactory neuron.
  • Cobalamin

    An "organic compound" composed of "cobalt" that is essential for proper nuclear replication and nerve function.

    • Vitamin (English) - An organic compound required in minimal amounts to sustain life
    • Kobold (German) - Household goblin
  • Aka Vitamin B12, red blood cell production, nerve tissue, pernicious anemia, vegans, D synthesis and regulation
  • Fatty acid metabolism
  • Amino acid metabolism
  • Important for production of red blood cells and for normal brain and nerve function
  • Cobalamin is usually found in animal products such as fish, shellfish, meat (especially liver), poultry, eggs, milk, and milk products.
  • Collagen

    A protein whose "origin" and function is to act as the "glue" of the body, holding muscles, organs, etc. in place.

    • Kolla (Greek) - Glue
    • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
  • Connective tissue, skin, tendons, ligaments, cartilage, bone, blood vessels, IV discs, teeth, gut
  • The word collagen comes from Greek for producing glue because the compound was originally used in the process of boiling the skin and sinews (band of connective tissue connecting muscle to bones) of horses and other animals to obtain glue.
  • Cori's disease

    Deficiency of enzyme amylo 1,6 glucosidase (glycogen debranching enzyme). Leads to excess amounts of an abnormal glycogen deposited in the liver, muscles and heart. Autosomal recessive. Presents during infancy with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly. Treatment may involve high protein diet.

    • Glycogen storage disease type III, amylo 1,6 glucosidase (glycogen debranching enzyme) deficiency, AR
    • Criduchat syndrome

      A syndrome in which affected patients produce characteristic sounds resembling the "cry of a cat".

      • Criduchat (French) - Cry of the Cat
      • Syn (Greek) - With, together
      • Droma (Greek) - Running, A Course
    • Aka cat's cry syndrome, 5p syndrome, high pitched cat's cry, chromosomal deletion
    • A syndrome caused by the deletion of the end of the p (short) arm of chromosome 5 written as (5p). Features of this syndrome include a high pitched cry that sounds like that of a cat, intellectual disability, developmental delay, microcephaly, low birth weight, hypotonia and distinctive facial features including wide set eyes, lowset ears, a small jaw and a round face.
    • Cyclins

      A set of proteins that regulate the cell "cycle".

      • Cyclo (Greek) - Wheel, Circular
      • In (Unknown) - To carry off by evacuation
    • CDK, cell cycle regulation, Cyclin
    • A family of proteins that regulate the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells by activating cyclin depended kinase (CDK) enzymes.
    • Cystic fibrosis

      A genetic condition in which failure to secrete fluids results in "pouches" of fluid and layers of collage "fibers" behind epithelial surfaces.

      • Kustis (Greek) - Bladder, atomical pouch or sac
      • Fibra (Latin) - A fiber, filament, entrail
    • An autosomal recessive genetic disorder that is characterized by a defect in the protein cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) resulting in abnormal transport of chloride and sodium across an epithelium, leading to viscous secretions
    • Symptoms include recurrent sinus infections, poor growth, difficulty breathing, and infertility
    • Diagnosed by genetic testing or by a sweat test.
    • Cystinuria

      The accumulation of "cysteine" in "urine" due to a defect in this amino acid's reabsorption.

      • Kustis (Greek) - Bladder, atomical pouch or sac
      • Ouron (Greek) - Urine
    • Kidney stones
    • Autosomal recessive
    • Proximal convoluted tubule defect
    • An autosomal recessive disorder that prevents the proper reabsorption of cystine and other basic amino acids in the proximal convoluted tubule resulting in an excess of this AA in the urine. A frequent cause of persistent kidney stones.
    • Dehydrogenase

      An "enzyme" that "removes" a "water" molecule from a protein/molecule.

      • De (Latin) - Away, Off, Down
      • Hydro (Greek) - Water
      • Genos (Greek) - Birth
      • Ase (English) - Used to form the me of enzymes
    • Enzyme
    • Reduction reaction
    • Hydrides
    • D
    • DP
    • Electron acceptor
    • An enzyme that catalyzes reduction reactions resulting in one or more hydrides that are transferred to electron acceptor molecules (such as D and DP).
    • Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

      A set of 4 molecules with 1 "water" molecule removed from ribose "sugar," located within the "kernel," or nucleus of the cell.

      • De (Latin) - Away, Off, Down
      • Oxys (Greek) - Sharp
      • Ribonsaure (German) - Shortened, arbitrary alteration of English arabinose, a sugar fromed from gum arabic
      • Nucleus (Latin) - Kernel
      • Acidus (Latin) - Relating to acid
    • Double helix
    • ACTG
    • Phosphodiester bond
    • Nucleotides
    • The molecules that make up the genetic code. D consists of nucleotides held together by phosphodiester bonds in a double helix. Adenosine, thymidine, cytosine, and guanine are the nucleotides that make up D.
    • Digastric

      A small muscle located under the jaw made up of "two" "bellies".

      • Di (Greek) - Two, Double, Twice
      • Gaster (Greek) - Stomach, belly, eater, devourer
    • Lies below the body of the mandible and extends in a curved form from the mastoid process to the symphysis menti
    • Belongs to the suprahyoid muscles group
    • Responsible for elevation of the hyoid bone and if the hyoid is being held in place, it will depress the mandible.
    • DiGeorge syndrome

      A condition in which there is a "lack" of "formation" of the "thymus".

      • Chromosome 22
      • 22q11.2
      • CATCH22
      • Thymic Aplasia
      • "22q11.2 deletion syndrome. It is caused by a small deletion on the arm of chromosome 22, near the middle of the chromosome. Its common features are summarized by mnemonic CATCH22: C cardiac abnormality (tetralogy of Fallot) Aabnormal facies T thymic aplasia Ccleft palate Hhypocalcemia/hypoparathyroidism."
      • Dizygotic

        The development of two embryos by two sperm fusing with two different eggs. The embryos don't share a yolk sac (thus, "twice yolked").

        • Di (Greek) - Two, Double, Twice
        • Zygotos (Greek) - Yolked together, Joint
      • Egg
      • Sperm
      • Reproduction
      • Twin
      • DNA ligase

        An enzyme that "binds" two nucleotides with a phosphodiester bond.

      • Bond
      • Nucleotide
      • Enzyme
      • DNA polymerase

        Enzymes that assemble D (creating a "polymer" of D) by adding nucleotides on to a growing strand in the 5` to 3` direction.

      • Enzyme
      • Polymerase
      • D
      • Nucleotide
      • From the Greek "polumeros", having several parts. D polymerase was first discovered in 1956 within E. coli by Arthur Kornberg.
      • Dolor

        "Pain".

      • One of the main characteristics of inflammation, along with rubor (redness), calor (heat), tumor (swelling), and functio laesa (loss of function).
      • Dorsal scapular nerve

        A nerve that originates in the branchial plexus and innervates the rhomboid muscles (move the "scapula" towards the "spine") and levator scapulae muscle (elevates the "scapula").

        • Dorsum (Latin) - Back
        • Scapulae (Latin) - Shoulder blades
        • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
      • Nerve
      • Brachial plexus
      • Muscle
      • Scapula
      • Rhomboid
      • Spine
      • Eczema

        An autoimmune disease that causes red and itchy "boils" out "on" skin.

        • Ek (Greek) - Out
        • Zein (Greek) - Boil
      • Associated with asthma
      • Seen in kids on the extensor surfaces and in adults on the flexor surfaces of joints
      • Efficacy

        The maximum "power" a drug can have, regardless of dose.

        • Efficacia (Latin) - Efficient, Powerful, Effective
      • Emax
      • Maximum effect
      • Dosage
      • Distinguish from potency.
      • From the Latin "efficax", meaning powerful, effectual, efficient.
      • Elasticity

        Allows a vessel to be "ductile" or "flexible," which is a property of the molecule elastin.

        • Elastos (Greek) - Ductile, Flexible
      • Elastin
      • Stretch
      • Cardiology
      • Vessel
      • Enzyme

        Proteins found "within" cells that decrease or "leaven" the activation energy needed for a reaction.

        • En (Greek) - Within
        • Zume (Greek) - To leaven
        Epiglottitis

        Acute inflammation of the tissue "above" the windpipe and behind the "tongue."

        • Epi (English) - Above, Upon
        • Glossa (Greek) - Tongue
      • Commonly associated with H. influenza Type B
      • Commonly presents as enlarged cherryred epiglottis and arytenoids
      • Thumb print sign on lateral xray
      • George Washington may died of complications from epiglottitis in 1799.
      • Esophageal plexus

        "Network" of nerve fibers made of the parasympathetic vagus nerve and visceral branches of the sympathetic trunk in the "gullet."

        Ethmoidal nerves

        The nerve that innervates the cells of the "sieve" like bone of the skull.

        • Ethmos (Greek) - A Sieve
        • Eidos (Greek) - Form, Resemblance or Shape, Likeness
        • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
      • Branch from CN V1 that supplies sensation to ethmoidal cells and sal septum.
      • Euchromatin

        Loosely packed D that is "truly" transcribed. med for the "color is stains vs. heterochromatin.

        • Eu (Greek) - True, Good, Well
        • Khroma (Greek) - Color, complexion character
      • Transcribed to R
      • Exudative tonsilitis

        "Inflammation" and "sweating" "out" of substances from the of pharyngeal "goiters" or tonsils.

        • Ex (Latin) - Out of
        • Sudare (Latin) - To sweat
        • Tonsillae (Greek) - Tonsils, Goiter
        • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
      • Commonly caused by group A beta hemolytic strep, streptococcus pyogenes, and scarlet fever
      • Tonsillectomy described in first century AD by Celsus
      • Flexor pollicis longus

        "Long" hand muscle that "bends" the "thumb"

      • Innervated by the anterior interosseous nerve
      • Folate deficiency

        A condition of decreased nucleic acid synthesis because the body is 'deserted' of a vitamin derived from green 'leaves"

      • May cause neural tube defects in fetus
      • Commonly seen in alcoholics
      • Labs show an increased homocysteine and a normal methylmalonic acid
      • Decreased nucleic acid synthesis causing macrocytic, megaloblastic anemia, hypersegmented PMN's, and glossitis
      • Fossa ovalis

        An "eggshaped" "ditch" in the right atrium of the heart.

        • Fossa (Latin) - Ditch, trench, cal
        • Ovalis (Latin) - Eggshaped
      • Thin membrane that covers the foramen ovale during fetal development.
      • Frontalis

        Facial muscle responsible for wrinkling the "forehead".

      • Innervated by facial nerve (CN VII)
      • Upper motor lesion spares muscle due to bilateral input from cortex.
      • Gastrocnemius

        The muscle which forms the "belly" of the lower "leg" responsible for plantar flexion of the foot and flexion of the knee

        • Gaster (Greek) - Stomach, belly, eater, devourer
        • Kneme (Greek) - Leg
      • Innervated by tibial nerve
      • Common tendon with soleus muscle known as the calcaneal or Achilles tendon
      • This muscle got its me because of the bulging shape of the calf, making it resemble a bulging stomach.
      • Glucocorticoid

        Class of steroids released by the "adrenal cortex" that decreases inflammation and regulates "sweet wine", or sugar levels.

        • Glykys (Greek) - Sweet, sweet wine
        • Cortex (Latin) - Bark of a Tree, Outer layer
        • Eidos (Greek) - Form, Resemblance or Shape, Likeness
      • The me comes directly from it's function as a steroid made from the adrenal glands that regulates sugar levels in the body
      • Glucose

        A simple sugar Named as being a part of "sweet wine", metabolized by cells in order to produce energy.

        • Glykys (Greek) - Sweet, sweet wine
      • Glucose + glucose = maltose
      • Glucose + fructose= sucrose
      • Glucose + galactose = lactose
      • Gluteus minimus

        The "small" muscle of the "butt".

      • Works with gluteus medius to abduct the hip and medially rotate the thigh
      • Innervated by superior gluteal nerve
      • Damage to this nerve causes a hip drop when walking. This is commonly referred to as a Trendelenburg gait due to the inability of the contralateral hip when walking.
      • Haptoglobin

        A blood protein that "fastens" onto free hemoglobin that has been released from RBCs

        • Hapto (Greek) - Touch, Fasten
        • Globus (Latin) - Sphere, globe
      • Spleen identifies hemoglobinhaptoglobin complex and removes it
      • Haptoglobin exists in most animals, but for some reason chickens and geese do not have any.
      • Heinz body

        RBC inclusions that made up of oxidized hemoglobin.

        • Bodig (Old English) - Trunk, chest
      • Removal leads to the creation of bite cells
      • Found in G6PD deficiency and hemolytic anemia
      • Named after Robert Heinz, a famous German physician.
      • Hemispherectomy

        A surgical procedure in which one "half" of the "sphere" of the brain is "cut" "out".

        • Hemi (Greek) - Half
        • Sphaira (Greek) - Globe, ball, playing ball, terrestrial globe
        • Ek (Greek) - Out
        • Temnein (Greek) - To cut
      • Used to treat localized seizures that are refractory to all other forms of treatment
      • First tried on a human in 1923 by Walter Dandy for glioblastoma multiforme.
      • Herpes virus

        "Poisonous substance" that causes vesicles to "creep" from site of infection

        • Herpes (Laitn) - Creeping, Spreading
        • Virus (Latin) - Poison, poisonous substance
      • Enveloped icosahedral D virus
      • Doublestranded, linear D
      • HSV1
      • HSV2
      • VZV
      • EBV
      • CMV
      • HHV6
      • HHV7
      • HHV8

      • Mnemonics
        ToRCHeS
        Teratogens: placenta-crossing organisms
        Toxoplasma, Rubella, CMV, Herpes simplex, Herpes zoster (varicella), Hepatitis B,C,E, Syphilis
        TORCH infections burn the baby
        Infections that Cross the Placental Barrier
        Toxoplasma, Other (syphilis, varicella, parvovirus b19), Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, and Herpes
        Heterochromatin

        D that is "differently" "colored" because it is condensed

        • Hetero (Greek) - Other, different
        • Khroma (Greek) - Color, complexion character
      • Condensed D is sterically inaccessible and not transcriptionally active
      • Histaminase

        Enzyme involved in the metabolism, oxidation, and inactivation of histamine in the GI tract

        • Histos (Greek) - Tissue, web, warp
        • Amine (English) - Compound in which one of the hydrogens of ammonia is replaced by a hydrocarbon radical
        • Ase (English) - Used to form the me of enzymes
      • Also produced by eosinophils in order to limit mast cell degranulation reactions
      • Homeobox gene

        Genes involved in the proper organization of an embryo from headtotoe

        • Mutations may lead to appendages existing in wrong places
        • These genes were discovered jointly by researchers from the University of Basel (Switzerland) and India University.
        • Humoral immunity

          Form of human system that "exempts" them from disease that depends on Bcells and their secreted antibodies found in the "moist" liquid part of the blood

        • Antibodies opsonize bacteria, neutralize viruses, sensitize mast cells, and activate complement
        • Humoral immunity was first described by Hans Buchner.
        • Hunter's syndrome

          Xlinked recessive mucopolysaccharidosis

          • Xlinked recessive
          • No corneal clouding
          • Iduronate sulfatase deficiency
          • Accumulation of dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate
          • Less severe than Hurler's syndrome
          • Dr. Charles Hunter was the first to describe this disease.
          • Hyperaldosteronism

            Condition in which "excess" "aldosterone" is produced by the adrenal glands

            • Hyper (Greek) - Over, beyond, excess
            • Aldehyde (Latin) - Alcohol deprived of oxygen
            • Sterol (English) - Steroid, act as second messengers and in membrane stabilizers
          • Can be due to an intrinsic problem with the adrenal gland (primary) or an overactive reninangiotensin system (secondary)
          • Conn syndrome (primary) caused by adrenal adenoma, leading to low renin, normal sodium, low potassium levels, hypertension, and metabolic alkalosis
          • Secondary hyperaldosteronism manifests as high renin, high sodium, low potassium levels, and hypertension
          • Literally "excess aldosterone."
          • Impetigo

            A condition that "attacks" the skin.

          • A highly contagious bacterial skin infection most common among preschool children that produces blisters or sores on the face, neck, hands or diaper area
          • Caused most commonly by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes
          • Karyorrhexis

            The "bursting" of the "kernel" of a dying cell that causes irregular chromatin distribution throughout the cell.

            Ketogenesis

            The process by which "ketone" bodies are "produced" as a result of fatty acid breakdown.

            • Ketone (French) - Acetone
            • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
          • Commonly seen in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
          • KimmelstielWilson nodules

            Pathologic kidney nodules that are caused by angiopathy of the capillaries in the kidney glomeruli.

            • It is characterized by nephrotic syndrome and diffuse glomerulosclerosis
            • It is due to longstanding diabetes mellitus, and is a prime indication for dialysis.
            • KimmelstielWilson med after German physician Paul Kimmelstiel and British physician Clifford Wilson
            • Korsakoff amnesia

              A neurological disorder caused by a lack of thiamine (vitamin B1) in the brain.

            • Its onset is linked to chronic alcohol abuse or severe malnutrition.
            • Korsakoff Russian neuropsychiatrist who described it
            • Kussmaul sign

              This sign is a paradoxical rise in jugular venous pressure on inspiration.

              • It is indicative of limited right ventricular filling due to right heart failure and can occur in various heart pathology, such as cardiac tamponade.
              • Med after Adolph Kussmaul
              • Lacrimation

                This is the process of the secretion of "tears."

              • Tears serve to clean and lubricate the eyes in response to an irritation of the eyes
              • Tears formed through crying are associated with strong internal emotions, such as sorrow, elation, awe or pleasure.
              • Leptospirosis

                A "condition" caused by "thin" "coils" (Leptospira interrogans)

                • Lepto (Greek) - Fine, thin, delicate, rrow
                • Speira (Greek) - Coil
                • Osis (Greek) - A condition, disease
              • Transmission via animal urine (beavers) contaminated water
              • Ligand

                An molecule that "binds" to a specific receptor.

              • Often times an ion or neutral molecule
              • In medicine, usually refer to molecules that bind to channels to cause them to open or become active to send messages downstream
              • Locus coeruleus

                A "sky blue" "spot" within the brain.

                • Locus (Latin) - A place, spot, position
                • Cerulean (Latin) - Sky Blue
              • A nucleus located within the pons
              • Works in the response to stress or panic.
              • Med for its blue appearance in brain tissue
              • Mantle cell lymphoma

                A rare subtype of Bcell lymphoma. Appears as "loose" "chamber" of "water".

                • Mantle (Old English) - Loose, sleeveless cloak
                • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
                • Lympha (Latin) - Water, clear water, a goddess of water
              • CD5 positive, t(11:14) that results in overexpression of cyclin D1
              • Maximal acid output (MAO)

                The "greatest" amount of "acid" that can be produced by the stomach.

                Metacarpus

                Bones "beyond" the "wrist"

                • Meta (English) - Beyond, in the midst of
                • Karpos (Latin) - Wrist
              • Five bones per hand
              • Metatarsal

                The bones of the foot "beyond" the "ankle."

                • Meta (English) - Beyond, in the midst of
                • Tarsal (Latin) - Pertaining to the ankle or instep
                Microangiopathic anemia

                "Abnormal" "small" red "blood" cell "suffering" damage when passing through obstructed or arrowed vessel lumina, prosthetic heart valves, or aortic stenosis.

                • Mikros (Greek) - Small, little, petty, trivial, slight
                • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
                • Pathic (Greek) - Suffering, remaining passive
                • An (Greek) - Without, not
                • Haima (Greek) - Blood
              • Involves schistocyte, hemolysis
              • Microscopic polyangiitis

                Necrotizing "inflammation" of "many" "small" blood "vessels" commonly involving lung, kidneys, and skin with pauciimmune glomerulonephritis and palpable purpura.

                • Mikros (Greek) - Small, little, petty, trivial, slight
                • Skopein (Greek) - To look, see
                • Polloi (Greek) - Many
                • Angeion (Greek) - A vessel, receptacle
                • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
              • Treat with cyclophosphamide
              • PANCA positive, No granulomas
              • Mosaic patter

                Pattern of bone found that resembles an "artistic" pattern.

                • Musa (Greek) - A muse
              • Seen in Paget's disease (osteitis deformans), which is characterized by an early osteoblastic phase followed by a later osteoclastic phase.
              • Multiple sclerosis

                Autoimmune inflammation and demyelination of CNS. A "hardening" of "many" nerves.

              • Classically presenting with scanning speech, intention tremor/incontinence/internuclear ophthalmoplegia, and nystagmus
              • Oligoclonal bands, periventricular plaques, daclizumab (treatment), increased IgG in CSF
              • Myeloid

                Cell line "formed" from "marrow" which RBC, platelets, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils arise.

                • Myelos (Greek) - Marrow, the brain
                • Eidos (Greek) - Form, Resemblance or Shape, Likeness
                Neutrophil

                An immune cell "that is neither male nor female" med for its lack of "love" for acidic or basic stains resulting lack of color.

                • Neutro (Latin) - Neither masculine or feminine
                • Philein (Greek) - To love
              • Hypersegmented neutrophils in B12 or folate deficiency
              • Increased bands (immature neutrophils) in acute infections
              • Multiple nuclear lobes
              • Most numerous white blood cell in adults

              • Mnemonics
                Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas!
                % Concentrations of the Types of White Blood Cells
                Neutrophils (65%). Lymphocytes (25%). Monocytes (6%). Eosinophils (3%). Basophils (1%)
                Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas
                The concentrations of the various immune cell types
                Neutrophils (the most), Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Erythrocytes, Basophils (least)
                Niacin

                Vitamin B3 which is required to produce D and DP.

                • Niacin (English) - Ni(cotinic) ac(id) + in
              • Pellagra, or vitamin D3 deficiency is characterized by diarrhea, dermatitis, and dementia
              • Excess causes flushing of the skin
              • Fortified bread includes niacin
              • Noradrenergic

                Used to describe nerves and receptors that "work" when norepinephrine, a neurotransmitter produced "near or above" the "kidneys" in the adrenal glands.

                • Ad (Latin) - Near, At, To Add On
                • Renes (Latin) - Kidneys
                • Ergon (Greek) - Activity, Work
              • Multiple types of adrenergic receptors
              • Notochord

                Located by the neural tube in the "back" of the "gut" of the embryo.

                • Noton (Greek) - Back
                • Khorde (Greek) - Gut, string of a musical instrument
              • It induces formation of neuroectoderm
              • Becomes the nucleus pulposus.
              • Opsoclonus

                "Turmoiled" or uncontrolled "eye" movement.

              • Causes include neuroblastoma, encephalitis, multiple sclerosis, and serotonin syndrome (among others).
              • Organogenesis

                The process by which the internal organs were initially "produced" and "organized."

                • Organizare (Latin) - To organize
                • Genes (Greek) - Born of, produced by; origin or source
              • Folds, splits and condensation
              • Ornithine transcarbamylase

                "Enzyme" that catalyzes the formation of citrulline. Ornithine is a "straight" chained amino acid with an amino group that goes "over" to the "carbon" of carbamoyl phosphate to create citrulline.

                • Orthos (Greek) - Straight, correct
                • Trans (Latin) - Across, over, beyond
                • Carbo (English) - Carbon
                • Ase (English) - Used to form the me of enzymes
              • Manifests with increased orotic acid with hyperammonemia (contrasted with orotic aciduria)
              • Transcarbamylase deficiency
              • Osteodystrophy

                "Abnormal" growth of "bones" usually due to poor "nourishment" to the bones due to renal disease.

                • Osteon (Greek) - Bone
                • Dys (Greek) - Bad, Ill, Abnormal, Evil
                • Trophe (Greek) - Food, Nourishment
              • Usually due to renal diseases or imbalances of calcium or phosphorus
              • Ovulation

                Rupture and release of secondary oocyte, "egg," from ovarian cells.

              • Caused by luteal surge
              • Occurs midway through cycle after follicular phase
              • Secondary oocyte is arrested in metaphase of meiosis II
              • Pasturella Multocida

                A bacterium that causes "multiple" zoonotic "infections."

                • Cida (Latin) - Cutter, Killer, Slayer
              • Gram negative coccobacillus that causes zoonotic infections
              • Common cause of zoonotic infections
              • Pencil in cup deformity

                Bone deformity resembling a "pencil in a cup."

                • Bony deformity of phalangeal bones found in psoriatic arthritis
                • Dactylitis/sausage fingers
                • HLAB27 seronegative spondyloarthropathies
                • Joint pain and stiffness associated with arthritis
                • Phenotypic Mixing

                  The genome of one virus gets coated with the surface proteins of another virus.

                  • Phaenotypus (German) - Observable characteristics of a person or animal
                  • Miscere (Latin) - To mingle, to blend
                • Occurs during coinfection
                • Does not involve mixing of genetic material
                • Can change the tropism because the surface proteins are different.
                • Phenylalanine

                  An essential amino "acid" med for its properties of gases used to "shine" or illuminate.

                • A precursor to tyrosine
                • Builds up in phenylketonuria
                • Excess phenylalanine can negatively affect brain development
                • Found in artificial sweetener aspartame
                • Phlebotomy

                  Insertion of a needle to "cut" a "vein"

                • Literally means to make an incision in a blood vessel.
                • Phocomelia

                  A rare congenital malformation of the extremities resulting in "seal like" limbs.

                • Associated with in utero exposure to thalidomide, a drug that was previously used to treat morning sickness in pregnant women.
                • Thalidomide was developed by a German pharmaceutical company. Thalidomide was found to be effective at treating morning sickness, and thousands of women in the late 1950s and early 1960s took thalidomide. It was removed from the market in 1961 due to infant mortality and phocomelia. Over 10,000 children were born with phocomelia worldwide due to thalidomide exposure.
                • Phospholipid

                  A biochemical molecule that contains a hydrophilic phosphate head and hydrophobic "fatty" acid chain tails. Phosphate gets it's me as "bringer of light" because it was discovered emitting light when exposed to oxygen.

                • Major component of cell membranes
                • Forms the lipid bilayer
                • Phospholipids are mobile, not fixed, in membranes
                • Polyuria

                  Abnormally increased urine output. To make "urine" "many" more times than baseline

                • Seen in diabetes mellitus, central diabetes insipidus (lack of VasopressiDH), nephrogenic DI (Improper response to ADH), and patients taking diuretics among other conditions
                • Priapism

                  A persistently erect penis named for the Greek god of male fertility.

                  • Priapus (Greek) - Greek god who personified male reproductive power
                • Can be seen in G6PD deficiency, sickle cell disease, and drug reactions among other things
                • Aspiration of the penis can be a treatment
                • Named for the Greek God Priapismos, the male god of fertility
                • Proctalgia fugax

                  A "pain" of the "anus" that is "fleeting", lasting only a couple of seconds to hours.

                • It is characterized by intermittent and self limited episodes of severe rectal or al pain
                • Often times occurs in the middle of the night lasting only a couple seconds or minutes.
                • Projection

                  Defense mechanism in which an individual "throws forth" traits attributable to themselves onto others

                • Commonly seen in narcissistic or borderline personality disorder
                • Coined by Freud
                • Punishment

                  A type of conditioning in which a "penalty" is used.

                • Positive punishment (type 1) When a penalty is added
                • Negative punishment (type 2) is when a good thing is taken away.
                • Pyramidalis

                  Small "pyramid" shaped muscle of the abdomen located over the rectus abdominis

                  • Pimar (Egyptian) - Pyramid
                • Absent in 20% of people
                • Pyridoxine

                  Vitamin B6.

                  • Pyr (Greek) - Fire, heat
                  • Oxys (Greek) - Sharp
                • It is involved in many functions in the body including reducing homocysteine levels. Lack of B6 can cause anemia, nerve damage, seizures, skin manifestations and sores of the mouth
                • Pyrogen

                  A substance "that produces" fever or "fire"

                  • Pur (Greek) - Fire
                  • Gene (French) - Something that produces
                • LPS, IL1/6/8, TNFBeta
                • Can be both endogenous or exogenous
                • Retinitis

                  An "inflammation" of the "netlike" structure of the retina

                  • Rete (Latin) - Net
                  • Itis (Greek) - Inflammation, pertaining to disease
                • May lead to blindness
                • Rhonchi

                  Low pitched lung sound that sounds like "snoring".

                  • Rhankos (Greek) - Snoring, snorting
                • Often caused by respiratory secretions or obstruction.
                • Riboflavin

                  Riboflavin is vitamin B2, which is an important component in FAD and FMN.

                  • Ribonsaure (German) - Shortened, arbitrary alteration of English arabinose, a sugar fromed from gum arabic
                  • Flavus (New Latin) - Yellow
                • Vitamin B2 deficiency results in cheilosis and corneal vascularization
                • Some foods are now fortified with riboflavin.
                • Roth spots

                  A physical exam on the retina white spots surrounded by hemorrhages, named eponymously.

                  • Associated with bacterial endocarditis
                  • First identified in 1872.
                  • Small cell carcinoma

                    A highly malignant "cancer" of "fine" "cells" within the lung tissue.

                    • Smael (Old English) - Thin, slender, rrow; fine
                    • Cytos (Greek) - Cell, A Hollow, Receptacle, Vessel
                    • Karkinos (Greek) - Cancer, crab
                  • A highly malignant carcinoma of very primitive cells that most commonly arises in the lungs
                  • Has paraneoplastic syndromes that secrete ACTH, ADH, or antibodies against presynaptic Ca2+ channels (LambertEaton syndrome)
                  • Also known as oat cell carcinoma
                  • Superior sagittal sinus

                    The "Arrowlike" "fold/sinus" of the "top/superior" area of the skull.

                    • Superior (Latin) - Higher, Above
                    • Sagitta (Latin) - Arrow
                    • Sinus (Latin) - Bend, fold, curve, a bent surface; a bay, bight, gulf; a fold in land; hollow curve or cavity in the body
                  • Drains into the confluence of sinuses
                  • Continues as the transverse sinus
                  • Tartrateresistant acid phosphatase

                    TRAP is an enzyme produced by osteoclasts, macrophages and neurons and is elevated in pathological states.

                    • Hairy cell leukemia is associated with TRAP +
                    • Telencephalon

                      The rostral "end" of the embryonic central nervous system that develops the "brain".

                      • Tele (Greek) - Far off, afar, at or near a distance
                      • En (Greek) - Within
                      • Kephale (Greek) - Head
                    • Anterior portion of the prosencephalon or the "end" of the developing brain "within" the "head".
                    • Telencephalon means endbrain, which is the most rostral part of the brain.
                    • Therapeutic

                      Having a "healing" effect.

                      Tocopherol

                      Vitamin E. Named originally because when it was restricted from mice, females were unable to "bear" "children".

                    • Vitamin E
                    • Most well known for being an antioxidant in the body
                    • A vitamin E deficiency can lead to spinocerebral atrophy that mimicks B12 deficiency
                    • Discovered in 1922 originally, and finally isolated at UC Berkley in 1935.
                    • Tympanic nerve

                      Sensory to middle ear, containing ear "drum."

                      • Tympanon (Greek) - A drum
                      • Nervus (Latin) - Sinew, tendon; cord, bowstring
                    • Epidermodysplasia verruciformis
                    • Also known as the tympanic nerve of Jacobson
                    • Uncal herniation

                      Condition where the uncus, or "hook" of the brain is forced out of place through a "rupture" in tentorium cerebelli.

                    • A type of transtentorial herniation where the medial temporal lobe herniates through the tentorium cerebelli. Associated with blown pupils, compression of the posterior cerebral artery
                    • Vein

                      "Blood vessel" used for transporting deoxygenated blood

                      • Vena (Latin) - A blood vessel
                    • Veins are much more compliant than arteries and hold almost 70% of the total blood volume
                    • Vitiligo

                      Med for disease known as "tetter," which means "to tear." med for tearlike skin discolorations.

                    • Caused by the death or malfunction of melanocytes, the cells responsible for producing melanin, the pigment of the skin
                    • Idiopathic is when it occurs for an unknown reason
                    • Chemical is when this occurs in response to bleaching of the sin and other similar practices.
                    • Michael Jackson suffered from this condition, explaining the difference in his skin color between his childhood with the Jackson 5 and his adult life as a solo artist

                    • MedyQuestion
                      • A 37 year old african american woman presents to her primary care physician for increasing loss of skin color on her left forearm. The patient said that it originally started as a spot on her left arm 2 years ago, and progressively began to spread. The lesion is painless, non-erythematous and non itchy. The patient’s blood work at this time is unremarkable and she has no other complaints. Destruction of which types of cells are responsible for the patient’s condition?

                      USMLE Step 1

                      Xenograft

                      The transplantation of cells or tissue from a "stranger."

                    • The first xenograft was performed on a young girl in 1984 who received a baboon heart. Despite the successful transplant, the girl died soon after due to blood type mismatching
                    • Allosteric enzyme

                      The regulation of an enzyme by binding an effector molecule at a site other than the enzyme's active site.

                    • For example, in haemoglobin, the binding of Oxygen atoms are affected by CO2, H+, ...
                    • MEDYMOLOGY